Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
United Nations Economic and Social Council
The United Nations Economic and Social Council is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, responsible for coordinating the economic and social fields of the organisation in regards to the 15 specialised agencies, the eight functional commissions and the five regional commissions under its jurisdiction. The Council serves as the central forum for discussing international economic and social issues and formulating policy recommendations addressed to member states and the United Nations system. A number of non-governmental organisations have been granted consultative status to the Council to participate in the work of the United Nations, it holds one four-week session each year in July, since 1998, it has held an annual meeting in April with finance ministers heading key committees of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. The president of the Council is elected for a one-year term and chosen from the small- or mid-sized powers represented on the Council at the beginning pf each new session.
The presidency rotates among the United Nations Regional Groups to ensure equal representation. Ambassador Inga Rhonda King of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines was elected as the seventy-fourth President of the Economic and Social Council on 26 July 2018; the Council consists of 54 Members States, which are elected yearly by the General Assembly for overlapping three-year terms. Seats on the Council are allocated ensuring equitable geographic rotation among the United Nations regional groups, with 14 being allocated to the African Group, 11 to the Asia-Pacific Group, 6 to the Eastern European Group, 10 to the Latin American and Caribbean Group and 13 to the Western European and Others Group; the following are the current Member States of the Council: Participation on a continuing basis: Participation on an ad hoc basis: The following are the active functional commission of the Council: UN Commission for Social Development Commission on Narcotic Drugs Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Commission on Science and Technology for Development UN Commission on the Status of Women Commission on Population and Development UN Statistical Commission United Nations Forum on Forests The following commissions were disbanded by the Council and replaced by other bodies: Commission on Human Rights Disbanded in 2006 and replaced by the United Nations Human Rights Council, a subsidiary organ of the General Assembly.
Commission on Sustainable Development Disbanded in 2013 and replaced by the High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development, a joint subsidiary body of the General Assembly and ECOSOC. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe United Nations Economic Commission for Africa United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia The specialised agencies of the United Nations are autonomous organisations working within the United Nations System, meaning that while they report their activities to the Economic and Social Council, they are free to their own devices; each individual agency must negotiate with the Council as to what their relationship will look and work like. This leads to a system where different organisations maintain different types of relationships with the Council; some were created before the United Nations existed and were integrated into the system, others were created by the League of Nations and were integrated by its successor, while others were created by the United Nations itself to meet a emerging needs.
The following is a list of the specialized agencies reporting to the Council: Food and Agriculture Organization International Civil Aviation Organization International Fund for Agricultural Development International Labour Organization International Monetary Fund International Maritime Organization International Telecommunication Union United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization United Nations Industrial Development Organization United Nations World Tourism Organization Universal Postal Union World Bank Group International Bank for Reconstruction and Development International Development Association International Finance Corporation Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes World Health Organization World Intellectual Property Organization World Meteorological Organization Financing for Development, the Monterrey Consensus and Doha Declaration Development Cooperation Forum United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues Sessional and Standing Committees Expert, ad hoc and related bodies United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund United Nations Interagency Task Force on the Prevention and Control of NCDs International Federation for Family Development has general consultative status In a report issued in early July 2011, the UN called for spending nearly US$2 trillion on green technologies to prevent what it termed "a major planetary catastrophe", warning that "It is expanding energy use driven by fossil fuels, that explains why humanity is on the verge of breaching planetary sustainability boundaries through global warming, biodiversity loss, disturbance of the nitrogen-cycle balance and other measures of the sustainability of the earth's ecosystem".
UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon added: "Rather than viewing growth and sustainability as competing goals on a collision course, we must see them as complementary and mutually supportive imperatives". The report conclud
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Nobel Peace Prize
The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Swedish industrialist and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature. Since March 1901, it has been awarded annually to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses". Per Alfred Nobel's will, the recipient is selected by the Norwegian Nobel Committee, a five-member committee appointed by the Parliament of Norway. Since 1990, the prize is awarded on 10 December in Oslo City Hall each year; the prize was awarded in the Atrium of the University of Oslo Faculty of Law, the Norwegian Nobel Institute, the Parliament. Due to its political nature, the Nobel Peace Prize has, for most of its history, been the subject of numerous controversies. According to Nobel's will, the Peace Prize shall be awarded to the person who in the preceding year "shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".
Alfred Nobel's will further specified that the prize be awarded by a committee of five people chosen by the Norwegian Parliament. Nobel died in 1896 and he did not leave an explanation for choosing peace as a prize category; as he was a trained chemical engineer, the categories for chemistry and physics were obvious choices. The reasoning behind the peace prize is less clear. According to the Norwegian Nobel Committee, his friendship with Bertha von Suttner, a peace activist and recipient of the prize, profoundly influenced his decision to include peace as a category; some Nobel scholars suggest. His inventions included dynamite and ballistite, both of which were used violently during his lifetime. Ballistite was used in war and the Irish Republican Brotherhood, an Irish nationalist organization, carried out dynamite attacks in the 1880s. Nobel was instrumental in turning Bofors from an iron and steel producer into an armaments company, it is unclear why Nobel wished the Peace Prize to be administered in Norway, ruled in union with Sweden at the time of Nobel's death.
The Norwegian Nobel Committee speculates that Nobel may have considered Norway better suited to awarding the prize, as it did not have the same militaristic traditions as Sweden. It notes that at the end of the 19th century, the Norwegian parliament had become involved in the Inter-Parliamentary Union's efforts to resolve conflicts through mediation and arbitration; the Norwegian Parliament appoints the Norwegian Nobel Committee, which selects the Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Each year, the Norwegian Nobel Committee invites qualified people to submit nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize; the statutes of the Nobel Foundation specify categories of individuals who are eligible to make nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize. These nominators are: Members of national assemblies and governments and members of the Inter-Parliamentary Union Members of the Permanent Court of Arbitration and the International Court of Justice at the Hague Members of Institut de Droit International University professors of history, social sciences, philosophy and theology, university presidents, directors of peace research and international affairs institutes Former recipients, including board members of organizations that have received the prize Present and past members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee Former permanent advisers to the Norwegian Nobel Institute Nominations must be submitted to the Committee by the beginning of February in the award year.
Nominations by committee members can be submitted up to the date of the first Committee meeting after this deadline. In 2009, a record 205 nominations were received, but the record was broken again in 2010 with 237 nominations; the statutes of the Nobel Foundation do not allow information about nominations, considerations, or investigations relating to awarding the prize to be made public for at least 50 years after a prize has been awarded. Over time, many individuals have become known as "Nobel Peace Prize Nominees", but this designation has no official standing, means only that one of the thousands of eligible nominators suggested the person's name for consideration. Indeed, in 1939, Adolf Hitler received a satirical nomination from a member of the Swedish parliament, mocking the nomination of Neville Chamberlain. Nominations from 1901 to 1956, have been released in a database. Nominations are considered by the Nobel Committee at a meeting where a short list of candidates for further review is created.
This short list is considered by permanent advisers to the Nobel institute, which consists of the Institute's Director and the Research Director and a small number of Norwegian academics with expertise in subject areas relating to the prize. Advisers have some months to complete reports, which are considered by the Committee to select the laureate; the Committee seeks to achieve a unanimous decision. The Nobel Committee comes to a conclusion in mid-September, but the final decision has not been made until the last meeting before the official announcement at the beginning of October; the Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee presents the Nobel Peace Prize in the presence of the King of Norway on 10 December each year. The Peace Pri
International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation
The International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation was an advisory organization for the League of Nations which aimed to promote international exchange between scientists, teachers and intellectuals. Established in 1922, it counted such figures as Henri Bergson, Albert Einstein, Marie Curie, Gonzague de Reynold and Robert A. Millikan among its members; the Committee was the predecessor to UNESCO, all of its properties were transferred to that organisation in 1946. The International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation was formally established in August 1922. Having started out with 12 members, its membership grew to 19 individuals; the first session was held on August 1922, under the chairmanship of Henri Bergson. During its lifetime, the committee attracted a variety of prominent members, for instance Albert Einstein, Marie Curie, Kristine Bonnevie, Jules Destrée, Robert Andrews Millikan, Alfredo Rocco, Paul Painlevé, Gonzague de Reynold, Jagadish Chandra Bose and Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan.
Einstein resigned in 1923. The body was successively chaired by: Henri Bergson Hendrik Lorentz Gilbert Murray; the CICI maintained a number of sub-committees which worked with figures such as Béla Bartók, Thomas Mann, Salvador de Madariaga and Paul Valéry. The CICI worked with the International Educational Cinematographic Institute created in Rome in 1928 by the Italian government under Mussolini; the last session took place in 1939, but the CICI was only formally dissolved in 1946, like the League of Nations. In order to support the work of the commission in Geneva, the organization was offered assistance from France to establish an executive branch, the International Institute of Intellectual Cooperation, in Paris in 1926. However, the IIIC had an autonomous status and was only financed by the French Government, it maintained relations with the League's member states, which established national commissions for intellectual cooperation and appointed delegates to represent their interests at the Institute in Paris.
While being an international organisation, each of the IIIC's three successive directors was French: Julien Luchaire Henri Bonnet Jean-Jacques Mayoux From 1926 to 1930, Alfred Zimmern – the well-known British classicist and a pioneering figure in the discipline of international relations – served as the IIIC's Deputy Director. As a result of the Second World War, the Institute was closed from 1940 to 1944, it re-opened from 1945 to 1946. When it closed for good in 1946, UNESCO inherited some parts of its mission. Research Guide on Intellectual Cooperation by UN Archives Geneva. Intellectual Cooperation and International Bureaux Section at UN Archives Geneva
An international organization is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence. There are two main types: International nongovernmental organizations: non-governmental organizations that operate internationally; these include international non-profit organizations and worldwide companies such as the World Organization of the Scout Movement, International Committee of the Red Cross and Médecins Sans Frontières. Intergovernmental organizations known as international governmental organizations: the type of organization most associated with the term'international organization', these are organizations that are made up of sovereign states. Notable examples include the United Nations, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Council of Europe, International Labour Organization and International Police Organization; the UN has used the term "intergovernmental organization" instead of "international organization" for clarity. The first and oldest intergovernmental organization is the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine, created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna.
The role of international organizations is helping to set the international agenda, mediating political bargaining, providing a place for political initiatives and acting as catalysts for coalition- formation. International organizations define the salient issues and decide which issues can be grouped together, thus help governmental priority determination or other governmental arrangements. Not all international organizations seek economic and social cooperation and integration. Headquarters of International Organisation List of International Organisation and their Headquarters Procedural history and related documents on the'Articles on the Responsibility of International Organizations in the Historic Archives of the United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law World News related documents on the World News related documents
Information science is a field concerned with the analysis, classification, storage, movement and protection of information. Practitioners within and outside the field study application and usage of knowledge in organizations along with the interaction between people and any existing information systems with the aim of creating, improving, or understanding information systems. Information science is associated with computer science and technology. However, information science incorporates aspects of diverse fields such as archival science, cognitive science, law, museology, mathematics, public policy, social sciences. Information science focuses on understanding problems from the perspective of the stakeholders involved and applying information and other technologies as needed. In other words, it tackles systemic problems first rather than individual pieces of technology within that system. In this respect, one can see information science as a response to technological determinism, the belief that technology "develops by its own laws, that it realizes its own potential, limited only by the material resources available and the creativity of its developers.
It must therefore be regarded as an autonomous system controlling and permeating all other subsystems of society."Many universities have entire colleges, departments or schools devoted to the study of information science, while numerous information-science scholars work in disciplines such as communication, computer science and sociology. Several institutions have formed an I-School Caucus, but numerous others besides these have comprehensive information foci. Within information science, current issues as of 2013 include: human–computer interaction groupware the semantic web value-sensitive design iterative design processes the ways people generate and find information The first known usage of the term "information science" was in 1955. An early definition of Information science states: "Information science is that discipline that investigates the properties and behavior of information, the forces governing the flow of information, the means of processing information for optimum accessibility and usability.
It is concerned with that body of knowledge relating to the origination, organization, retrieval, transmission and utilization of information. This includes the investigation of information representations in both natural and artificial systems, the use of codes for efficient message transmission, the study of information processing devices and techniques such as computers and their programming systems, it is an interdisciplinary science derived from and related to such fields as mathematics, linguistics, computer technology, operations research, the graphic arts, communications and other similar fields. It has both a pure science component, which inquires into the subject without regard to its application, an applied science component, which develops services and products.". Some authors use informatics as a synonym for information science; this is true when related to the concept developed by A. I. Mikhailov and other Soviet authors in the mid-1960s; the Mikhailov school saw informatics as a discipline related to the study of scientific information.
Informatics is difficult to define because of the evolving and interdisciplinary nature of the field. Definitions reliant on the nature of the tools used for deriving meaningful information from data are emerging in Informatics academic programs. Regional differences and international terminology complicate the problem; some people note that much of what is called "Informatics" today was once called "Information Science" – at least in fields such as Medical Informatics. For example, when library scientists began to use the phrase "Information Science" to refer to their work, the term "informatics" emerged: in the United States as a response by computer scientists to distinguish their work from that of library science in Britain as a term for a science of information that studies natural, as well as artificial or engineered, information-processing systemsAnother term discussed as a synonym for "information studies" is "information systems". Brian Campbell Vickery's Information Systems places information systems within IS.
Ellis, Allen, & Wilson, on the other hand, provide a bibliometric investigation describing the relation between two different fields: "information science" and "information systems". Philosophy of information studies conceptual issues arising at the intersection of computer science, information technology, philosophy, it includes the investigation of the conceptual nature and basic principles of information, including its dynamics and sciences, as well as the elaboration and application of information-theoretic and computational methodologies to its philosophical problems. In computer science and information science, an ontology formally represents knowledge as a set of concepts within a domain, the relationships between those concepts, it can be used to reason about the entities within that domain and may be used to describe the domain. More an ontology is a model for describing the world that consists of a set of types and relationship types. What is provided around these varies, but they are the essentials of an ontology.
There is generally an expectation that there be a cl