Union List of Artist Names

The Union List of Artist Names is a free online database of the Getty Research Institute using a controlled vocabulary, which by 2018 contained over 300,000 artists and over 720,000 names for them, as well as other information about artists. Names in ULAN may include given names, variant spellings, names in multiple languages, names that have changed over time. Among these names, one is flagged as the preferred name. Although it is displayed as a list, ULAN is structured as a thesaurus, compliant with ISO and NISO standards for thesaurus construction; the focus of each ULAN record is an artist. In the database, each artist record is identified by a unique numeric ID; the artist's nationality is given, as are dates of birth and death. Linked to each artist record are names, related artists, sources for the data, notes; the temporal coverage of the ULAN ranges from Antiquity to the present and the scope is global. Artists may be either groups of individuals working together. Artists in the ULAN represent creators involved in the conception or production of visual arts and architecture.

Some performance artists are included. Repositories and some donors are included as well. Development of the ULAN began in 1984 by the J. Paul Getty Trust; the Trust, which managed the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, began the project in response to requests from Getty projects for controlled vocabularies of artists' names. The ULAN grows and changes via contributions from the user community and editorial work of the Getty Vocabulary Program. Although intended only for use by Getty projects, the broader art information community outside the Getty expressed a need to use ULAN for cataloging and retrieval; the Getty thus distributed ULAN for broader use according to the tenets established for the construction and maintenance of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus: Its scope includes names needed to catalog and retrieve information about the visual arts and architecture. Constructed as a simple alphabetized "union list" of clustered artist names and biographies, in order to make it consistent with the AAT and Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names, in the late 1990s ULAN was brought into compliance with national and international standards for thesaurus construction.

Its scope was broadened to include corporate bodies such as architectural firms and repositories of art, which may have hierarchical levels. The ULAN was founded under the management of Eleanor Fink; the ULAN has been constructed over the years by numerous members of the user community and an army of dedicated editors, under the supervision of several managers. The ULAN was published in 1994 in machine-readable files. Given the growing size and frequency of changes and additions to the ULAN, by 1997 it had become evident that hard-copy publication was impractical, it is now published in automated formats only, in both a searchable online Web interface and in data files available for licensing. The data for ULAN is compiled and edited in an editorial system, custom-built by Getty technical staff to meet the unique requirements of compiling data from many contributors, merging and publishing in various formats. Final editorial control of the ULAN is maintained by the Getty Vocabulary Program, using well-established editorial rules.

The current managers of the ULAN are Patricia Harpring, Managing Editor, Murtha Baca, Vocabulary Program and Digital Resource Management. Though the structure is flat, the ULAN is constructed as a hierarchical database. Entities in the Person facet have no children. Entities in the Corporate Body facet may branch into trees. There may be multiple broader contexts. In addition to the hierarchical relationships, the ULAN has equivalent and associative relationships. Benezit Dictionary of Artists the main competitor, now online via Oxford Art Online Art and Architecture Thesaurus Categories for the Description of Works of Art Cultural Objects Name Authority Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names Getty Vocabulary Program Union List of Artist Names Online About the Getty Vocabularies About ULAN Getty Vocabulary Editorial Guidelines The editorial guidelines for the AAT, ULAN, TGN contain rules and guidelines intended for use by the editors of the Getty Vocabulary Program using the in-house editorial system, VCS.

Contributors to the Getty Vocabularies and implementers of the licensed vocabulary data may consult these guidelines as well. Training materials and presentations created by the Getty Vocabulary Program The documents on this page include presentations and other training materials for the Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names, the Union List of Artist Names, the Art & Architecture Thesaurus, Cataloging Cultural Objects, Cate


Nago–Torbole is a comune in Trentino in the northern Italian region Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, located about 30 kilometres southwest of Trento on the north shore of Lake Garda. The municipality of Nago–Torbole contains the frazioni Torbole and Tempesta; the villages cling to the limestone rocks on the extreme north-west slope of Monte Baldo. Nago–Torbole borders the following municipalities: Arco, Riva del Garda, Ledro and Malcesine. Torbole, at 67 metres above sea level, is situated on the extreme north-western appendix of the Baldo chain and it is set as an amphitheatre on Lake Garda; the lake, once only valuable to fishermen and traders, is still the most precious resource together with 2,079-metre high Monte Baldo, once a inexhaustible mine of firewood and game though now it is a protected area for its rare flora, sometimes endemic. Situated on the hills above Torbole sits Nago; the parish church of Nago, San Vigilio, is located on the town's main road. The present building dates from the late 16th century, but the first church dates from the early Christian period.

It is mentioned for the first time in 1203, in a document relating to a dispute between the people of Nago and the Bishop of Trento, Conrad II de Beseno. It is called "collegiate" in the document and its importance at the time must have been considerable. Venetian domination is evident in the old harbor: a typical toll house placed on a lake-front wharf. During Austrian domination, tourism grew during the Belle Époque. Goethe, who stopped here in September 1786, described in his writings a longing and passionate image of this place; this area was colonized during the Imperial Roman times. In 1439 Torbole was involved in the Third Lombard War, between the Duchy of Milan and the Republic of Venice; the latter dominated the eastern side of the lake. In order to gain supremacy on Lake Garda and help the Venetian condottiero Gattamelata, in freeing Brescia from the Milanese siege, the Venetians transported twenty-five boats and six galleys from the Adriatic Sea up the River Adige until the fluvial harbour of Mori.

Here the boats were hauled on carts by strength of arm and with oxen, launched into Lake Loppio and lowered from the slopes of Monte Baldo into Lake Garda at Torbole. This exploit 15,000 ducats. In April 1440 the small Venetian fleet conquered Riva del Garda. Torbole, as early as the 15th century, was a stop for European travelers passing through on the Atesina road from Germany to Italy. Montaigne visited it in 1580. Goethe arrived here from Rovereto in the afternoon of 12 September 1786, four days after having crossed Brenner Pass. Goethe was 37 years old and getting in touch with the blue expanse of Lake Garda and the silver olive-groves, he experienced for the first time the mild climate of the places extolled by the Classics, he believed to have achieved happiness; the Brescian Cesare Arici, idyllic rural poet, exalted the "fishy Torbole". The painter Hans Lietzmann bought a large olive grove on the lake's shore and opened a school of nude art; the current tourist center evolved in the second half of the last century from an old village of fishermen and mountaineers, into a seasonal health-resort for European travellers, like the neighbouring Riva and Arco.

The church of Sant'Andrea is first mentioned in a document dated 1175. In 1183 the Pope Lucius III assigned it, together with the surrounding olive grove, to the Cistercian Abbey of Saint Lorenzo in Trento. In 1497 some of the properties of the Church were given for the support of a priest who would look after the Torbole Community. In 1741 the curate of Torbole had been founded and in 1839 the church was consecrated. After being ravaged by French troops in 1703, the church was rebuilt in the Late Baroque style, but some architectural elements have been recovered, as testified by the dates sculptured on the base of the two rocky arches of the transept; the altar piece in the apse represents the martyrdom of Saint Andrea, by Giambettino Cignaroli. A painted vertical sundial can be seen on the church's lake facing wall and on the opposite side is a small cemetery; the parish Saint Andrea church keeps a wooden chorus. Another artwork is the 18th-century canvas by Giambettino Cignaroli representing the Saint Andrea martyrdom.

A walk brings to the ruins of Penede castle, destroyed in the 18th century. It had been owned by the Castelbanco's and by the Republic of Venice. In the Hairpin bends of the road that brings to Nago are the so-called Giant's pot representing the evidence of erosive phenomena from the glacial era, which occurred when a wide glacier covered the territories; those so called Marmitte are sunken glacial era wells, set out by the stones and glacial, quick whirling, detritus coming down from the superior layers. Local cuisine is based on some typical elements of the Trentino simple plain fare such as polenta and game; the broccoli di Torbole are a variety of cauliflower or broccoflower imported from Verona around the mid-18th century. Inside the large cabbage family, broccoli di Torbole has become separate variety in its cultivar group. After its seedling stage, it grows and without special care, but needs


Umbonium, sometimes known as the "button top shells", is a genus of sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Trochidae, the top snails. The shells of the species in this genus are shaped like a button; the orbicular shell is imperforated. It is polished and has a thin pearly layer inside; the whorls are flattened above, smooth or spirally grooved. The small, transverse aperture is wider than high; the thin outer lip is acute. The inner lip is rounded; the umbilicus of the shell is completely covered with a thick and smooth callus. The animal has a distinct lateral fringe of the foot, with three filaments on each side; the front of the right side near the base of the tentacles is produced into a fleshy lobe. The right tentacle is free, with the eye-peduncle compressed, bears a rudimentary eye; the left eye-peduncle is cylindrical, with a distinct eye, furnished with an expansion or frontal lobe, folded on itself and fringed at its free margin. The operculum is horny and multispiral. Species in the genus Umbonium include: Umbonium callosum Sowerby, 1887 Umbonium conicum Umbonium costatum Umbonium elegans Umbonium eloiseae Dance, Moolenbeek & Dekker, 1992 Umbonium giganteum Umbonium moniliferum Umbonium sagittatum Umbonium suturale Umbonium thomasi Umbonium vestiarium Species brought into synonymy Umbonium adamsi Dunker: synonym of Umbonium thomasi Umbonium bairdii Dall, 1889: synonym of Margarites bairdii Umbonium capillata A. A. Gould, 1861: synonym of Ethaliella capillata Umbonium depressum Adams, 1853: synonym of Umbonium vestiarium Umbonium floccata G. B.

Sowerby III, 1903: synonym of Ethaliella floccata Umbonium guamense Adams, A. 1855: synonym of Ethalia guamensis Umbonium guamensis J. R. C. Quoy & J. P. Gaimard, 1834: synonym of Ethalia guamensis Umbonium guamensis selenomphala H. A. Pilsbry, 1905: synonym of Ethalia guamensis Umbonium javanicum A. Adams, 1853: synonym of Umbonium moniliferum Umbonium nitida: synonym of Ethalia nitida A. Adams, 1863 Umbonium omphalotropis: synonym of Ethalia omphalotropis A. Adams, 1863 Umbonium polita: synonym of Ethalia polita A. Adams, 1862 Umbonium pulchella: synonym of Ethaliella pulchella Umbonium rufula: synonym of Ethalia rufula Gould, 1861 Umbonium sanguinea H. A. Pilsbry, 1905: synonym of Ethalia sanguinea Pilsbry, 1905 Umbonium striolatum Adams A. 1855: synonym of Ethalia striolata Umbonium zelandica: synonym of Zethalia zelandica Link D. H. F. Beschreibung der Naturalien-Sammlung der Universität zu Rostock. 1 Abt. pp. 1–50. 1–30. 5, pp. 1–38. 6, pp. 1–38 Rostock, Adlers Erben Williams S. T. Karube S. & Ozawa T.

Molecular systematics of Vetigastropoda: Trochidae and Trochoidea redefined. Zoologica Scripta 37: 483–506