Carbondale is a city in Jackson County, United States, within the Southern Illinois region informally known as Little Egypt. The city developed from 1853 because of the stimulation of railroad construction into the area, today the major roadways of Illinois Route 13 and U. S. Route 51 intersect in the city. The city is 96 miles southeast of St. Louis, Carbondale is the home of the main campus of Southern Illinois University. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 25,902, the CSA has 126,575 residents, the sixth-most-populous Combined statistical area in Illinois. In August 1853, Daniel Harmon Brush, John Asgill Conner, Brush named Carbondale for the large deposit of coal in the area. The first train through Carbondale arrived on Independence Day 1854, traveling north on the line from Cairo. By the time of the American Civil War, Carbondale had developed as a center for transportation and business. This part of Illinois was known as Little Egypt because of the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, the city has had a college since 1856 beginning with the Presbyterian founded Carbondale College which was converted to an elementary school.
Carbondale won the bid for the new teacher training school for the region. This gave the new industry, new citizens, and a supplement to public schools. In 1947, the name was changed to Southern Illinois University and it has become the flagship of the Southern Illinois University system. This institution, now recognized as a research university, has nearly 18,000 students enrolled. On April 29,1866, one of the first formal Memorial Day observations following the Civil War was held at the citys Woodlawn Cemetery, local resident, General John A. Logan, gave the principal address. In the early 20th century, Carbondale was known as the Athens of Egypt, due to the expansion of the college and university, the phrase dates to at least 1903, when it appeared in a local paper. By 1922, the Carbondale Free Press was using the phrase on its flag, Carbondale is located at 37°44′N 89°13′W. It is in the watershed of the Big Muddy River, at 415 feet above sea level. According to the 2010 census, Carbondale has an area of 17.519 square miles.
Carbondale lies in the limits of a humid subtropical climate
Link, FAIA, was a German-born American architect. Link was born on March 17,1850 in Germany and he was trained in engineering at the University of Heidelberg and the École Centrale Paris. Link emigrated to the United States, arriving in St. Louis in 1873 to work for the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad company and he designed most of the buildings for LSU when the campus was relocated in the 1920s. Link died in Baton Rouge while working on the new Louisiana State University campus, in 1995 was awarded a star on the St. Louis Walk of Fame
MetroLink (St. Louis)
MetroLink is the light rail transit system in the Greater St. Louis area of Missouri and the Metro East area of Illinois. The system consists of two lines connecting Lambert-St, Louis International Airport and Shrewsbury, Missouri with Scott Air Force Base near Shiloh, Illinois through downtown St. Louis. The system features 37 stations and carries an average of 53,123 people each weekday, MetroLink is operated by the Bi-State Development Agency, operating as Metro since 2003, in a shared fare system with the MetroBus lines. Construction on the initial MetroLink alignment from Lambert-St, Louis International Airport to the 5th & Missouri station in East St. Louis began in 1990. The initial 17-mile segment with 19 stations opened on July 31,1993 between the North Hanley and 5th & Missouri stations, service was operated with 31 high-floor light rail vehicles. About 14 miles of the original 17 miles were on existing rail right-of-way, the first phase of MetroLink was complete when the line was extended westward to Lambert Airport Main station on June 25,1994.
At that time station, East Riverfront, was opened in East St. Louis. Four years later, in 1998, the Lambert Airport East station was added, the capital cost to build the initial phase of MetroLink was $465 million. Of that amount, $348 million was supplied by the Federal Transit Administration, MetroLink exceeded pre-opening ridership estimates, but the system has expanded slowly. Construction on proposed extensions has been delayed by the scarcity of FTA funds. As time has passed, a share of the costs has been borne by state. The most recent work has been funded by local dollars. Construction on the St. Clair County MetroLink extension from the 5th & Missouri station to the College station in Belleville began in 1998, the extension added eight new stations and seven park-ride lots. The total project cost was $339.2 million, with the FTA and St. Clair County Transit District sharing the burden at 72% and 28%, respectively. Local funding was provided by the St. Clair County Transit District as a result of a 1/2 cent sales tax passed in November 1993, in May 2003, a 3.
5-mile extension from Southwestern Illinois College to Shiloh-Scott station opened. This $75 million project was funded by a $60 million grant from the Illinois FIRST Program, the Cross County Extension from Forest Park-DeBaliviere station to Shrewsbury-Lansdowne-I-44 station opened to the public on August 26,2006. This 8-mile, 9-station extension connected Washington University, the popular Saint Louis Galleria shopping center, the entire project was funded by a $430 million Metro bond issue. Metro cited repeated delays and cost overruns as its reasons for firing its general contractor in Summer 2004, Metro sued the Collaborative for $81 million for fraud and mismanagement
Union Station (Columbus, Ohio)
Columbus Union Station and its predecessors served railroad passengers in Columbus, Ohio from February 27,1850, until April 28,1977. Columbus Union Station, as it is recalled today, was the third Union Station in Columbus, the previous two served in the nineteenth century, and their replacement and upgrade reflected the rapid growth in traffic and importance of Columbus railroads at that time. The subsequent decline in passenger traffic following World War II was reflected in Union Stations demolition. In 1851, a north of Naughten Street and east of High Street was purchased jointly from Orange Johnson by the Columbus and Xenia Railroad and Cleveland, Columbus. A wood barn structure measuring 90 by 175 feet was installed to serve passengers, the station had three tracks for loading and unloading of passengers. In 1853, the Central Ohio Railroad entered the city and connected to the station, in 1864, the Steubenville and Indiana Railroad was connected the Central Ohio at Newark, and entered the station on shared tracks.
This road was called the route because it crossed the panhandle of West Virginia on its way east. The station was inadequate and in 1868 the railroads formed the Union Depot Company to undertake a replacement, in May,1873 work was begun on the second union station north of the existing station, and it opened on February 14,1875. The first station was demolished, compared to its wooden predecessor, this new station was far more substantial. Constructed of brick, it had a waiting room, ticket offices. Seven tracks entered the structure and a train shed kept passengers dry. In 1875,42 daily passenger trains departed from the station, the City of Columbus continued to grow northward with the opening of The Ohio State University in 1870. With the opening of the new station, thirteen tracks now crossed north high street. The congestion between train and road traffic became unbearable, in 1875, a $45,000 tunnel was built under the tracks to allow streetcars and horsecarts to pass under the tracks. An extra mule was stationed at the entrance to assist horsecars up the steep grade.
The tunnel was 150 feet long with 550-foot approaches on either side and it was so dark and smelly that only the horsecar passengers, who had no other choice, would use it. In 1891 the traffic situation on High Street reached a crisis, in 1893 the architectural firm of Daniel H. Burnham & Company of Chicago began planning a new facility. A key feature of the new station would be a road viaduct over the tracks, in 1893 the old station was handling 112 passenger trains per day
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States, achieving statehood in 1821. With over six million residents, it is the eighteenth most populous state, the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia. The capitol is in Jefferson City on the Missouri River, the state is the twenty-first most extensive by area and is geographically diverse. The Northern Plains were once covered by glaciers, tallgrass prairie, in the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation. The Mississippi River forms the border of the state, eventually flowing into the swampy Missouri Bootheel. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years, the Mississippian culture built cities and mounds, before declining in the 1300s. When European explorers arrived in the 1600s they encountered the Osage, the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, and founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764, after a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803.
Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory, many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland, Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch. The Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, as a border state, Missouris role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business, the state is divided into 114 counties and the independent city of St. Louis. Missouris culture blends elements from the Midwestern and Southern United States, the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, and St. Louis Blues, developed in Missouri. The well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, and lesser known St. Louis-style barbecue can be found across the state, St.
Louis is a major center of beer brewing, Anheuser-Busch is the largest producer in the world. Missouri wine is produced in the nearby Missouri Rhineland and Ozarks, Missouris alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the large cities popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, U. S. President Harry S. Truman is from Missouri. Other well known Missourians include Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, some of the largest companies based in the state include Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, and OReilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the Mother of the West and the Cave State, Missouris most famous nickname is the Show Me State, the state is named for the Missouri River, which was named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe
Kansas City, Missouri
Kansas City is the largest city in Missouri and the sixth largest city in the Midwest. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city had an population of 475,378 in 2015. It is the city of the Kansas City metropolitan area. Kansas City was founded in the 1830s as a Missouri River port at its confluence with the Kansas River coming in from the west, on June 1,1850 the town of Kansas was incorporated, shortly after came the establishment of the Kansas Territory. Confusion between the two ensued and the name Kansas City was assigned to them soon thereafter. Most of the city lies within Jackson County, but portions spill into Clay, along with Independence, it serves as one of the two county seats for Jackson County. Major suburbs include the Missouri cities of Independence and Lees Summit and the Kansas cities of Overland Park and Kansas City. The city is composed of neighborhoods, including the River Market District in the north, the 18th and Vine District in the east. Kansas City is known for its cuisine, its craft breweries, Kansas City, Missouri was officially incorporated as a town on June 1,1850, and as a city on March 28,1853.
The territory straddling the border between Missouri and Kansas at the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri rivers was considered a place to build settlements. The Antioch Christian Church, Dr. James Compton House, the first documented European visitor to Kansas City was Étienne de Veniard, Sieur de Bourgmont, who was the first European to explore the lower Missouri River. Criticized for his response to the Native American attack on Fort Détroit, Bourgmont lived with a Native American wife in a village about 90 miles east near Brunswick, where he illegally traded furs. In the documents, he describes the junction of the Grande Riv des Cansez and Missouri River, French cartographer Guillaume Delisle used the descriptions to make the areas first reasonably accurate map. The Spanish took over the region in the Treaty of Paris in 1763, the French continued their fur trade under Spanish license. After the 1804 Louisiana Purchase and Clark visited the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri rivers, in 1831, a group of Mormons from New York settled in what would become the city.
They built the first school within Kansas Citys current boundaries, but were forced out by mob violence in 1833, in 1833 John McCoy established West Port along the Santa Fe Trail,3 miles away from the river. In 1834 McCoy established Westport Landing on a bend in the Missouri to serve as a point for West Port. Soon after, the Kansas Town Company, a group of investors, began to settle the area, in 1850, the landing area was incorporated as the Town of Kansas
Megabus (North America)
On April 10,2006, Stagecoach introduced a no-frills service through its Coach USA subsidiary, using the Megabus brand that it had established in the United Kingdom. Louis, Ann Arbor, Louisville, Detroit, Kansas City, Minneapolis, on August 8,2007, Megabus introduced service to the San Francisco Bay Area, Los Angeles, San Diego, and Tempe, using Coach America as a contractor. In its first foray into California, ridership was sluggish and Megabus started to discontinue services from the Los Angeles hub in early 2008, Service to the Phoenix area was discontinued in January 2008, followed by services in San Diego and San Ysidro in March 2008. In May 2008, Megabus made the decision to shut down its Los Angeles hub and discontinue all related services, stating that n this case, the final day for services from Los Angeles was June 22,2008. Megabus re-entered the market in 2012 after reacquiring some of the assets of Coach America, further expansions included service to Syracuse, Rochester and Niagara Falls, Ontario.
Later in 2009, the Megabus concept was expanded to Toronto and Montreal, Megabus expanded deeper into Pennsylvania and the Southeast in 2009 and 2010. Megabus returned to the West Coast on December 12,2012 initially serving San Francisco, San Jose, Reno, Riverside, on its west coast routes, Megabus operates almost exclusively from either commuter rail stations or transfer stations for local transit buses. A fraction of tickets are priced at 1.00 USD or CAD, Megabus follows the yield management model, typically used by airlines, where the lowest fares are offered to those who book early, so the less popular schedules tend to be less expensive. In order to keep costs down, Megabus has no waiting rooms and no bus terminals and picks up at curbside on public streets, stops may be outside railroad stations or transportation centers in major cities, or on college campuses or at shopping centers in other cities. Tickets must be purchased in advance via the website or by telephone, upon purchase, passengers are given a reservation number which they show the bus operator when they board.
In the United States, tickets are not available from the bus operator, in Canada, owing to franchise regulations, tickets are sold at stops at a fixed price. The Megabus fleet can be identified by the megabus. com name on the front and sides in yellow against a base. The DATTCO fleet used for Megabus service is decaled with Megabus logos, buses on the M25 Megabus route operate with regular Academy Bus livery. In 2007, Coach USA updated its Chicago-based Megabus fleet with new MCI J4500 single-deck and this expansion came as Megabus exited from the West Coast market. The fleet transferred to Eastern Shuttle was eventually returned to mainline Coach USA duty following divestiture a few months later, all Megabus coaches branded as such in the United States are equipped with Wi-Fi and electrical outlets. In accordance with ADA regulations, wheelchair-accessible service is available on all lines and this can now be done online or by phone. The Canadian Megabus fleet consists of 152009 TD925 buses and are operated by Trentway-Wagar, all of the Canada fleet is equipped with electrical outlets and Wi-Fi.
The Canadian buses are pooled with the US fleet for NYC-Toronto or Philadelphia-Toronto runs, note that on these runs the buses will typically only have WiFi service available in the home country for the bus being used, i. e
Columbus is the capital and largest city of the U. S. state of Ohio. It is the 15th-largest city in the United States, with a population of 850,106 as of 2015 estimates and this makes Columbus the fourth-most populous state capital in the United States, and the third-largest city in the Midwestern United States. It is the city of the Columbus, Metropolitan Statistical Area. With a population of 2,021,632, it is Ohios third-largest metropolitan area, Columbus is the county seat of Franklin County. The city proper has expanded and annexed portions of adjoining Delaware County, named for explorer Christopher Columbus, the city was founded in 1812 at the confluence of the Scioto and Olentangy rivers, and assumed the functions of state capital in 1816. As of 2013, the city has the headquarters of five corporations in the U. S, fortune 500, Nationwide Mutual Insurance Company, American Electric Power, L Brands, Big Lots, and Cardinal Health. In 2012, Columbus was ranked in BusinessWeeks 50 best cities in America.
In 2013, Forbes gave Columbus an A rating as one of the top cities for business in the U. S. and that included the city on its list of Best Places for Business. Columbus was ranked as the No.1 up-and-coming tech city in the nation by Forbes in 2008, and the city was ranked a top-ten city by Relocate America in 2010. In 2007, fDi Magazine ranked the city no.3 in the U. S. for cities of the future, and the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium was rated no.1 in 2009 by USA Travel Guide. The area including modern-day Columbus once comprised the Ohio Country, under the control of the French colonial empire through the Viceroyalty of New France from 1663 until 1763. In the 18th century, European traders flocked to the area, the area found itself frequently caught between warring factions, including American Indian and European interests. In the 1740s, Pennsylvania traders overran the territory until the French forcibly evicted them, in the early 1750s, the Ohio Company sent George Washington to the Ohio Country to survey.
Fighting for control of the territory in the French and Indian War became part of the international Seven Years War, during this period, the region routinely suffered turmoil and battles. The 1763 Treaty of Paris ceded the Ohio Country to the British Empire, after the American Revolution, the Ohio Country became part of the Virginia Military District, under the control of the United States. Colonists from the East Coast moved in, but rather finding a empty frontier, they encountered people of the Miami, Wyandot, Shawnee. The tribes resisted expansion by the fledgling United States, leading to years of bitter conflict, the decisive Battle of Fallen Timbers resulted in the Treaty of Greenville, which finally opened the way for new settlements. By 1797, a surveyor from Virginia named Lucas Sullivant had founded a permanent settlement on the west bank of the forks of the Scioto River
Romanesque Revival architecture
Romanesque Revival is a style of building employed beginning in the mid-19th century inspired by the 11th- and 12th-century Romanesque architecture. Unlike the historic Romanesque style, Romanesque Revival buildings tended to feature more simplified arches, an early variety of Romanesque Revival style known as Rundbogenstil was popular in German lands and in the German diaspora beginning in the 1830s. By far the most prominent and influential American architect working in a free Romanesque manner was Henry Hobson Richardson, in the United States, the style derived from examples set by him are termed Richardsonian Romanesque, of which not all are Romanesque Revival. In Scotland the style started to emerge with the Duke of Argyl’s castle at Inverary, started in 1744, and castles by Robert Adam at Culzean, Dalquharran and it was at this point that the Norman Revival became a recognisable architectural style. In 1817 Thomas Rickman published his An Attempt to Discriminate the Styles of English Architecture from the Conquest To the Reformation and it was now realised that ‘round-arch architecture’ was largely Romanesque in the British Isles and came to be described as Norman rather than Saxon.
The start of an archaeologically correct Norman Revival can be recognised in the architecture of Thomas Hopper and his first attempt at this style was at Gosford Castle in Armagh in Ireland, but far more successful was his Penrhyn Castle near Bangor in North Wales. This was built for the Pennant family, between 1820 and 1837, the Norman Revival did catch on for church architecture. It was Thomas Penson, a Welsh architect, who would have been familiar with Hopper’s work at Penrhyn, Penson was influenced by French and Belgian Romanesque architecture, and particularly the earlier Romanesque phase of German Brick Gothic. At St David’s Newtown, 1843–47 and St Agatha’s Llanymynech,1845, he copies the tower of St. Salvators Cathedral, other examples of Romanesque revival by Penson are Christ Church, Welshpool, 1839–1844, and the porch to Langedwyn Church. He was an innovator in his use of Terracotta to produce decorative Romanesque mouldings, during the 19th century the architecture selected for Anglican churches depended on the churchmanship of particular congregations.
Some of the examples of this Romanesque architecture is seen in Non-conformist or Dissenting churches. A good example of this is by the Lincoln architects Drury and Mortimer, after about 1870 this style of Church architecture in Britain disappears, but in the early 20th century, the style is succeeded by Byzantine Revival architecture. Two of Canadas provincial legislatures, the Ontario Legislative Building in Toronto, University College, one of seven colleges at the University of Toronto, is a chief example of the Romanesque Revival style. The building, designed by Frederic Cumberland and William G. Storm, was intended to be Gothic in style but was rejected by the governor general. Construction of the design began on 4 October 1856. The facade of University College has thick walls, incorporating layers of both stone and brick. The building possesses a number of round arches characteristic of the Roman Revival style, the arches are configured in arcades, most notably on the south side of the building.
There is a deal of ornamentation on both the interior and exterior of University College
Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad
The Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad was a Class I railroad in the United States. It was known as the Rock Island Line, or, in its final years, at the end of 1970 it operated 7183 miles of road on 10669 miles of track, that year it reported 20557 million ton-miles of revenue freight and 118 million passenger-miles. The song Rock Island Line, a spiritual from the late 1920s first recorded in 1934, was inspired by the railway, construction began October 1,1851, in Chicago, and the first train was operated on October 10,1852, between Chicago and Joliet. Construction continued on through La Salle, and Rock Island was reached on February 22,1854, the Mississippi river bridge between Rock Island and Davenport was completed on April 22,1856. In 1857, Abraham Lincoln represented the Rock Island in an important lawsuit regarding bridges over navigable rivers, the suit had been brought by the owner of a steamboat which was destroyed by fire after running into the Mississippi river bridge. Lincoln argued that not only was the steamboat at fault in striking the bridge, the M&M was acquired by the C&RI on July 9,1866, to form the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad Company.
The railroad expanded through construction and acquisitions in the following decades, the Rock Island stretched across Arkansas, Illinois, Kansas, Missouri, New Mexico, South Dakota and Texas. The easternmost reach of the system was Chicago, and the system reached Memphis, west, it reached Denver and Santa Rosa, New Mexico. Southernmost reaches were to Galveston and Eunice, Louisiana while in a direction the Rock Island got as far as Minneapolis. The heaviest traffic was on the Chicago-to-Rock Island and Rock Island-to-Muscatine lines, in common with most American railroad companies, the Rock Island once operated an extensive passenger service. The primary routes served were, Chicago-Los Angeles, Chicago-Denver, Memphis-Tucumcari, the Rock Island ran both Limited and Local service on those routes as well as locals on many other lines on its system. In 1937, the Rock Island introduced Diesel power to its passenger service, in competition with the Santa Fe Chiefs, the Rock Island jointly operated the Golden State Limited with the Southern Pacific Railroad from 1902–1968.
On this route, the Rock Islands train was marketed as a low altitude crossing of the Continental Divide, the Rock Island did not concede to the Santa Fes dominance in the Chicago-Los Angeles travel market and re-equipped the train with new streamlined equipment in 1948. At the same time, the Limited was dropped from the trains name, the local run on this line was known as the Imperial. The 1948 modernization of the Golden State occurred with some controversy, in 1947, both the Rock Island and Southern Pacific jointly advertised the coming of a new entry in the Chicago-Los Angeles travel market. The Golden Rocket was scheduled to match the Santa Fes transit time end-to-end and was to have its own dedicated trainsets, one purchased by the Rock Island. As the Rock Islands set of streamlined cars was being finished. The Rock Islands cars were delivered and would find their way into the Golden States fleet soon after delivery, the Golden State was the last first-class train on the Rock Island, retaining its dining cars and sleeping cars until its last run on February 21,1968