Playa Benítez is a beach of Ceuta, a Spanish city bordering northern Morocco. The beach is about 900 metres in length with an average width of about 200 metres, it forms part of the Punta Blanca. The beach is popular with sports enthusiasts
Shrine of Our Lady of Africa
The Church of Santa María de África is a Roman Catholic church in the Spanish city of Ceuta, located in a small Spanish exclave on the north coast of Africa. The history of the church goes back to a picture sent by Henry the Navigator, he said that he thought the picture holy and he named it as Santa Maria in Africa. The first hard evidence of the church date from 1676 when it is mentioned in building work and again in 1697. Under Bishop Don Martin de Barcia the church was internally decorated with paintings and both bells and the altarpiece were installed. We know that Barcia was still Bishop when the church was consecrated on 5 August 1752; the altarpiece is decorated with a large sculpture of Mary with Christ, traditionally carved from a single piece of wood. The aleo, used by Pedro is kept in the Church, the statue af Mary holds the aleo
Church of San Francisco, Ceuta
Iglesia de San Francisco is a church in the Spanish city of Ceuta, bordering northern Morocco. It stands at the side of the Plaza de los Reyes, is a distinctive Baroque twin-towered yellow building, it was built in the early eighteenth century in honour of the Holy Cross and is noted for its Baroque altarpieces and images of the Virgin and Christ
Port of Ceuta
The Port of Ceuta is a passenger and cargo port located off the North African coast, in the Strait of Gibraltar, belonging to the Spanish autonomous city of Ceuta. Finished in 1942, it reached its pinnacle in activity during the time of the Spanish protectorate in Morocco, as it served the inland area, declining after the independence of Morocco in 1956, it is managed by the port authority of the same name. The contemporary activity of the port is centered in the obtention of provisions by the local market, in vessel supplies, the ferry service linking to ports in the Iberian Peninsula and its role as centre for providing logistic and industrial services. Despite of the closed customs with Morocco the port has a role for the entry of products to Morocco, through the means of closeted smuggling by informal "porters" crossing the border with personal luggage. Most of the cargo shipping is ro-ro. Arnaiz Seco, Javier. "La estación marítima del Puerto de Ceuta". Revista Arquitectura. Madrid: Colegio Oficial de Arquitectos de Madrid: 40–47.
Moreno Navarro, Jesús Gabriel. "A new port competition scheme in the Strait of Gibraltar: Tanger-Med gets into scene". Comercio, servicios y transportes: patrones de una sociedad avanzada. IV Congreso de Geografía de los Servicios. Pp. 355–364. ISBN 978-84-933457-9-2. Couceiro Martínez, Luis. "Competitividad de un Puerto y su Relación Actual con el Sistema Portuario Español". Tecnologí@ y desarrollo. Universidad Alfonso X el Sabio. XI. ISSN 1696-8085
Ceuta is an 18.5 km2 Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa, separated by 14 km from Cadiz province on the Spanish mainland by the Strait of Gibraltar and sharing a 6.4 km land border with M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture in the Kingdom of Morocco. It lies along the boundary between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean and is one of nine populated Spanish territories in Africa and, along with Melilla, one of two populated territories on mainland Africa, it was part of Cádiz province until 14 March 1995 when both Ceuta and Melilla's Statutes of Autonomy were passed, the latter having been part of Málaga province. Ceuta, like the Canary Islands, was a free port before Spain joined the European Union; as of 2011, it has a population of 82,376. Its population consists of Christians and small minorities of Sephardic Jews and ethnic Sindhi Hindus. Spanish is the official language, while Darija Arabic is spoken by 40–50% of the population, of Moroccan origin; the name Abyla has been said to have been a Punic name for Jebel Musa, the southern Pillar of Hercules.
In fact, it seems that the name of the mountain was Habenna or ʾAbin-ḥīq, in reference to the nearby Bay of Benzú. The name was hellenized variously as Ápini, Abýla, Abýlē, Ablýx, Abílē Stḗlē and in Latin as Mount Abyla or the Pillar of Abyla; the settlement below Jebel Musa was renamed for the seven hills around the site, collectively referred to as the "Seven Brothers". In particular, the Roman stronghold at the site took the name "Fort at the Seven Brothers"; this was shortened to Septem or Septum or Septa. These clipped forms continued as Berber Sebta and Arabic Sebtan or Sabtah, which themselves became Ceuta in Portuguese and Spanish. Controlling access between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, the Strait of Gibraltar is an important military and commercial chokepoint; the Phoenicians realized the narrow isthmus joining the Peninsula of Almina to the African mainland makes Ceuta eminently defensible and established an outpost there in the early 1st millennium BC. The Greek geographers record it by variations of "Abyla", the ancient name of nearby Jebel Musa.
Beside Calpe, the other Pillar of Hercules now known as the Rock of Gibraltar, the Phoenicians established Kart at what is now San Roque, Spain. Other good anchorages nearby became Phoenician and Carthaginian ports at what are now Tangiers and Cadiz. After Carthage's destruction in the Punic Wars, most of northwest Africa was left to the Roman client states of Numidia and—around Abyla—Mauretania. Punic culture continued to thrive in what the Romans knew as "Septem". After Thapsus and his heirs began annexing north Africa directly as Roman provinces but, as late as Augustus, most of Septem's Berber residents continued to speak and write in Punic. Caligula assassinated the Mauretanian king Ptolemy in AD 40 and seized his kingdom, which Claudius organized in 42, placing Septem in the province of Tingitana and raising it to the level of a colony, it subsequently romanized and thrived into the late 3rd century, trading with Roman Spain and becoming well known for its salted fish. Roads connected it overland with Volubilis.
Under Theodosius I in the late 4th century, Septem still had 10,000 inhabitants, nearly all Christian citizens speaking Latin and African Romance. Vandals invited by Count Boniface as protection against the empress dowager, crossed the strait near Tingis around 425 and swiftly overran Roman North Africa, their king Gaiseric focused his attention on the rich lands around Carthage. When Justinian decided to reconquer the Vandal lands, his victorious general Belisarius continued along the coast, making Septem an outpost of the Byzantine Empire around 533. Unlike the Roman administration, the Byzantines did not push far into hinterland and made the more defensible Septem their regional capital in place of Tingis. Epidemics, less capable successors, overstretched supply lines forced a retrenchment and left Septem isolated, it is that its count was obliged to pay homage to the Visigoth Kingdom in Spain in the early 7th century. There are no reliable contemporary accounts of the end of the Islamic conquest of the Maghreb around 710.
Instead, the rapid Muslim conquest of Spain produced romances concerning Count Julian of Septem and his betrayal of Christendom in revenge for the dishonor that befell his daughter at King Roderick's court. With Julian's encouragement and instructions, the Berber convert and freedman Tariq ibn Ziyad took his garrison from Tangiers across the strait and overran the Spanish so swiftly that both he and his master Musa bin Nusayr fell afoul of a jealous caliph, who stripped them of their wealth and titles. After the death of Julian, sometimes described as a king of the Ghomara Berbers, Berber converts to Islam took direct control of what they called Sebta, it was destroyed during their great revolt against the Umayyad Caliphate around 740. Sebta subsequently remained a small village of Muslims and Christians surrounded by ruins until its resettlement in the 9th century by Mâjakas, chief of the Majkasa Berber tribe, who started the short-lived Banu Isam dy
Parque Marítimo del Mediterráneo
The Parque Marítimo del Mediterráneo is a leisure complex covering 55,000 m² located in the autonomous Spanish city of Ceuta, bordering northern Morocco. It consists of three artificial lakes of salt water, filtered directly from the sea; these are suitable for swimming during the summer months. The park contains gardens, ornamental waterfalls, sunbathing areas, a stage for concerts and shows and various entertainment establishments such as bars, pubs, a casino, a nightclub, etc, it was designed by the versatile Lanzarote-born artist César Manrique and inaugurated in 1995, nearly three years after his death. It has similarities with Parque Marítimo César Manrique in Puerto de la Cruz, designed by the same architect two decades earlier. In the centre of the complex is a unique building, as it mimics the Royal Walls of Ceuta and the moat of San Felipe; this building houses a nightclub and a restaurant. The park has a permanent exhibition about its creator, Manrique
Kingdom of the Algarve
The Kingdom of the Algarve, after 1471 Kingdom of the Algarves, was a nominal kingdom within the Kingdom of Portugal, located in the southernmost region of continental Portugal. It was the second dominion of the Portuguese Crown and a kingdom apart from Portugal, though in fact the Algarvian kingdom had no institutions, special privileges, or autonomy. In actuality, it was just an honorific title for the Algarve based on its history and was similar to the rest of the Portuguese provinces; the title King of Silves was first used by Sancho I of Portugal after the first conquest of the city Silves in 1189. As this conquest did not take all of the Algarve, Sancho never used the title King of Portugal and the Algarve, but instead it was adopted by his grandson Afonso III of Portugal as a part of the titles and honours of the Portuguese Crown. During the Reconquista and Castilian conquests went south, to retake lands, conquered by Muslim armies in the 8th century. Portugal conquered and secured much of its southern borders during the reigns of King Sancho II of Portugal and King Afonso III of Portugal.
In 1189, King Sancho I of Portugal conquered Silves, one of the most prosperous cities in Al-Andalus, aligned at the time with the Almohad Caliphate. Portuguese control over Silves would be short, with the Almohads conquering the city again in 1191 in a massive counter-attack led by Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur the Almohad Caliph in person. With the decline of the Almohads, the southern taifa city-states united under a single Emir, Mûsâ Ibn Muhammad Ibn Nassir Ibn Mahfûz, former governor of Niebla, known among the Christians as Aben Mafom. Aben Mafom, King of Niebla and Emir of the Algarve, trying to counter the achievements made by the Portuguese in their territories, declared himself a vassal to Alfonso X of Castile. Through his vassals, Alfonso X hoped to claim dominion over the Algarve not yet conquered by the Portuguese; the Emir's vow of vassalage to Castille however did not stop the knights of the Order of Santiago, under the command of the Grand-Master Paio Peres Correia, from conquering most of the region city by city, between 1242 and 1249, including Silves.
In March 1249, King Afonso III of Portugal captured Faro, the last Muslim stronghold in Algarve, ending the Portuguese Reconquista. The entitlement of Afonso III of Portugal as King of Portugal and the Algarve would serve as a reaction to Alfonso X of Castile's claim to the Algarve and was designed to demonstrate the rights of the Portuguese monarch on the region concerned; the issue between the sovereigns of Castille and Portugal was settled by the Treaty of Badajoz, where King Alfonso X gave up his claims of the Algarve, making his grandson Dinis the heir to the throne of the Algarve, which dictated the terms of its incorporation into the Portuguese crown. The treaty, allowed the use of the title of King of the Algarve for King Alfonso X and his descendants, since King Alfonso X had acquired the territories of Al-Gharb Al-Andalus on the other side of the Guadiana river; the kings of Castile, Spain, would add the title to their repertoire of titles until the ascent of Queen Isabel II of Spain to the throne.
During the Age of Discovery, the Algarve served as the location for the embarkment for many voyages those funded by the Infante D. Henrique. Prince Henry set up his famous school of navigation at Sagres Point, though the idea of a real school building and campus is disputed. Most of the voyages set sail from Lagos; the name of the Algarvian Kingdom suffered some minor changes due to the Portuguese North African conquests, which were considered an extension of the kingdom of Algarve. John I of Portugal added to the title of "King of Portugal and the Algarve", the title "Lord of Ceuta", his grandson Afonso V of Portugal, in turn, styled himself "Lord of Ceuta and Alcacer-Ceguer in Africa"; the 1471 conquest of Asilah and Larache, together with North African previous holdings, led to the creation of the title "the Algarves from either side of the sea in Africa", leaving the European Algarve to become "the Algarve behind the sea." Thus, it was not until 1471 that "the Kingdom of the Algarve" led to "the Kingdom of the Algarves", due to the increase of Portuguese possessions in Northern Africa, which were made as possessions of the Kingdom of the Algarve.
The Portuguese monarchs therefore adopted the title that they would use until the fall of the monarchy in 1910: "Kings of Portugal and the Algarves of either side of the sea in Africa". The title would continue to be used after the abandonment of the last North African holding in Mazagan. During the 19th century, a serious clash between liberals and Miguelites, caused an exodus of people from the Algarvian inlands to the coastal cities. José Joaquim Sousa Reis, the Remexido, fought in the inlands and attacked the coastal cities, bringing the urban population into turmoil; the turmoil of the Algarve intensified in the years between 1834 and 1838, when the Algarve saw battles on a level it had never seen before. On November 26, 1836, Miguel I of Portugal named Remexido Governor of the Kingdom of the Algarve and Acting Commander in Chief of all the Royalist Troops and Irregular Armies, the Operations in the South. Remexido, was shot in Faro on August 2, 1838. Kingdom of Portugal United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves Algarve