A synagogue, is a Jewish or Samaritan house of worship. Synagogues have a large place for prayer and may have smaller rooms for study and sometimes a social hall and offices; some have a separate room for Torah study, called the בית מדרש beth midrash "house of study". Synagogues are consecrated spaces used for the purpose of prayer, Tanakh reading and assembly. Halakha holds. Worship can be carried out alone or with fewer than ten people assembled together. However, halakha considers certain prayers as communal prayers and therefore they may be recited only by a minyan. In terms of its specific ritual and liturgical functions, the synagogue does not replace the long-since destroyed Temple in Jerusalem. Israelis use the Hebrew term beyt knesset "house of assembly". Ashkenazi Jews have traditionally used the Yiddish term shul in everyday speech. Sephardi Jews and Romaniote Jews use the term kal. Spanish Jews call the synagogue Portuguese Jews call it an esnoga. Persian Jews and some Karaite Jews use the term kenesa, derived from Aramaic, some Mizrahi Jews use kenis.
Some Reform, Reconstructionist, Conservative Jews use the word "temple". The Greek word synagogue is used in English to cover the preceding possibilities. Although synagogues existed a long time before the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, communal worship in the time while the Temple still stood centered around the korbanot brought by the kohanim in the Temple in Jerusalem; the all-day Yom Kippur service, in fact, was an event in which the congregation both observed the movements of the kohen gadol as he offered the day's sacrifices and prayed for his success. During the Babylonian captivity the men of the Great Assembly formalized and standardized the language of the Jewish prayers. Prior to that people prayed as they saw fit, with each individual praying in his or her own way, there were no standard prayers that were recited. Johanan ben Zakai, one of the leaders at the end of the Second Temple era, promulgated the idea of creating individual houses of worship in whatever locale Jews found themselves.
This contributed to the continuity of the Jewish people by maintaining a unique identity and a portable way of worship despite the destruction of the Temple, according to many historians. Synagogues in the sense of purpose-built spaces for worship, or rooms constructed for some other purpose but reserved for formal, communal prayer, existed long before the destruction of the Second Temple; the earliest archaeological evidence for the existence of early synagogues comes from Egypt, where stone synagogue dedication inscriptions dating from the 3rd century BCE prove that synagogues existed by that date. More than a dozen Jewish Second Temple era synagogues have been identified by archaeologists in Israel and other countries belonging to the Hellenistic world. Any Jew or group of Jews can build a synagogue. Synagogues have been constructed by ancient Jewish kings, by wealthy patrons, as part of a wide range of human institutions including secular educational institutions and hotels, by the entire community of Jews living in a particular place, or by sub-groups of Jews arrayed according to occupation, style of religious observance, or by the followers of a particular rabbi.
It has been theorized that the synagogue became a place of worship in the region upon the destruction of the Second Temple during the First Jewish–Roman War. The popularization of prayer over sacrifice during the years prior to the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE had prepared the Jews for life in the diaspora, where prayer would serve as the focus of Jewish worship. Despite the possibility of synagogue-like spaces prior to the First Jewish–Roman War, the synagogue emerged as a stronghold for Jewish worship upon the destruction of the Temple. For Jews living in the wake of the Revolt, the synagogue functioned as a "portable system of worship". Within the synagogue, Jews worshipped by way of prayer rather than sacrifices, which had served as the main form of worship within the Second Temple; the Samaritan house of worship is called a synagogue. During the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE, during the Hellenistic period, the Greek word used in the Diaspora by Samaritans and Jews was the same: proseucheµ.
The oldest Samaritan synagogue discovered so far is from Delos in the Aegean Islands, with an inscription dated between 250 and 175 BCE, while most Samaritan synagogues excavated in the wider Land of Israel and ancient Samaria in particular, were built during the 4th-7th centuries, at the end of the Roman and throughout the Byzantine period. The elements which distinguish Samaritan synagogues from contemporary Jewish ones are: Alphabet: the use of the Samaritan script Orthography; when the Samaritan script is used, there are some Hebrew words which would
Yehuda Levin is a Brooklyn, New York-based Orthodox Jewish rabbi known for his endorsing of hard right Republican party political candidates and his vocal opposition to gay rights and abortion. He has lost each time. Levin opposes LGBT rights and abortion. Levin is a member of the advisory committee of the organization Jews Against Anti-Christian Defamation. Yehuda Levin tends to be in alliance with Christian Evangelicals on efforts opposed to LGBT rights and other social issues; this led to his 1996 support for Pat Buchanan. Levin has run for public office numerous times, he ran for Congress in 1984 on the Republican ticket, for mayor of New York City in 1985 on the Right to Life ticket, for New York City Council in 1991 and 1993 on the Conservative ticket. He was unsuccessful in each of these elections. Levin was involved in stopping a gay pride event from taking place in Jerusalem. In October 2010, Levin worked with Carl Paladino and prepared an anti-gay statement which Paladino read in part in the Orthodox Jewish community, which made national news.
Paladino apologized for that statement, causing Levin to withdraw his support from Paladino. Levin is noted in popular culture for his strong anti-gay statements, most notably his statement blaming the 2010 Haiti earthquake on the presence of homosexuals in the military. Members of the Jewish community have criticized Levin because of Levin's call for hiding pedophiles in the Jewish community, for claiming that same-sex marriage kills Jews. Levin supported Randall Terry's bid to run as a Democrat in 2012 for President of the United States. Yehuda Levin, a student of Rabbi Avigdor Miller, has received praise by Orthodox rabbis for defending tradition; some Orthodox rabbis and community leaders from Ashkenazic and Hasidic communities have responded negatively to Levin. Levin has received support from some conservative Catholics for causes relevant to the World Congress of Families. Rabbi Yehuda Levin's web sites: http://rabbilevin.com https://web.archive.org/web/20080319141958/http://www.godreignoverus.com/ Rabbi Levin's radio show
Moshe Feinstein or Moses Feinstein was an Orthodox rabbi and posek, world-renowned for his expertise in Halakha and compassion, was regarded by many as the de facto supreme halakhic authority for observant Jews in North America. In the Orthodox world, he is referred to as "Reb Moshe", his halakhic rulings are referenced in contemporary rabbinic literature, he served as president of the Union of Orthodox Rabbis, Chairman of the Council of the Moetzes Gedolei HaTorah of the Agudath Israel of America, head of the yeshiva Mesivtha Tifereth Jerusalem in New York. Moshe Feinstein was born, according to the Hebrew calendar, on the 7th day of Adar, 5655 in Uzda, near Minsk, Belarus part of the Russian Empire, his father, Rabbi David Feinstein, was the rabbi of Uzdan and a great-grandson of the Vilna Gaon's brother. His mother was a descendant of talmudist Yom Tov Lipman, the Shlah HaKadosh, Rashi, he studied with his father, in yeshivas located in Slutsk and Shklov. He had a close relationship with his uncle, Yaakov Kantrowitz, rabbi of Timkovichi, whom he revered and considered his mentor.
He was appointed rabbi of Lubań. He married Shima Kustanovich in 1920, had 4 children, before leaving Europe, his son, Pesach Chaim, died in Europe, his son, was born in the US. Under increasing pressure from the Soviet regime, he moved with his family to New York City in 1936, where he lived for the rest of his life. Settling on the Lower East Side, he became the rosh yeshiva of Mesivtha Tifereth Jerusalem, he established a branch of the yeshiva in Staten Island, New York, now headed by his son Reuven Feinstein. His son Dovid Feinstein heads the Manhattan branch, he was president of the Union of Orthodox Rabbis of the United States and Canada, chaired the Moetzes Gedolei HaTorah of Agudath Israel of America from the 1960s until his death. Feinstein took an active leadership role in Israel's Chinuch Atzmai. Feinstein was revered by many as the Gadol Hador, including by Yaakov Yisrael Kanievsky, Yonasan Steif, Elyah Lopian, Aharon Kotler, Yaakov Kamenetsky, Yosef Shalom Elyashiv though several of them were far older than he.
Feinstein was recognized by many as the preeminent Torah sage and posek of his generation, people from around the world called upon him to answer their most complicated halachic questions. Owing to his prominence as an adjudicator of Jewish law, Feinstein was asked the most difficult questions, in which he issued a number of innovative and controversial decisions. Soon after arriving in the United States, he established a reputation for handling business and labor disputes. For instance, he wrote about strikes and fair competition, he served as the chief Halakhic authority for the Association of Orthodox Jewish Scientists, indicative of his expertise in Jewish medical ethics. In the medical arena, he opposed the early, unsuccessful heart transplants, although it is orally reported that in his years, he allowed a person to receive a heart transplant. On such matters, he consulted with various scientific experts, including his son-in-law Moshe David Tendler, a professor of biology and serves as a rosh yeshiva at Yeshiva University.
As one of the prominent leaders of American Orthodoxy, Feinstein issued opinions that distanced his community from Conservative and Reform Judaism. He faced intense opposition from Hasidic Orthodoxy on several controversial decisions, such as rulings on artificial insemination and mechitza. In the case of his position not to prohibit cigarette smoking, though he recommended against it and prohibited second-hand smoke, other Orthodox rabbinic authorities disagreed, his detractors, while disagreeing with specific rulings, still considered him to be a leading decisor of Jewish law. The first volume of his Igrot Moshe, a voluminous collection of his halachic decisions, was published in 1959, he made noteworthy decisions on the following topics: Artificial insemination from a non-Jewish donor Ascending the Temple Mount nowadays Cosmetic surgery Bat Mitzvah for girls Brain death as an indication of death under Jewish law Cholov Yisroel Permitted reliance on U. S. government agency supervision in ensuring that milk was reliably kosher, it is as if Jews had witnessed it.
This was a controversial ruling disputed by prominent peers of Feinstein. Cheating for the N. Y. Regents exams Classical music in religious settings Commemorating the Holocaust, Yom ha-Shoah Conservative Judaism, including its clergy and schools Donating blood for pay Education of girls End-of-life medical care Eruv projects in New York City Financial ethics Hazardous medical operations Heart transplantation Labor union and related employment privileges Mehitza Mixed-seating on a subway or other public transportation Psychiatric care Separation of conjoined twins who were fused all the way from the shoulder to the pelvis and shared one heart, it is during this case that C. Everett Koop, the 13th Surgeon General of the United States, said "The ethics and morals involv
Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of contemporary Judaism. Theologically, it is chiefly defined by regarding the Torah, both Written and Oral, as revealed by God on Mount Sinai and faithfully transmitted since. Orthodox Judaism therefore advocates a strict observance of Jewish Law, or Halakha, to be interpreted and determined only according to traditional methods and in adherence to the continuum of received precedent through the ages, it regards the entire halakhic system as grounded in immutable revelation beyond external and historical influence. More than any theoretical issue, obeying the dietary, purity and other laws of Halakha is the hallmark of Orthodoxy. Other key doctrines include belief in a future resurrection of the dead, divine reward and punishment for the righteous and the sinners, the Election of Israel, an eventual restoration of the Temple in Jerusalem under the Messiah. Orthodox Judaism is not a centralized denomination. Relations between its different subgroups are sometimes strained, the exact limits of Orthodoxy are subject to intense debate.
It may be divided between Ultra-Orthodox or "Haredi", more conservative and reclusive, Modern Orthodox Judaism, open to outer society. Each of those is itself formed of independent streams, they are uniformly exclusionist, regarding Orthodoxy as the only authentic form of Judaism and rejecting all competing non-Orthodox philosophies as illegitimate. While adhering to traditional beliefs, the movement is a modern phenomenon, it arose as a result of the breakdown of the autonomous Jewish community since the 18th century, was much shaped by a conscious struggle against the pressures of secularization and rival alternatives. The observant and theologically aware Orthodox are a definite minority among all Jews, but there are numerous semi- and non-practicing persons who are affiliated or identifying with the movement. In total, Orthodox Judaism is the largest Jewish religious group, estimated to have over 2 million practicing adherents and at least an equal number of nominal members or self-identifying supporters.
The earliest known mentioning of the term "Orthodox Jews" was made in the Berlinische Monatsschrift in 1795. The word "Orthodox" was borrowed from the general German Enlightenment discourse, used not to denote a specific religious group, but rather those Jews who opposed Enlightenment. During the early and mid-19th century, with the advent of the progressive movements among German Jews and early Reform Judaism, the title "Orthodox" became the epithet of the traditionalists who espoused conservative positions on the issues raised by modernization, they themselves disliked the alien, name, preferring titles like "Torah-true", declared they used it only for the sake of convenience. The Orthodox leader Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch referred to "the conviction designated as Orthodox Judaism". By the 1920s, the term became common and accepted in Eastern Europe, remains as such. Orthodoxy perceives itself ideologically as the only authentic continuation of Judaism throughout the ages, as it was until the crisis of modernity.
Its progressive opponents shared this view, regarding it as a fossilized remnant of the past and lending credit to their own rivals' ideology. Thus, the term "Orthodox" is used generically to refer to traditional synagogues, prayer rites, so forth. However, academic research has taken a more nuanced approach, noting that the formation of Orthodox ideology and organizational frameworks was itself a product of modernity, it was brought about by the need to defend and buttress the concept of tradition, in a world where it was not self-evident anymore. When deep secularization and the dismantlement of communal structures uprooted the old order of Jewish life, traditionalist elements united to form groups which had a distinct self-understanding. This, all that it entailed, constituted a great change, for the Orthodox had to adapt to the new circumstances no less than anyone else. "Orthodoxization" was a contingent process, drawing from local circumstances and dependent on the extent of threat sensed by its proponents: a sharply-delineated Orthodox identity appeared in Central Europe, in Germany and Hungary, by the 1860s.
Among the Jews of the Muslim lands, similar processes on a large scale only occurred around the 1970s, after they immigrated to Israel. Orthodoxy is described as conservative, ossifying a once-dynamic tradition due to the fear of legitimizing change. While this was not true, its defining feature was not the forbidding of change and "freezing" Jewish heritage in its tracks, but rather the need to adapt to being but one segment of Judaism in a modern world inhospitable to traditional practice. Orthodoxy developed as a variegated "spectrum of reactions" – as termed by Benjamin Brown – involving in many cases much accommodation and leniency. Scholars nowadays since the mid-1980s, research Orthodox Judaism as a field in i
The Hotel McAlpin is a historic hotel building on Herald Square, at the corner of Broadway and 34th Street in Manhattan, New York City. It operates as an apartment building known as Herald Towers; the Hotel McAlpin was constructed in 1912 by son of David Hunter McAlpin. When opened it was the largest hotel in the world; the hotel was designed by the noted architect Frank Mills Andrews. Andrews was president of the Greeley Square Hotel Company which first operated the hotel. Construction of the Hotel McAlpin neared completion by the end of 1912 so that the hotel had an open house on 29 December; the largest hotel in the world at the time, The New York Times commented that it was so tall at 25 stories that it “seems isolated from other buildings” Boasting a staff of 1,500, the hotel could accommodate 2,500 guests. It was built at a cost of $13.5 million. The top floor had a Turkish bath and there were two gender-specific floors. One floor, dubbed the “sleepy 16th” was designed for night workers so that it was kept quiet during the day.
It hosted a travel agency. The hotel underwent an expansion half a decade later; the owners had purchased an additional 50 feet of frontage on 34th street two years early and proceeded to dismantle those properties. The new addition was the same height as the original 25-story building, was expected to provide an additional 200 rooms, four more elevators, a large ballroom. A major refurbishment costing $2.1 million was completed in 1928 refreshing the rooms, installing modern bathrooms and updating the elevators. The McAlpin family sold the hotel in 1938 to Jamlee Hotels, headed by Joseph Levy, president of Crawford Cloths, a prominent real estate investor in New York for $5,400,000. Jamlee invested an additional $1,760,000 in renovations. During the Jamlee ownership, the hotel was managed by the Knott Hotel Chain until 1952 when management was taken over by Tisch. On October 15, 1954, Jamlee sold the hotel to Sheraton Hotels for $9,000,000 and it was renamed the Sheraton-McAlpin. Sheraton renovated the hotel five years and renamed it the Sheraton-Atlantic Hotel on October 8, 1959.
Sheraton sold the hotel to the investing partnership of Sol Goldman and Alexander DiLorenzo on July 28, 1968 for $7.5 million and it reverted to the Hotel McAlpin name. Sheraton reacquired the hotel in 1976, through a default by the buyers, sold it to developer William Zeckendorf, Jr. who converted the McAlpin to 700 rental apartments. During the housing bubble, the building attempted to convert to condominiums but failed, it is a rental building known as Herald Towers. On Christmas Eve 1916, Harry K. Thaw, former husband of Evelyn Nesbit and the murderer of Stanford White, attacked 19-year-old Fred Gump, Jr. in a large suite on the 18th Floor. Thaw had enticed Gump to New York with a promise of a job but instead sexually assaulted him and beat him with a stocky whip until he was covered in blood. According to the New York Times, Thaw had rented two rooms on either side of his suite to muffle the screams; the next day, Thaw's bodyguard took Gump to the zoo before the boy managed to escape. Gump's father sued Thaw for $650,000 for the "gross indignities".
It was settled out of court. In 1920, The McAlpin hosted; the Army Signal Corps arranged the broadcast by singer Luisa Tetrazzini from her room in the hotel. Tetrazzini was an Italian lyric coloratura soprano who had an enormous popularity in America from the 1900s-1920s. Several dishes were named after her, the origin of the “Tetrazzini” dish is unknown, but several newspaper articles attribute it to a famous chef in New York City. Luisa Tetrazzini gave her recipe for “Spaghetti Tetrazzini” to Louis Paquet, Executive Chef of the McAlpin Hotel on Herald Square in New York City. Luisa Tetrazzini would subsequently take cooking lessons from Chef Louis Paquet of the McAlpin Hotel on how to make his Spaghetti Tetrazzini before embarking on one of her concert tours. In 1922, the McAlpin became one of the first hotels to link ship-to-shore radios into their phone system; the hotel would be the first home of, give the call letters to, radio station WMCA in 1925. In 1947, Jackie Robinson, a resident living on the 11th floor, received the phone call here from the Brooklyn Dodgers that would change America forever by being the first African American player in Major League Baseball.
From 1969 to 1975, the hotel hosted the US National High School Chess Championship, organized by prolific chess promoter Bill Goichberg. The hotel's Marine Grill was considered one of the more unusual interiors in the city of New York due to "an expansive grotto of polychrome terra cotta designed by the artist Frederick Dana Marsh." The building owner had closed the restaurant and historic preservationists were concerned with the future of the artwork. Their worst fears were realized when Susan Tunick, president of the non-profit group Friends of Terra Cotta, saw dumpsters outside the hotel filled with fragments from the murals. Rescue efforts were successful when the murals were reassembled under the oversight of the MTA Arts for Transit Program at the William Street entrance to the Fulton Street subway station. List of former hotels in Manhattan Herald Towers Photos of original interiors
Simone Annie Liline Veil, DBE was a French lawyer and politician who served as Minister of Health under Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, President of the European Parliament and member of the Constitutional Council of France. A survivor of the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp where she lost part of her family during the Holocaust, she was elected to the Académie française in November 2008. She was best known for pushing forward the law legalizing abortion in France on 17 January 1975, she and her husband were buried in the Panthéon on July 1, 2018. Only the fifth woman in history to be accorded this burial honor, she was eulogized during the reinterment ceremony by President Emmanuel Macron. Veil was born Simone Annie Liline Jacob in Nice, Alpes-Maritimes, the daughter of Yvonne and André Jacob, an architect, she was arrested by German authorities days later. Veil's Jewish family—Simone, her mother and one sister, Madeleine —were deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau, they were transferred to Bergen-Belsen, where her mother Yvonne died of typhus shortly before the camp's 15 April 1945 liberation.
Veil's father and brother died. Veil's other sister, arrested as a member of the Resistance in 1944 and tortured by the Gestapo before being imprisoned at Ravensbrück and Mauthausen and was accorded multiple honors for valor. Milou died in a car crash in the 1950s. Veil returned to speak at Auschwitz-Birkenau in 2005 for the 60th anniversary of the liberation of the camps. After the liberation, she began to study law and political science at Sciences Po and at the University of Paris, where she met her future husband Antoine Veil; the couple married on 26 October 1946, had three sons: Jean, Claude-Nicolas, Pierre François. Her husband died at the age of 86 on 12 April 2013, after 66 years of marriage. Claude-Nicolas died in 2002. After graduating from Institut d'études politiques de Paris with a law degree Veil spent several years practicing law. In 1956, she passed the national examination to become a magistrate, she entered and held a senior position at the National Penitentiary Administration under the Ministry of Justice.
She was responsible for judicial affairs and improved women's prison conditions and the treatment of incarcerated women. In 1964, she left to become the director of civil affairs, where she improved French women's general rights and status, she achieved the right to dual parental control of family legal matters and adoptive rights for women. In 1970, she became secretary general of the Supreme Magistracy Council. From 1974 to 1979 Veil was a Minister of Health in the governments of prime ministers Jacques Chirac and Raymond Barre: from 28 May 1974 to 29 March 1977, Minister of Health, she pushed forward two notable laws. The first, passed on 4 December 1974, facilitated access to contraception, the sale of contraceptives such as the combined oral contraceptive pill having been legalized in 1967; the second, passed on 17 January 1975, legalized abortion in France, her hardest political fight and for which she is best known. The abortion debate was a difficult time as those in favor of keeping abortion illegal launched aggressive personal attacks against Veil and her family.
However, since the passing of the law, many have paid tribute to Veil and thanked her for her courageous and determined fight. In 1976 Veil helped to introduce a ban on smoking in certain public places, worked on the problem of medically underserved rural areas. In 1979, Veil was elected as a Member of the European Parliament in the first European parliamentary election. In its first session, the new Parliament elected Veil as its first President, a position she held until 1982; the archives concerning her term as President of the European Parliament are deposited at the Historical Archives of the European Union in Florence. In 1981, Veil won the prestigious Charlemagne Prize. After the end of her term as president, in 1982, she remained a member of the European Parliament, she became Chair of the European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party until 1989. She was re-elected for the last time in the 1989 election, standing down in 1993. Between 1984 and 1992 she served on the Committee on the Environment, Public Health and Food Safety, the Committee on Political Affairs.
After standing down from these committees she served on the Committee on Foreign Affairs and its related Subcommittee on Human Rights. Between 1989 and 1993 she was a member of Parliament's delegation to the ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly, serving as its vice-chairwoman until 1992. From 31 March 1993 to 16 May 1995 Veil was again a member of the cabinet, serving as Minister of State and Minister of Health, Social Affairs and the City in the government of Prime Minister Édouard Balladur. In the mid-1990s she worked to help the disabled, HIV-positive patients, mothers of young children. In 1998, she was appointed to the Constitutional Council of France. In 2005, she put herself on leave from the Council in order to campaign in favour of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe; this action was criticized, because it seemed to contradict the legal provisions that members of the council should keep a distance from partisan politics: the independence and impartiality of the council would be jeopardized, critic
Eliezer Silver was the President of the Union of Orthodox Rabbis of the U. S. and Canada and among American Jewry's foremost religious leaders. He helped save many thousands of Jews in the Second World War and held several Rabbinical positions in New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio. Silver was born in Obeliai, one of two sons of Rabbi Bunim Tzemach and Malka Silver, he had centuries-old rabbinic ancestry. He studied in Daugavpils, with Rabbi Yosef Rosen and received Semicha from Rabbi Chaim Ozer Grodzinski in 1906, he immigrated to the United States with his wife in 1907, to escape the anti-Semitism of Czarist Russia. They settled in New York City, where Silver worked as a garment salesman and sold insurance. However, Silver soon accepted a Rabbinical position at Kesher Israel Congregation in Harrisburg, which he served from 1907 to 1925, his Torah scholarship soon drew him into leading Orthodox circles on the national level. In 1912, he was part of a delegation of rabbis that asked President William Howard Taft to void a treaty with Russia because of Russia's persecution of Jews.
Silver was active in relief efforts in World War I. In 1925 he moved to Massachusetts. Around 1931, he accepted an invitation to become Rabbi in Cincinnati, where he remained until his death. While in Cincinnati, he caused much controversy; the most prominent opponent of the Vaad was Rabbi Bezalel Epstein, who "already had his own kashrut supervision and who viewed Rabbi Silver's activities as encroachment." Silver was active in the Union of Orthodox Rabbis of the U. S. and Canada, elected its president in 1929. He was a pivotal founder and president of Agudath Israel of America. Silver convened an emergency meeting in November 1939 in New York City, where the Vaad Hatzalah, was formed, with Silver as president. Silver spearheaded its efforts in rescuing as many European Torah scholars as possible from Nazi Europe. Silver launched a fund-raising drive that raised more than $5 million, capitalised on an exemption to US immigration quotas allowing entry to ministers or religious students. At his direction, synagogues in Cincinnati and across the country sent contracts to rabbis, thereby securing 2,000 emergency visas that were telegraphed to Eastern Europe.
With the desperate race against time, the Vaad, under Silver turned to all channels, whether legal or not, to save as many lives as possible by bringing Jews to the US, Canada and Palestine. During World War II, a Vaad representative in Switzerland negotiated with the SS, offering to ransom concentration camp prisoners for cash and tractors - talks that freed hundreds from Bergen-Belsen and other death camps. In October 1943, as the scale of Nazi atrocities was becoming clearer, Silver helped organise and lead a mass rally of more than 400 rabbis in Washington, D. C. to press for more decisive action by the US government to save European Jews. The rabbis' march was organized by Hillel Kook's "Emergency Committee to Save the Jewish People of Europe". In 1949 Silver founded the Chofetz Chaim Day School He died in 1968, at the age of 85 or 86, he was interred at Washington Cemetery in Cincinnati. He had been Rabbi of the Kneseth Israel Congregation in Cincinnati for nearly 40 years, he authored the Sefer titled Anfe Erez.
Present rabbi of Kneseth Israel is Rabbi Avrohom Weinrib. One of his star students was Rabbi Shlomo Wahrman, who came from Leipzig for fifteen years and went on to becoming principal and Rosh Yeshiva of the Hebrew Academy of Nassau County. Wahrman attributes his success to Silver’s insistence and encouragement to hone his writing skills and record his copious chidushei Torah. Wahrman writes in the short biography he published on Silver:I remember at times he screamed at me for lack of understanding-however then I sensed his great love and concern for me and not the slightest hint of hatred. Rabbi Silver was a man whose essence was giving to others - his ahavas yisroel knew no bounds…he saw every Jew as an extension of himself. Skolnik, Fred. Encyclopaedia Judaica. 9. Granite Hill Publishers. ISBN 0028659368, he Saved Thousands, ou.org About Congregation Zichron Eliezer