Russell Senate Office Building
The Russell Senate Office Building is the oldest of the United States Senate office buildings. Designed in the Beaux-Arts architectural style, it was built from 1903 to 1908 and opened in 1909, it was named for former Senator Richard Russell Jr. from Georgia in 1972. It occupies a site north of the Capitol bounded by Constitution Avenue, First Street, Delaware Avenue, C Street N. E.. The first congressional office building was constructed after the turn of the 20th century to relieve overcrowding in the United States Capitol. Members who wanted office space had to rent quarters or borrow space in committee rooms. In March 1901 Congress authorized Architect of the Capitol Edward Clark to draw plans for fireproof office buildings adjacent to the Capitol grounds. In March 1903 the acquisition of sites and construction of the buildings were authorized, the Senate Office Building Commission selected a site. In April 1904, the prominent New York City architectural firm of Carrère and Hastings was retained.
John Carrère took charge of the Senate Office Building project, while Thomas Hastings oversaw the construction of an identical office building for the United States House of Representatives. Their Beaux Arts designs were restrained. Architecturally, their elevations are divided into a rusticated base and a colonnade with an entablature and balustrade; the Constitution Ave. side is a quasi replica of the easternmost façade of the Palais du Louvre in Paris. The colonnades, with 34 Doric columns that face the Capitol, are echoed by pilasters on the sides of the buildings. Both buildings are faced with limestone. Modern for their time, they included such facilities as forced-air ventilation systems, steam heat, individual lavatories with hot and cold running water and ice water and electricity. Both are connected to the Capitol by underground passages. There were 98 suites and eight committee rooms in the Russell Building. Of special architectural interest is the rotunda. Eighteen Corinthian columns support an entablature and a coffered dome, whose glazed oculus floods the rotunda with sunlight.
Twin marble staircases lead from the rotunda to an imposing Caucus Room, which features Corinthian pilasters, a full entablature, a richly detailed ceiling. This space has been used for many hearings on subjects of national significance, including the 1912 sinking of the RMS Titanic hearings; the rotunda contains a statue of Russell by sculptor Frederick Hart. The Russell Building was occupied in 1909 by the Senate of the 61st Congress; the growth of staff and committees in the twenty years following its completion resulted in the addition of a fourth side, the First Street Wing, to the U-shaped building. Nathan C. Wyeth and Francis P. Sullivan were the consulting architects for the new wing, completed in 1933; the building received extensive pop culture visual cachet in the 1970s when film footage of the southwest corner was used to represent the headquarters of the fictional OSI organization in the TV series The Six Million Dollar Man and The Bionic Woman. Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer announced on August 25, 2018, that he would introduce a resolution to rename the building after Senator John McCain from Arizona, who died of brain cancer earlier that day.
United States Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry United States Senate Committee on Armed Services United States Senate Committee on Rules and Administration United States Senate Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship United States Senate Committee on Veterans' Affairs United States Senate Homeland Security Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations Hart Senate Office Building Dirksen Senate Office Building
United States Capitol crypt
The United States Capitol crypt is the large circular room filled with forty neoclassical Doric columns directly beneath the United States Capitol rotunda. It was built to support the rotunda as well as offer an entrance to Washington's Tomb, it serves as a museum and a repository for thirteen statues of the National Statuary Hall Collection. The crypt originated with the initial designs drawn up for the United States Capitol by William Thornton, which called for a rotunda to be placed between the two wings of the building; the room beneath the rotunda was therefore required to support the large space above it. However, construction did not begin on the central part of the Capitol, where the rotunda and the room beneath it were located, until after the War of 1812. Construction on the Capitol itself began in 1793, when the first American President, George Washington, laid down the cornerstone to the north wing of the building. Upon the death of Washington in 1799, the designers of the Capitol went to Martha Washington and requested permission to build a tomb for her husband in the Capitol.
She acquiesced to this request and plans were made to construct the tomb underneath the floor that supported the rotunda. This area was designated the crypt. Delays wracked the construction efforts of the Capitol's builders, notably the interruption by the War of 1812, when all construction came to a halt. In August 1814, the British captured the city of Washington and set fire to the Capitol, nearly destroying the entire building. Thus, when construction recommenced after the war ended in 1815, it was to rebuild what had been lost to the fire; the central section of the Capitol comprising the rotunda and the crypt was not completed until 1827 under the oversight of Architect of the Capitol Charles Bulfinch. However, plans to re-inter Washington in the Capitol fell apart when attempts were made to retrieve his body from Mount Vernon, the President's home, due to restrictions of Washington's will and refusal of the plantation's owner, John Washington. A marble compass was set into the floor of the chamber to mark the point where the four quadrants of the District of Columbia meet.
In the late 1800s and early 1900s the crypt was used for bicycle parking. The crypt serves as the main thoroughfare of the ground floor of the Capitol and is a stop for all Capitol Tours provided through the Capitol Visitor Center; the crypt contains the Magna Carta Case, a gold case which held one of the versions of the Magna Carta when it was on loan to the United States for the Bicentennial celebration. There are 13 statues from the National Statuary Hall Collection, representing the 13 original states, located in the crypt, they are: Samuel Adams from Massachusetts, marble, by Anne Whitney in 1876. Charles Brantley Aycock from North Carolina, bronze, by Charles Keck in 1932. John C. Calhoun from South Carolina, marble, by Frederick Ruckstull in 1910. Charles Carroll from Maryland, bronze, by Richard E. Brooks in 1903. Nathanael Greene from Rhode Island, marble, by Henry Kirke Brown in 1870. Robert E. Lee from Virginia, bronze, by Edward V. Valentine in 1934. Robert R. Livingston from New York, bronze, by Erastus Dow Palmer in 1875.
Crawford W. Long from Georgia, marble, by J. Massey Rhind in 1926. John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg from Pennsylvania, marble, by Blanche Nevin in 1889. Caesar Rodney from Delaware, marble, by Bryant Baker in 1934. Roger Sherman from Connecticut, marble, by Chauncey Ives in 1872. John Stark from New Hampshire, marble, by Carl Conrads in 1894. Richard Stockton from New Jersey, marble, by Henry Kirke Brown in 1888. Aoc.gov
The Brumidi Corridors are the vaulted, ornately decorated corridors on the first floor of the Senate wing in the United States Capitol. They are named for Constantino Brumidi, who designed the murals, although assistants and other artists are responsible for many of the details. Brumidi was an Italian artist of Greek descent, born in Rome in 1805, worked for three years in the Vatican under Pope Gregory XVI, served several aristocrats as an artist for palaces and villas, including the prince Torlonia. Brumidi emigrated to the United States in 1852, after proving his skill in frescos 1855, he spent much of the next 25 years until his death in 1880 working in the Capitol, painting the frieze of American history and The Apotheosis of Washington in the Rotunda as well as the Brumidi Corridors; the Brumidi Corridors were part of the new wing constructed under Architect of the Capitol Thomas U. Walter between 1852 and 1859. Brumidi began making designs for the corridors in 1856; the decorative painting of the walls and ceilings of the main corridors was carried out between 1857 and 1859.
Brumidi frescoed the lunettes over the doorways in the 1870s. Although Walter had envisioned plain-colored walls hung with oil paintings, Captain Montgomery C. Meigs, Superintendent of Construction, directed Brumidi to carry out an elaborate decorative scheme based on Raphael's Loggia in the Vatican. Brumidi's classical training in Rome gave him a thorough understanding of ancient Roman and Baroque styles and techniques of wall painting. Brumidi created the overall design for the corridors and directed its execution by artists of many nationalities, his immediate assistants included Joseph Rakemann, Albert Peruchi, Ludwig Odense. An English artist, James Leslie, painted parts of the walls and ceilings of the corridors, including some of the birds and animals copied from specimens borrowed from the Smithsonian Institution. Leslie probably painted the trophies of musical, marine and military implements at the intersection of the north and west corridors and the monochrome lunettes of trophies near the refectory.
The foreman of the decorative painters was Emmerich Carstens. A variety of techniques were employed in the corridors. Brumidi created the portraits and historical or allegorical scenes in the semicircular lunettes over the doorways in the difficult true fresco technique; the wall decorations were painted by decorative painters in lime-wash fresco. The ceilings were painted in water-soluble tempera, called "distemper." Within the framework of panels framed by illusionistic moldings are symmetrical designs of scrolling vines and mythological figures. Into these classical motifs Brumidi integrated American flora and fauna. On the intricately decorated walls can be seen an amazing variety of classical gods and goddesses. On the ceilings are landscapes and agricultural implements interspersed among the colorful framework of ornament; the painters of the scenic landscapes and the impressionist-style oval landscapes in the ceiling are not documented. The subjects of Brumidi's lunettes over the doorways reflect the functions of the committees that met in the rooms between 1873 and 1878 when they were painted.
At the end of the west corridor, over the door to S-131, is Authority Consults the Written Law, whose subject related to the Senate Committee on the Revision of Laws assigned to the room. Columbus and the Indian Maiden and Bartolomé de Las Casas, called the "Apostle of the Indians," were painted over the doors of the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs. Above the present Senate Appropriations Committee room occupied by the Military Affairs Committee, is Bellona, the Roman war-goddess. In the ceiling at the north end of the corridor the signs of the Zodiac appear on fields of blue. Along the walls, Brumidi painted monochrome profile portraits of famous early Americans set in medallions to resemble reliefs carved in stone. Decorations in the north corridor include colorful parrots and trophies on the walls near the elevator. Near the stairways at either end of the corridor are pilasters decorated with squirrels and mice. Monochrome medallion portraits of Revolutionary War leaders are painted along the walls.
Modern inventions, such as the airplane, were painted on the ceiling in the early twentieth century. Over S-124, used by the Senate Committee on Territories, Brumidi painted The Cession of Louisiana, depicting the meeting of Robert Livingston, James Monroe, the François Barbé-Marbois in 1803. In this area a bronze bust of Cordell Hull and a marble one of Constantino Brumidi by Jimilu Mason, dedicated in 1967, are displayed; the north entrance retains its original tempera ceiling painted by Emmerich Carstens in 1875. The area below is decorated with birds; the profile portraits of Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, an Adams John Quincy Adams, are different in style and inferior in quality. Oppo
United States Capitol Police
The United States Capitol Police is a federal law enforcement agency charged with protecting the United States Congress within the District of Columbia and throughout the United States and its territories. The USCP is the only full service federal law enforcement agency responsible to the legislative branch of the U. S. government. The United States Capitol Police has the primary responsibility for protecting property; the Capitol Police has exclusive jurisdiction within all buildings and grounds of the United States Capitol complex as well as the Library of Congress. It has concurrent jurisdiction with other law enforcement agencies, including the United States Park Police and the Metropolitan Police Department of the District of Columbia, in an area of 200 blocks around the complex. Officers have jurisdiction throughout the District of Columbia to take enforcement action when they observe or are made aware of crimes of violence while on official duties. Additionally, they are charged with the protection of members of Congress, officers of Congress, their families throughout the entire United States, its territories and possessions, the District of Columbia.
While performing protective functions, the Capitol Police have jurisdiction throughout the entire United States. The U. S. Capitol Police is one of many agencies that sends its recruits to the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, located in Glynco, GA for initial training. Recruits are sent to the FLETC location in Artesia, NM. Following 12 weeks at FLETC, recruits return to FLETC's location in Cheltenham, MD for an additional 13 weeks of training. Following the recruits' academy training, graduates are sworn in as law enforcement officers and assigned to one of four divisions to begin their careers. Once assigned, officers are assigned a Field Training Officer for a definite period to provide additional on-the-job training. FTO's provide weekly updates on the subjects that have been learned and issue tests to the new officers. Officers are subject to a one-year probationary period. Initial salary at the start of training is $55,653.00, with an increase to $57,604.00 after graduation. After 30 months of satisfactory performance and promotion to Private First Class, salary is increased to $64,590.00.
The history of the United States Capitol Police dates back to 1801 when Congress moved from Philadelphia to the newly constructed Capitol Building in Washington, D. C. At the time, Congress appointed one lone watchman to protect the building and Congressional property. Created by Congress in 1828 following the assault on a son of John Quincy Adams in the Capitol rotunda, the United States Capitol Police had as its original duty the provision of security for the United States Capitol, its mission has expanded to provide the Congressional community and its visitors with a variety of security services. These services are provided through the use of a variety of specialty support units, a network of foot and vehicular patrols, fixed posts, a full-time Containment and Emergency Response Team, K-9, a Patrol/Mobile Response Division and a full-time Hazardous Devices and Hazardous Materials Sections; the Library of Congress Police were merged into the force in 2009. The agency has 1,800 sworn personnel.
One USCP officer, Sergeant Christopher Eney, was killed in a training accident on August 24, 1984. Two USCP officers have been killed in the line of duty. A mentally disturbed gunman named Russell Eugene Weston, Jr. killed Officer Jacob Chestnut and Detective John Gibson in a shootout on July 24, 1998. Chestnut and Gibson were laid in honor in the Rotunda before burial in Arlington National Cemetery. 2017 Congressional baseball shooting Capitol police List of United States federal law enforcement agencies March 29, 2006, Capitol Hill police incident United States Capitol shooting incident United States Capitol shooting incident Official website
National Statuary Hall Collection
The National Statuary Hall Collection in the United States Capitol is composed of statues donated by individual states to honor persons notable in their history. Limited to two statues per state, the collection was set up in the old Hall of the House of Representatives, renamed National Statuary Hall; the expanding collection has since been spread throughout its Visitor's Center. With the addition of New Mexico's second statue in 2005, the collection is now complete with 100 statues contributed by 50 states, plus one from the District of Columbia, plus one for all the states. Alabama, California, Iowa, Kansas and Ohio have each replaced one of their first two statues after Congress authorized replacements in 2000; the concept of a National Statuary Hall originated in the middle of the nineteenth century, before the completion of the present House wing in 1857. At that time, the House of Representatives moved into its new larger chamber and the old vacant chamber became a thoroughfare between the Rotunda and the House wing.
Suggestions for the use of the chamber were made as early as 1853 by Gouverneur Kemble, a former member of the House, who pressed for its use as a gallery of historical paintings. The space between the columns seemed too limited for this purpose, but it was well suited for the display of busts and statuary. On April 19, 1864, Representative Justin S. Morrill asked: "To what end more useful or grand, at the same time simple and inexpensive, can we devote it than to ordain that it shall be set apart for the reception of such statuary as each State shall elect to be deserving of in this lasting commemoration?" His proposal to create a National Statuary Hall became law on July 2, 1864: the President is hereby authorized to invite each and all the States to provide and furnish statues, in marble or bronze, not exceeding two in number for each State, of deceased persons who have been citizens thereof, illustrious for their historic renown or for distinguished civic or military services such as each State may deem to be worthy of this national commemoration.
All state statues were placed in National Statuary Hall. However, the aesthetic appearance of the Hall began to suffer from overcrowding until, in 1933, the situation became unbearable. At that time the Hall held 65 statues. More important, the structure of the chamber would not support the weight of any more statues. Therefore, in 1933 Congress passed a resolution that: the Architect of the Capitol, upon the approval of the Joint Committee on the Library, with the advice of the Commission of Fine Arts, is hereby authorized and directed to relocate within the Capitol any of the statues received and placed in Statuary Hall, to provide for the reception and location of the statues received hereafter from the States. Under authority of this resolution it was decided that only one statue from each state should be placed in Statuary Hall; the others would be given prominent locations in designated corridors of the Capitol. A second rearrangement of the statues was made in 1976 by authorization of the Joint Committee on the Library.
To improve the crowded appearance of the collection, thirty-eight statues were rearranged in Statuary Hall according to height and material. Statues representing ten of the thirteen original colonies were moved to the Central Hall of the East Front Extension on the first floor of the Capitol; the remainder of the statues were distributed throughout the Capitol in the Hall of Columns and the connecting corridors of the House and Senate wings. Legislation was introduced in 2005 that would authorize the collection to include one statue from each U. S. Territory, another bill introduced in 2010 provides for participation by the District of Columbia. Neither passed; each statue is the gift of a state, not of an group of citizens. Proceedings for the donation of a statue begin in the state legislature with the enactment of a resolution that names the citizen to be commemorated and cites his or her qualifications, specifies a committee or commission to represent the state in selecting the sculptor, provides for a method of obtaining the necessary funds to carry the resolution into effect.
In recent years, the statues have been unveiled during ceremonies in the Rotunda and displayed there for up to six months. They are moved to a permanent location approved by the Joint Committee on the Library. An act of Congress, enacted in 2000, permits states to provide replacements and repossess the earlier one. A special act of Congress, Pub. L. 109–116, signed on December 1, 2005, directed the Joint Committee on the Library to obtain a statue of Rosa Parks and to place the statue in the United States Capitol in National Statuary Hall in a suitable permanent location. On February 27, 2013, Parks became the first African-American woman to have her likeness in the Hall. Though located in Statuary Hall, Parks' statue is not part of the Collection; the collection includes representations of nine women: Frances E. Willard, the first statue of a woman in the collection, was sculpted by a woman, Helen Farnsworth Mears.
Ulysses S. Grant Memorial
The Ulysses S. Grant Memorial is a presidential memorial in Washington, D. C. honoring American Civil War general and 18th United States President Ulysses S. Grant, it sits below the west front of the United States Capitol. Its sculpture of Grant on horseback faces west, overlooking the Capitol Reflecting Pool and facing toward the Lincoln Memorial, which honors Grant's wartime president, Abraham Lincoln. Grant's statue rests on a pedestal decorated with bronze reliefs of the infantry; the Grant and Lincoln memorials define the eastern and western ends of the National Mall. The Grant Memorial is a contributor to the Civil War Monuments in Washington, D. C. of the National Register of Historic Places. James M. Goode's authoritative The Grant Memorial in Washington, D. C. called it "one of the most important sculptures in Washington." It includes the second-largest equestrian statue in the United States and the fourth-largest in the world. The Grant Memorial is in Union Square, which encompasses the Capitol Reflecting Pool.
The platform for the Monument, made of Vermont marble, is 252 feet long and 71 feet wide and is divided into three sections. The tall, middle section features a 10,700-pound, 17-foot-2-inch high equestrian statue depicting Grant astride his war horse Cincinnati on a 22½-foot high marble pedestal. A striking feature of the central statue is Grant's calm attitude amidst the raging fighting going on around him; this is not surprising. In sharp contrast to Grant are the sculpture groups on either side, Cavalry Charge and Artillery, which... possess more dramatic interest and suspense than any sculpture in the city and, indeed, in the Nation. Surrounding the main pedestal are four shorter pedestals, each supporting a bronze lion in repose guarding both the United States flag and the flags of the Army; the memorial was the largest bronze sculpture cast in the United States at that time. The Artillery Group to the south shows a caisson carrying three artillerymen and pulled by three horses. Astride the horse on the left is the guidon carrier, signaling a sharp right wheel.
Despite the impending course change the horse on the right is able to continue lunging forward due to a broken strap on the right bridle bit. To the north the Cavalry Group depicts a color squad consisting of seven cavalrymen charging into battle; the horse on the right has fallen and the rider, modeled after Shrady himself, is moments from being trampled by the onrushing horses. The drive to erect a monument to Grant was begun in the 1890s by the Society of the Army of the Tennessee. Work on the memorial was begun in 1902 as the largest commissioned by Congress at the time, was created by sculptor Henry Merwin Shrady and architect Edward Pearce Casey. Sculptor Edmond Amateis assisted Shrady as the monument neared completion in 1921. Shrady spent 20 years of his life working on the memorial and died and overworked, two weeks before its dedication in 1922; the sculptures were cast in bronze at the Roman Bronze Works in New York. Construction on the site of the memorial began in 1909 when the marble superstructure and the four bronze lions were installed.
The Artillery Group was installed in 1912, the Cavalry Group in 1916, the bronze equestrian statue of Grant in 1920. The memorial was dedicated on the 100th anniversary of Grant's birth, April 27, 1922. Shrady having died, the infantry panels on the base of Grant's pedestal were completed by sculptor Sherry Fry based on Shrady's sketches and installed in 1924; the Grant Memorial composes the center of a three-part sculptural group including the James A. Garfield Monument to the south and the Peace Monument to the north. During 2015 and 2016 a cleaning and restoration program was carried out on the memorial; this included the replacement of 60 elements of the work, such as swords and scabbards, that had gone missing or been stolen over the years. The layer of green corrosion on the memorial's bronze was removed to return it to its original brown color. List of public art in Washington, D. C. Ward 2 List of public art in Washington, D. C. Ward 6 Sherrill U. S. A. Lt. Col. Clarence O.. The Grant Memorial in Washington.
Government Printing Office. P. 77 pages. ISBN 0-295-95520-1. IdSherrill1924. Montagna, Dennis Robert Ph. D.. Henry Merwin Shrady's Ulysses S. Grant Grant Memorial in Washington, D. C.: A study in iconography and patronage. University Microfilms International Dissertation Services. P. 355 pages. IdMontagna1987. Goode, James M.. The Outdoor Sculpture of Washington, D. C.: A Comprehensive Historical Guide. Smithsonian International Press. P. 512 pages. ISBN 0-87474-138-6. IdGoode1974. Michael F. Bishop, "A Great Bronze Tarnished by Neglect," The Wall Street Journal, January 7, 2011. Trust for the National Mall: Ulysses S. Grant Memorial DC Memorials Additional photos at the Henry Merwin Shrady website
The National Mall is a landscaped park within the National Mall and Memorial Parks, an official unit of the United States National Park System. It is located near the downtown area of Washington, D. C. the capital city of the United States, is administered by the National Park Service of the United States Department of the Interior. The term National Mall includes areas that are officially part of neighboring West Potomac Park and Constitution Gardens to the southwest; the term is taken to refer to the entire area between the Lincoln Memorial on the west and east to the United States Capitol grounds, with the Washington Monument dividing the area west of its midpoint. A smaller designation sometimes referred to as the National Mall excludes both the Capitol grounds and the Washington Monument grounds, applying only to an area between them; the National Mall contains and borders a number of museums of the Smithsonian Institution, art galleries, cultural institutions, various memorials and statues.
The park receives 24 million visitors each year. In his 1791 plan for the future city of Washington, D. C. Pierre Charles L'Enfant envisioned a garden-lined "grand avenue" 1 mile in length and 400 feet wide, in an area that would lie between the Congress House and an equestrian statue of George Washington; the statue would be placed directly south of the President's House. The National Mall occupies the site of this planned "grand avenue", never constructed. Mathew Carey's 1802 map is reported to be the first to name the area west of the United States Capitol as the "Mall"; the Washington City Canal, completed in 1815 in accordance with the L'Enfant Plan, travelled along the former course of Tiber Creek to the Potomac River along the present line of Constitution Avenue, NW and south around the base of a hill containing the Congress House, thus defining the northern and eastern boundaries of the Mall. Being shallow and obstructed by silt, the canal served only a limited role and became an open sewer that poured sediment and waste into the Potomac River's flats and shipping channel.
The portion of the canal that traveled near the Mall was covered over in 1871 for sanitary reasons. Some consider a lockkeeper's house constructed in 1837 near the western end of the Washington City Canal for an eastward extension of the Chesapeake & Ohio Canal to be the oldest building still standing on the National Mall; the structure, located near the southwestern corner of 17th Street, NW and Constitution Avenue, NW is west of the National Mall. The Smithsonian Institution Building, constructed from 1847 to 1855, is the oldest building now present on the National Mall; the Washington Monument, whose construction began in 1848, stands near the planned site of its namesake's equestrian statue. During the early 1850s, architect and horticulturist Andrew Jackson Downing designed a landscape plan for the Mall. Over the next half century, federal agencies developed several naturalistic parks within the Mall in accordance with Downing's plan. Two such areas were Seaton Park. During that period, the Mall was subdivided into several areas along B Street NW: The Monument Grounds between 17th and 14th Street NW The Agricultural Grounds between 14th and 12th Street NW The Smithsonian Grounds between 12th and 7th Street NW The Armory Square between 7th and 6th Street NW The Public Grounds between 6th and 2nd Street NW In 1856, the Armory was built at the intersection of B Street SW and 6th Street SW on the Armory Grounds.
In 1862, during the American Civil War, the building was converted to a military hospital known as Armory Square Hospital to house Union Army casualties. After the war ended, the Armory building became the home of the United States Fish Commission; the United States Congress established the United States Department of Agriculture in 1862 during the Civil War. Designed by Adolf Cluss and Joseph von Kammerhueber, the United States Department of Agriculture Building, was constructed in 1867–1868 on a 35-acre site on the Mall. After the war ended, the Department started growing experimental crops and demonstration gardens on the Mall; these gardens extended from the Department's building on the south side of the Mall to B Street NW. The building was razed in 1930. In addition, greenhouses belonging to the U. S. Botanical Garden appeared near the east end of the Mall between the Washington City Canal and the Capitol. Originating during the early 1800s as a collection of market stalls north of the Washington City Canal and the Mall, the Center Market, which Adolf Cluss designed, opened in 1872 soon after the canal closed.
Located on the north side of Constitution Avenue NW, the National Archives now occupies the Market's site. During that period, railroad tracks crossed the Mall on 6th Street, west of the Capitol. Near the tracks, several structures were built over the years; the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Station rose in 1873 on the north side of the Mall at the southwest corner of 6th Street and B Street NW. In 1887, the Army Medical Museum and Library, which Adolph Class designed in 1885, opened on the Mall at northwest corner of B Street SW and 7th Street SW; the Smithsonian Institution's Hirshhorn Museum now occupies the site of the building, demolished in 1968. Meanwhile, in order to clean up the Potomac Flats and