SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Union of Sovereign States

The Union of Sovereign States was the proposed name of a reorganization of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics into a new confederation. Proposed by the President of the USSR, Mikhail Gorbachev, the proposal was an attempt to avert an end to the Soviet Union; the proposal was never implemented in the wake of the August Coup in 1991 and the dissolution of the USSR occurred on December 26 of that year. The overall proposal was resurrected as the Commonwealth of Independent States, although as a regional organization, not a confederation; the New Union Treaty was a draft treaty that would have replaced the 1922 Treaty on the Creation of the USSR and thus would have replaced the Soviet Union with a new entity named the Union of Sovereign States, an attempt of Mikhail Gorbachev to salvage and reform the Soviet Union. A ceremony of the Russian SFSR signing the treaty was scheduled for August 20, 1991, but was prevented by the August Coup a day earlier; the preparation of this treaty was known as the Novo-Ogarevo process, named after Novo-Ogaryovo, a governmental estate where the work on the document was carried out and where Gorbachev talked with leaders of Union republics.

A less centralized federal system was proposed by President Gorbachev during the Communist Party Congress of July 1990. A draft of the New Union Treaty was submitted to the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union on November 23, 1990. A drafting committee started work on the text on January 1, 1991. Six of the fifteen Soviet republics, did not participate in the drafting of the treaty: Estonia, Lithuania, Moldavia and Armenia; the proposal was approved by the Soviet of the Union on March 6 and sent to the Supreme Soviets of each republic for approval. Agreement could not be reached on the distribution of power between the Union and the Republics and the proposal was not approved; as an additional restrictive element, some autonomous republics expressed the desire to raise their status and to be a party to the new Soviet treaty. President Gorbachev tried to gain popular support for the proposal. On March 17, 1991, a popular referendum was held in the nine republics which participated in the drafting of the treaty.

In the referendum 76% of voters supported maintaining the federal system of the Soviet Union, including a majority in all of the nine republics. Opposition was greatest in large cities like Saint Moscow; the referendum was boycotted in the other six republics as they were moving towards independence. An agreement between the Soviet central government and the nine republics, the so-called "9+1" agreement, was signed in Novo-Ogaryovo on April 23; the New Union Treaty would have converted the Soviet Union into a federation of independent republics with a common president, foreign policy, military. By August, eight of the nine republics, except Ukraine, approved the draft of the new Treaty with some conditions. Ukraine did not agree on the terms of the Treaty. In the republican referendum on March 17, the majority of residents of Ukraine supported joining the Union on the terms of Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine. Though the treaty was intended to save the union, hardliners feared that it would encourage some of the smaller republics to follow the lead of Lithuania and press for full independence.

In August 18, the hardliners took control of the government after confining Gorbachev in his Crimean dacha in order to stop him from returning to Moscow to sign the treaty. The August Coup collapsed in the face of overwhelming opposition not only from the smaller republics but from larger ones Russia; because the treaty was never signed at all in the aftermath of Ukrainian independence in December, the leaders of republics organized the Commonwealth of Independent States, an alliance of 12 newly independent states. On the first draft of the treaty released in July 1991, the proclaimed name for the new nation was the Union of Soviet Sovereign Republics; this name was proposed in order to conserve the Russian "СССР" acronym, as well as the "USSR" and "Soviet Union" in English. By September 1991, the overall support for preserving the Soviet state changed to reform the Soviet Union into a confederation of sovereign states; the final draft renamed the proposed state the Union of Sovereign States.

The overall continuation of the Soviet Union was soon abandoned. Following the August coup, the new union treaty was further reformed into the Commonwealth of Independent States. Russia Bashkir Soviet Socialist Republic Buryat Soviet Socialist Republic Checheno-Ingush Soviet Socialist Republic Chuvash Soviet Socialist Republic Dagestan Soviet Socialist Republic Kabardino-Balkar Soviet Socialist Republic Kalmyk Soviet Socialist Republic Karelian Soviet Socialist Republic Komi Soviet Socialist Republic Mari Soviet Socialist Republic Mordovian Soviet Socialist Republic North Ossetian Soviet Socialist Republic Tatar Soviet Socialist Republic Tuvan Soviet Socialist Republic Udmurt Soviet Socialist Republic Yakut Soviet Socialist Republic Ukraine Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Byelorussia Azerbaijan Nakhichevan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic K

Javad Ezzati

Javad Ezzati is an Iranian actor and comedian. We Are All Together The Mirror Abu Ghraib Strait Latitude Hazara Midday Adventures Kargygush The Nimesur Paradise The Savages Seven Inverse hail and sun In due time Residing in the middle Trench 143 The angels come together Kalashinov Everything for Sale Moving in Africa Everything Aromu Passion Shirin Gold and Copper Mozaffar's Garden Best Actor Award at Hafez Celebration for the Adventure of Nimroz Best Actor Comedy Comedy for Serious Hardship at the Celebration of Hafez Best Actor nominees for the movie During the course Best Actor nominee for the film Sopas at the Rainbow Festival in China. Best Actor Award for the movie Paradise from the Chelsea American Festival Best male Actor nominee for the movie The Adventure of Nimroz from Fajr International Film Festival Javad Ezzati on IMDb

Chemisches Zentralblatt

Chemisches Zentralblatt is the first and oldest abstracts journal published in the field of chemistry. It covers the chemical literature from 1830 to 1969 and describes therefore the "birth" of chemistry as science, in contrast to alchemy; the information contained in this German journal is comparable with the content of the leading source of chemical information Chemical Abstracts Service, which started publishing abstracts in English in 1907. Chemisches Zentralblatt was founded as Pharmaceutisches Centralblatt by Gustav Theodor Fechner and published by Leopold Voß in Leipzig in 1830. In the first year, 544 pages containing 400 abstracts were published, reporting all relevant research results in pharmaceutical chemistry. In the following 20 years the relevance of chemistry grew so much that in 1850 the title changed in Chemisch-Pharmazeutisch Zentralblatt, in 1856 it became Chemisches Zentralblatt. In 1969, after 140 years the expenses for the collection of primary literature in many languages and the production of abstracts were too high and the publication of Chemisches Zentralblatt ceased.

In these 140 years, scientific editors reported research progresses in chemistry with 2 million abstracts, publishing over 650,000 pages. Additional 180,000 pages contain indexes such as index of authors, subject indexes, general indexes, register of patents, formula register. Chemisches Zentralblatt was digitized by FIZ Chemie in Berlin. FIZ Chemie developed a full text searchable database for the web. In addition the database can be integrated in Intranets; the chemical software company InfoChem, based in Munich, developed an Internet-based database, the Chemisches Zentralblatt Structural Database. This database provides access to the chemical content within the Chemisches Zentralblatt by performing chemical structure and substructure searches. FIZ Chemie InfoChem GmbH Chemisches Zentralblatt Structural Database Online access to earlier issues, US only