The Gau Baden, renamed Gau Baden–Elsass in 1941, was a de facto administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945 in the German state of Baden and, from 1940 onwards, in Alsace. The gau effectively supplanted the areas regional subdivision of the Nazi Party, the Nazi Gau system was originally established in a Nazi Party conference on 22 May 1926 in order to improve administration of the party structure. From 1933 onward, after the Nazi seizure of power, the Gaue increasingly replaced the German states as administrative subdivisions in Germany, in 1940, after Germany occupied the French region of Alsace, Gau Baden incorporated the two Alsatian départements of Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin, becoming Baden-Elsass. The seat of the Gau administration was originally Karlsruhe, but moved to Strasbourg after the German occupation of France. At the head of each Gau stood a Gauleiter, a position which became more powerful, especially after the outbreak of the Second World War. The position of Gauleiter in Baden was held by Robert Wagner for the duration of the Gaus existence, Wagner was executed on 14 August 1946 in Strasbourg for his crimes during the occupation of Alsace.
His deputies were Karl Lenz, Walter Köhler and Hermann Röhn, the Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camp was located in the Alsace region of the Gau
Roman Catholic Diocese of Metz
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Metz is a Diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in France. In the Middle Ages it was in effect an independent state, part of the Holy Roman Empire and it was annexed to France by King Henry II in 1552, this was recognized by the Holy Roman Empire in the Peace of Westphalia of 1648. It was part of the province of the Three Bishoprics, since 1801 the Metz diocese is a public-law corporation of cult. Metz was definitely a bishopric by 535, but may date from earlier than that, metzs Basilica of Saint-Pierre-aux-Nonnains is built on the site of a Roman basilica which is a likely location for the one of the earliest Christian congregations of France. Originally the diocese was under the metropolitan of Trier, after the French Revolution, the last prince bishop, Cardinal Louis de Montmorency-Laval fled and the old organization of the diocese was broken up. With the Concordat of 1801 the diocese was re-established covering the departments of Moselle and Forêts, in 1817 the parts of the diocese which became Prussian territory were transferred to the Diocese of Trier.
As of 1910 there were about 533,000 Catholics living in the diocese of Metz, after World War I it was returned to France, but the concordatary status has been preserved since as part of the Local law in Alsace-Moselle. In 1940, after the French defeat, it came under German occupation till 1944 when it became French again, together with the Archdiocese of Strasbourg the bishop of the see is nominated by the French government according to the concordat of 1801. The concordat further provides for the clergy being paid by the government, according to the traditional list of bishops, the current bishop Pierre René Ferdinand Raffin is the 105th bishop of Metz. According to this list, the first bishop was Saint Clement, the first fully authenticated bishop however is Sperus or Hesperus, who was bishop in 535. Many of the bishops were declared holy or blessed, like Saint Arnulf, adelbero was bishop of Metz in 933 AD. The bishop of Metz is appointed by the President of the Republic
Ferrette is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Alsace in north-eastern France. It is situated close to the Swiss border and its main attraction is the Château de Ferrette. The County of Ferrette came into existence in the 11th century, in 1324, the County was acquired by Austria through the marriage of Jeanne, Countess of Ferrette, with Albert II, Duke of Austria. The County was part of the dowry for Catherine of Burgundy upon her marriage to Duke Leopold IV, upon Leopolds death in 1411, his brother, Frederick occupied Ferrette. Austria ceded it to France in the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, communes of the Haut-Rhin département INSEE
Alsace is a cultural and historical region in eastern France now located in the administrative region of Grand Est. Alsace is located on Frances eastern border and on the west bank of the upper Rhine adjacent to Germany, from 1982 until January 2016, Alsace was the smallest of 22 administrative regions in metropolitan France, consisting of the Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin departments. Territorial reform passed by the French legislature in 2014 resulted in the merger of the Alsace administrative region with Champagne-Ardenne and Lorraine to form Grand Est. The predominant historical language of Alsace is Alsatian, a Germanic dialect spoken across the Rhine, but today most Alsatians primarily speak French, the political status of Alsace has been heavily influenced by historical decisions and strategic politics. The economic and cultural capital as well as largest city of Alsace is Strasbourg, the city is the seat of several international organizations and bodies. The name Alsace can be traced to the Old High German Ali-saz or Elisaz, an alternative explanation is from a Germanic Ell-sass, meaning seated on the Ill, a river in Alsace.
In prehistoric times, Alsace was inhabited by nomadic hunters, by 1500 BC, Celts began to settle in Alsace and cultivating the land. It should be noted that Alsace is a surrounded by the Vosges mountains. It creates Foehn winds which, along with irrigation, contributes to the fertility of the soil. In a world of agriculture, Alsace has always been a region which explains why it suffered so many invasions and annexations in its history. By 58 BC, the Romans had invaded and established Alsace as a center of viticulture, to protect this highly valued industry, the Romans built fortifications and military camps that evolved into various communities which have been inhabited continuously to the present day. While part of the Roman Empire, Alsace was part of Germania Superior, with the decline of the Roman Empire, Alsace became the territory of the Germanic Alemanni. The Alemanni were agricultural people, and their Germanic language formed the basis of modern-day dialects spoken along the Upper Rhine and the Franks defeated the Alemanni during the 5th century AD, culminating with the Battle of Tolbiac, and Alsace became part of the Kingdom of Austrasia.
Under Clovis Merovingian successors the inhabitants were Christianized, Alsace formed part of the Middle Francia, which was ruled by the eldest grandson Lothar I. Lothar died early in 855 and his realm was divided into three parts, the part known as Lotharingia, or Lorraine, was given to Lothars son. The rest was shared between Lothars brothers Charles the Bald and Louis the German, the Kingdom of Lotharingia was short-lived, becoming the stem duchy of Lorraine in Eastern Francia after the Treaty of Ribemont in 880. Alsace was united with the other Alemanni east of the Rhine into the duchy of Swabia. Alsace experienced great prosperity during the 12th and 13th centuries under Hohenstaufen emperors, Frederick I set up Alsace as a province to be ruled by ministeriales, a non-noble class of civil servants
Prince-Bishopric of Strasbourg
The Prince-Bishopric of Strassburg was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire from the 13th century until 1803. The annexations were recognized by the Holy Roman Empire in the Treaty of Ryswick of 1697, only the part of the state that was to the right of the Rhine remained, it consisted of areas around the towns of Oberkirch and Oppenau. The remaining territory was secularized to Baden in 1803, archbishop of Strasbourg Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Strasbourg Palais Rohan, Strasbourg Episcopal Palace Strasbourg Bishops War Herbermann, Charles, ed. Strasburg. Official site of the diocese Official site of the cathedral
Colmar is the third-largest commune of the Alsace region in north-eastern France. It is the seat of the prefecture of the Haut-Rhin department, the town is situated on the Alsatian Wine Route and considers itself to be the capital of Alsatian wine. The city is renowned for its old town, its numerous architectural landmarks and its museums. Colmar was founded in the 9th century, and is mentioned as Columbarium Fiscum by the monk Notker Balbulus in a text dated 823 and this was the location where the Carolingian Emperor Charles the Fat held a diet in 884. Colmar was granted the status of an imperial city by Emperor Frederick II in 1226. In 1354 it joined the Décapole city league, during the Thirty Years War, it was taken by the Swedish army in 1632, who held it for two years. In 1635 the citys harvest was spoiled by Imperialist forces while the shot at them from the walls. The city was conquered by France under King Louis XIV in 1673, with the rest of Alsace, Colmar was annexed by the newly formed German Empire in 1871 as a result of the Franco-Prussian War and incorporated into the Alsace-Lorraine province.
The Colmar Treasure, a hoard of precious objects hidden by Jews during the Black Death, was discovered here in 1863, Colmar is 64 kilometres south-southwest of Strasbourg, at 48. 08°N,7. 36°E, on the Lauch River, a tributary of the Ill. It is located directly to the east of the Vosges Mountains, in 2013, the city had a population of 67,956 and the metropolitan area of Colmar had a population of 126,957 in 2009. Colmar is the center of the arrondissement of Colmar-Ribeauvillé, which had 199,182 inhabitants in 2013, Colmar has a sunny microclimate and is one of the driest cities in France, with an annual precipitation of just 607 mm, making it ideal for Alsace wine. It is considered the capital of the Alsatian wine region, mostly spared from the destructions of the French Revolution and the wars of 1870–1871, 1914–1918 and 1939–1945, the cityscape of old-town Colmar is homogenous and renowned among tourists. An area that is crossed by canals of the river Lauch is now called little Venice, Maison Adolph – 14th century Koifhus, known as Ancienne Douane –1480 Maison Pfister –1537.
Cour dAssises –1840 Théâtre municipal –1849 Marché couvert –1865, the citys covered market, built in stone and cast iron, still serves today. Préfecture –1866 Water tower –1886, oldest still preserved water tower in Alsace. Gare SNCF –1905 Cour dappel –1906 Église Saint-Martin – 1234–1365, the largest church of Colmar and one of the largest in Haut-Rhin. Displays some early stained glass windows, several Gothic and Renaissance sculptures and altars, the choir is surrounded by an ambulatory opening on a series of Gothic chapels, a unique feature in Alsatian churches. Now disaffected as a church, displays Martin Schongauers masterwork La Vierge au buisson de roses as well as 14th century stained glass windows, the adjacent convent buildings house a section of the municipal library
Further Austria mainly comprised the Sundgau territory with the town of Belfort in southern Alsace and the adjacent Breisgau region east of the Rhine, including Freiburg im Breisgau after 1368. During the Habsburg Monarchy they were humorously called tail feathers of the Imperial Eagle, some estates in Vorarlberg possessed by the Habsburgs were considered part of Further Austria, though they were temporarily directly administered from Tyrol. These territories were never considered part of Further Austria - except for the Fricktal region around Rheinfelden and Laufenburg, from 1406 until 1490 Further Austria together with the Habsburg County of Tyrol was included in the definition of Upper Austria. From 1469 to 1474 Archduke Sigismund gave large parts in pawn to the Burgundian duke Charles the Bold, at the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, the Sundgau became part of France. After the Ottoman wars many inhabitants of Further Austria were encouraged to emigrate and settle in the newly acquired Transylvania region, in the 18th century, the Habsburgs acquired a few minor new Swabian territories, such as Tettnang in 1780.
His heir as his son-in-law was Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este, the uncle of Emperor Francis II, minor estates passed to Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and the Grand Duchy of Hesse. Fricktal had already become a French protectorate in 1799 and part of the Helvetic Republic in 1802, the Further Austrian territories were held by the Habsburg Dukes of Austria from 1278 onwards. Becker, Irmgard Christa, ed. Vorderösterreich, Nur die Schwanzfeder des Kaiseradlers, die Habsburger zwischen Rhein und Donau. Auflage, Erziehungsdepartement des Kantons Aargau, Aarau 1996, ISBN 3-9520690-1-9, maier and Volker Press, eds. Rommel, Klaus, ed. Das große goldene Medaillon von 1716, Andreas, Bernhard Rüth, Hans-Joachim Schuster and Edwin Ernst Weber, eds. Vorderösterreich an oberem Neckar und oberer Donau, map of South-Western Germany in 1789
Alsatian is a Low Alemannic German dialect spoken in most of Alsace, a region in eastern France which has passed between French and German control five times since 1681. A dialect of Alsatian German is spoken in the United States by so-called Swiss Amish, the approximately 7,000 speakers are mainly located in Allen County, Indiana but in daughter settlements elsewhere. Alsatian is closely related to other nearby Alemannic dialects, such as Swiss German, Swabian and it is often confused with Lorraine Franconian, a more distantly related Franconian dialect spoken in the northwest corner of Alsace and in neighbouring Lorraine. Like other dialects and languages, Alsatian has influenced by outside sources. Words of Yiddish origin can be found in Alsatian, and modern conversational Alsatian includes adaptations of French words and English words, many speakers of Alsatian could, if necessary, write in reasonable standard German. For most this would be rare and confined to those who have learned German at school or through work, as with other dialects, various factors determine when and with whom one might converse in Alsatian.
Some dialect speakers are unwilling to speak standard German, at times, to certain outsiders, some street names in Alsace may use Alsatian spellings. C, Q, and X are only used in loanwords, Y is used in native words such as Dytschi, but is more common in loanwords. Alsatian, like some German dialects, has lenited all obstruents and its lenes are, voiceless as in all Southern German varieties. Therefore, they are here transcribed /b̥/, /d̥/, /ɡ̊/, the phoneme /ç/ has a velar allophone after back vowels, and palatal elsewhere. In southern dialects, there is a tendency to pronounce it /x/ in all positions, short vowels, /ʊ/, /o/, /ɒ/, /a/, /ɛ/, /ɪ/, /i/, /y/. Long vowels, /ʊː/, /oː/, /ɒː/, /aː/, /ɛː/, /eː/, /iː/, /yː/ Since 1992, Alsatian, along with other regional languages, is recognized by the French government in the official list of languages of France. France is a signatory to the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages but has never ratified the law and has not given regional languages the support that would be required by the charter.
The policies of the Paris government have had the effect of greatly weakening the prevalence of native languages in France that are not French. As a result, the Alsatian dialect of German has gone from being the prevalent language of the region to one in decline, a 1999 INSEE survey counted 548,000 adult speakers of Alsatian in France, making it the second most-spoken regional language in the country. Like all regional languages in France, the transmission of Alsatian is on the decline, while 43% of the adult population of Alsace speaks Alsatian, its use has been largely declining amongst the youngest generations. La dynamique des langues en France au fil du XXe siècle, deuxième langue régionale de France Insee, Chiffres pour lAlsace no. Le dialecte à la portée de tous La Nuée Bleue,1999, ISBN 2-7165-0464-4 Matzen, and Léon Daul