The Dutch Republic, or the United Provinces, was a confederal republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces—seceded from Spanish rule—until the Batavian Revolution of 1795. It was a predecessor state of the first Dutch nation state; the republic was known as the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, Republic of the Seven United Provinces, the United Provinces, Seven Provinces, Federated Dutch Provinces, or the Dutch Federation. Common names for the Republic in official correspondence were: Republic of the United Netherlands Republic of the United Provinces Republic of the Seven Provinces Republic of the Seven United Netherlands Republic of the Seven United Provinces United Provinces United Provinces of the Netherlands United States of the Netherlands United Regions Seven United Regions Until the 16th century, the Low Countries—corresponding to the present-day Netherlands and Luxembourg—consisted of a number of duchies and prince-bishoprics all of which were under the supremacy of the Holy Roman Empire, with the exception of the county of Flanders, under the Kingdom of France.
Most of the Low Countries had come under the rule of the House of Burgundy and subsequently the House of Habsburg. In 1549 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V issued the Pragmatic Sanction, which further unified the Seventeen Provinces under his rule. Charles was succeeded by King Philip II of Spain. In 1568 the Netherlands, led by William I of Orange, revolted against Philip II because of high taxes, persecution of Protestants by the government, Philip's efforts to modernize and centralize the devolved-medieval government structures of the provinces; this was the start of the Eighty Years' War. In 1579, a number of the northern provinces of the Low Countries signed the Union of Utrecht, in which they promised to support each other in their defence against the Spanish army; this was followed in 1581 by the Act of Abjuration, the declaration of independence of the provinces from Philip II. In 1582, the United Provinces invited Duke of Anjou to lead them. After the assassination of William of Orange on 10 July 1584, both Henry III of France and Elizabeth I of England declined offers of sovereignty.
However, the latter agreed to turn the United Provinces into a protectorate of England, sent the Earl of Leicester as governor-general. This was unsuccessful and in 1588 the provinces became a confederacy; the Union of Utrecht is regarded as the foundation of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces, not recognized by the Spanish Empire until the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. During the Anglo-French war, the internal territory was divided into two groups: the Patriots, who were pro-French and pro-American, the Orangists, who were pro-British; the Republic of the United Provinces faced a series of republican revolutions in 1783–1787. During this period, republican forces occupied several major Dutch cities. On the defence, the Orangist forces received aid from Prussian troops and retook the Netherlands in 1787; the republican forces fled to France, but successfully re-invaded alongside the army of the French Republic, ousting stadtholder William V, abolishing the Dutch Republic, replacing it with the Batavian Republic.
After the French Republic became the French Empire under Napoleon, the Batavian Republic was replaced by the Napoleonic Kingdom of Holland. The Netherlands regained independence from France in 1813. In the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 the names "United Provinces of the Netherlands" and "United Netherlands" were used. In 1815, it was rejoined with the Austrian Netherlands and Liège to become the Kingdom of the Netherlands, informally known as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, to create a strong buffer state north of France. On 16 March 1815, the son of stadtholder William V crowned himself King William I of the Netherlands. Between 1815 and 1890, the King of the Netherlands was in a personal union the Grand Duke of the sovereign Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. After Belgium gained its independence in 1830, the state became unequivocally known as the "Kingdom of the Netherlands", as it remains today. During the Dutch Golden Age in the late-16th and 17th centuries, the Dutch Republic dominated world trade, conquering a vast colonial empire and operating the largest fleet of merchantmen of any nation.
The County of Holland was the most urbanized region in the world. In 1650 the urban population of the Dutch Republic as a percentage of total population was 31.7 percent, while that of the Spanish Netherlands was 20.8 percent, of Portugal 16.6 percent, of Italy 14 percent. In 1675 the urban population density of Holland alone was 61 percent, that of the rest of the Dutch Republic 27 percent; the free trade spirit of the time was augmented by the development of a modern, effective stock market in the Low Countries. The Netherlands has the oldest stock exchange in the world, founded in 1602 by the Dutch East India Company, while Rotterdam has the oldest bourse in the Netherlands; the Dutch East-India Company exchange went public in six different cities. A court ruled that the company had to reside in a single city, so Amsterdam is recognized as the oldest such institution based on modern trading principles. While the banking system evolved in the Low Countries, it was incorporated by the well-connected English, stimulating English economic output.
Between 1590 and 1712 the Dutch possessed one of the strongest and fastest navies in the world, allowing for their varied conquests, including breaking the Portuguese s
The Cananefates, or Canninefates, Caninefates, or Canenefatae, meaning "leek masters", were a Germanic tribe, who lived in the Rhine delta, in western Batavia, in the Roman province of Germania Inferior and during the Roman conquest. The name had its origins in the fact that the Cananefates lived on sandy soils that were considered excellent for growing Alliums such as leeks and onions. At the beginning of the Batavian rebellion under Gaius Julius Civilis in the year 69, the Batavians sent envoys to the Canninefates to urge a common policy. "This is a tribe," says Tacitus "which inhabits part of the island, resembles the Batavians in their origins, in their courageous character, but is inferior in numbers." This would imply a similar descent as the Batavians from the Chatti. In the failed uprising that followed, the Canninefates were led by their chieftain Brinno, the son of a chief who had faced down Caligula; the capital of the civitas of the Cananefates was Forum Hadriani, modern Voorburg.
In modern times, the region Kennemerland is said to derive from the name of the Cananefates. List of Germanic peoples
The Batavian Republic was the successor of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands. It was proclaimed on 19 January 1795 and ended on 5 June 1806, with the accession of Louis I to the throne of Holland. From October 1801 onward, it was known as the Batavian Commonwealth. Both names refer to the Germanic tribe of the Batavi, representing both the Dutch ancestry and their ancient quest for liberty in their nationalistic lore. In early 1795, intervention by French revolutionary forces led to the downfall of the old Dutch Republic; the new Republic enjoyed widespread support from the Dutch population and was the product of a genuine popular revolution. It was founded with the armed support of the revolutionary French Republic; the Batavian Republic became a client state, the first of the "sister-republics", part of the French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte, its politics were influenced by the French, who supported no fewer than three coups d'état to bring the different political factions to power that France favored at different moments in its own political development.
The process of creating a written Dutch constitution was driven by internal political factors, not by French influence, until Napoleon forced the Dutch government to accept his brother as monarch. The political and social reforms that were brought about during the short duration of the Batavian Republic have had a lasting impact; the confederal structure of the old Dutch Republic was permanently replaced by a unitary state. For the first time in Dutch history, the constitution, adopted in 1798 had a genuinely democratic character. For a while, the Republic was governed democratically, although the coup d'état of 1801 put an authoritarian regime in power, after another change to the constitution; the memory of this brief experiment with democracy helped smooth the transition to a more democratic government in 1848. A type of ministerial government was introduced for the first time in Dutch history and many of the current government departments date their history back to this period. Though the Batavian Republic was a client state, its successive governments tried their best to maintain a modicum of independence and to serve Dutch interests where those clashed with those of their French overseers.
This perceived obduracy led to the eventual demise of the Republic when the short-lived experiment with the regime of "Grand Pensionary" Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck produced insufficient docility in the eyes of Napoleon. The new king, Louis Bonaparte did not slavishly follow French dictates either, leading to his downfall; the final days of the Dutch Republic, which had governed the Netherlands since the late 16th century, were quite eventful. Due to the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War fought at sea that went poorly and lost many of the plantation colonies of the Dutch, the Patriot party revolted against the authoritarian regime of stadtholder William V but were struck down through the intervention of William's brother-in-law Frederick William II of Prussia in September 1787. Most Patriots went into exile in France, while Holland's own "Ancien Régime" strengthened its grip on Dutch government chiefly through the Orangist Grand Pensionary Laurens Pieter van de Spiegel; this de facto status of Anglo-Prussian protectorate was internationally formalized in 1788 by the Act of Guarantee and the Triple Alliance between the Dutch Republic and Great Britain.
The French Revolution embraced many of the political ideas that the Patriots had espoused in their own revolt. The Patriots enthusiastically supported the Revolution, when the French revolutionary armies started to spread the revolution, the Patriots joined in, hoping to liberate their own country from its authoritarian yoke; the Stadtholder joined the ill-fated First Coalition of countries in their attempt to subdue the anti-Austrian French First Republic. The French Revolutionary War proceeded disastrously for the forces of the Stadtholder. In the severe winter of 1794/95 a French army under general Charles Pichegru, with a Dutch contingent under general Herman Willem Daendels, crossed the great frozen rivers that traditionally protected the Netherlands from invasion. Aided by the fact that a substantial proportion of the Dutch population looked favorably upon the French incursion, considered it a liberation, the French were able to break the resistance of the forces of the Stadtholder and his Austrian and British allies.
However, in many cities revolution broke out before the French arrived and Revolutionary Committees took over the city governments, the national government also. William was forced to flee to England on a fishing boat on 18 January 1795. Though the French presented themselves as liberators, they behaved like conquerors. After acrimonious negotiations between the representatives of the new Batavian Republic and those of the French Republic, a harsh Treaty of The Hague was concluded on 16 May 1795. Apart from imposing territorial concessions and a huge indemnity, this obligated the Dutch to maintain a French army of occupation of 25,000 men; this changed the Dutch republic from a client state of Prussia into a French one.
County of Flanders
The County of Flanders was a historic territory in the Low Countries. From 862 onwards the Counts of Flanders were one of the original twelve peers of the Kingdom of France. For centuries their estates around the cities of Ghent and Ypres formed one of the most affluent regions in Europe. Up to 1477, the area under French suzerainty was located west of the Scheldt River and was called "Royal Flanders". Aside from this the Counts of Flanders from the 11th century on held land east of the river as a fief of the Holy Roman Empire, an area called "Imperial Flanders". Part of the Burgundian Netherlands from 1384, the county was removed from French to Imperial control after the Peace of Madrid in 1526 and the Peace of Ladies in 1529. In 1795 the remaining territory within the Austrian Netherlands was incorporated by the French First Republic and passed to the newly established United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815; the former County of Flanders, except for French Flanders, is the only part of the medieval French kingdom, not part of modern-day France.
Flanders and Flemish are derived from the Frisian *flāndra and *flāmisk, the roots of which are Germanic *flaumaz meaning "overflow, flooding". The coastal area of Flanders was flooded twice per day from the 3rd century to the 8th century by the North Sea at the time when the coast was visited by Frisian traders and largely inhabited by Frisians; the Flemish people are first mentioned in the biography of the Vita sancti Eligii. This work was written before 684, but only known since 725; this work mentions the "Flanderenses", who lived in "Flandris." The geography of the historic County of Flanders only overlaps with present-day region of Flanders in Belgium, though there it extends beyond West Flanders and East Flanders. Some of the historic county is now part of France and the Netherlands; the land covered by the county is spread out over: Belgium: two of the five Flemish provinces: West-Flanders and East-Flanders part of the Flemish province of Antwerp: the land of Bornem part of the Walloon province of Hainaut: Tournaisis and the region around Moeskroen France: French Flanders the French westcorner: the region around Dunkirk and Bailleul, an area where Flemish used to be the main language Walloon Flanders, where the Picard language related to French, was spoken.
Artois: removed from Flanders in 1191 and created as independent county in 1237 Netherlands: Zeelandic Flanders, a region between Belgium and the Western Scheldt in the southern part of the modern province of Zeeland, which from 1581 formed part of the Generality Lands under control of the Dutch Republic. The arms of the County of Flanders were created by Philip of Alsace, count of Flanders from 1168 to 1191. In the story about the Battle of the Golden Spurs, the arms and its corresponding battlecry Vlaendr'n den leeuw plays a crucial role in the forming of a Flemish consciousness, popularised in recent times by the book De Leeuw van Vlaanderen by Hendrik Conscience; as a result, the arms of the county live on as arms of the Flemish Community. It is said that Philip of Alsace brought the lion flag with him from the Holy Land, where in 1177 he conquered it from a Saracen knight, but this is a myth; the simple fact that the lion appeared on his personal seal since 1163, when he had not yet set one step in the Levant, disproves it.
In reality Philip was following a West-European trend. In the same period lions appeared in the arms of Brabant, Holland and other territories, it is curious that the lion as a heraldic symbol was used in border territories and neighbouring countries of the Holy Roman Empire. It was in all likelihood a way of showing independence from the emperor, who used an eagle in his personal arms. In Europe the lion had been a well-known figure since Roman times, through works such as the fables of Aesop; the future county of Flanders had been inhabited since prehistory. During the Iron Age the Kemmelberg formed an important Celtic settlement. During the times of Julius Caesar, the inhabitants were part of the Belgae, a collective name for all Celtic and Germanic tribes in the north of Gallia. For Flanders in specific these were the Morini, the Nervii and the Atrebates. Julius Caesar conquered the area around 54 BC and the population was romanised from the 1st to the 3rd century; the Roman road that connected Cologne with Boulogne-sur-Mer was used as a defense perimeter.
In the south the Gallo-Romanic population was able to maintain itself, while the north became a no-mans land that suffered from regular floods from the North Sea. In the coastal and Scheldt areas Saxon tribes appeared. For the Romans, Saxon was a general term, included Angles, Saxons and Erules; the coastal defense around Boulogne and Oudenburg, the Litus Saxonicum, remained functional until about 420. These forts were manned by Saxon soldiers. From their base land Toxandria the Salian Franks further expanded into the Roman empire; the first incursion into the lands of the Atrebates was turned away in 448 at Vicus Helena. But after the murder of the Roman general Flavius Aëtius in 454 and Roman emperor Valentinianus III in 455, the Salic Franks encounterd hardly any resistance. From Duisburg, king Chlodio conquered Cambrai and Tournai, he reached the Somme. After his death two Salic kingdoms
Guelders or Gueldres is a historical county duchy of the Holy Roman Empire, located in the Low Countries. The duchy was named after the town of Geldern in present-day Germany. Though the present province of Gelderland in the Netherlands occupies most of the area, the former duchy comprised parts of the present Dutch province of Limburg as well as those territories in the present-day German state of North Rhine-Westphalia that were acquired by Prussia in 1713. Four parts of the duchy had their own centres, as they were separated by rivers: the quarter of Roermond called Upper Quarter or Upper Guelders – upstream on both sides of the Maas, comprising the town of Geldern as well as Erkelenz, Nieuwstadt and Straelen; the county emerged about 1096, when Gerard III of Wassenberg was first documented as "Count of Guelders". It was located on the territory of Lower Lorraine, in the area of Geldern and Roermond, with its main stronghold at Montfort. Count Gerard's son Gerard II in 1127 acquired the County of Zutphen in northern Hamaland by marriage.
In the 12th and 13th century, Guelders expanded downstream along the sides of the Maas, IJssel rivers and claimed the succession in the Duchy of Limburg, until it lost the 1288 Battle of Worringen against Berg and Brabant. Guelders was at war with its neighbours, not only with Brabant, but with the County of Holland and the Bishopric of Utrecht. However, its territory grew not only because of its success in warfare, but because it thrived in times of peace. For example, the larger part of the Veluwe and the city of Nijmegen were given as collateral to Guelders by their cash-strapped rulers. On separate occasions, in return for loans from the treasury of Guelders, the bishop of Utrecht granted the taxation and administration of the Veluwe, William II ― Count of both Holland and Zeeland, and, elected anti-king of the Holy Roman Empire ― granted the same rights over Nijmegen. In 1339 Count Reginald II of Guelders, of the House of Wassenberg, was elevated to the rank of Duke by Emperor Louis IV of Wittelsbach.
After the Wassenberg line became extinct in 1371 following the deaths of Reginald II's childless sons Edward II and Reginald III, the ensuing Guelders War of Succession saw William I of Jülich emerge victorious. William was confirmed in the inheritance of Guelders in 1379, from 1393 onwards held both duchies in personal union. In 1423 Guelders passed to the House of Egmond, which gained recognition of its title from Emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg, but was unable to escape the political strife and internecine conflict that had so plagued the preceding House of Jülich-Hengebach, more the pressure brought to bear by the expansionist rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy; the first Egmond Duke, suffered the rebellion of his son Adolf and was imprisoned by the latter in 1465. Adolf, who had enjoyed the support of Burgundian Duke Philip III and of the four major cities of Guelders during his rebellion, was unwilling to strike a compromise with his father when this was demanded by Philip's successor, Duke Charles the Bold.
Charles had Duke Adolf captured and imprisoned in 1471 and reinstated Arnold on the throne of the Duchy of Guelders. Charles bought the reversion from Duke Arnold, against the will of the towns and the law of the land, pledged his duchy to Charles for 300,000 Rhenish florins; the bargain was completed in 1472–73, upon Arnold's death in 1473, Duke Charles added Guelders to the "Low Countries" portion of his Valois Duchy of Burgundy. Upon Charles' defeat and death at the Battle of Nancy in January 1477, Duke Adolf was released from prison by the Flemish, but died the same year at the head of a Flemish army besieging Tournai, after the States of Guelders had recognized him once more as Duke. Subsequently, Guelders was ruled by Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, husband of Charles the Bold's daughter and heir, Mary; the last independent Duke of Guelders was Adolf's son Charles of Egmond, raised at the Burgundian court of Charles the Bold and fought for the House of Habsburg in battles against the armies of Charles VIII of France, until being captured in the Battle of Béthune during the War of the Public Weal.
In 1492, the citizens of Guelders, who had become disenchanted with the rule of Maximilian, ransomed Charles and recognized him as their Duke. Charles, now backed by France, fought Maximilian's grandson Charles of Habsburg in the Guelders Wars and expanded his realm further north, to incorporate what is now the Province of Overijssel, he was not a man of war, but a skilled diplomat, was therefore able to keep his independence. He bequeathed the duchy to Duke William the Rich of Jülich-Cleves-Berg. Following in the footsteps of Charles of
Prince-Bishopric of Liège
The Prince-Bishopric of Liège or Principality of Liège was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, situated for the most part in present Belgium, ruled by the Bishop of Liège. As a prince, the Bishop had seat and voice at the Imperial Diet; the Prince-Bishopric of Liège should not be confused with the Bishop's diocese of Liège, larger. The bishops of Liège acquired their status as a Prince-bishop between 980 and 985 when Bishop Notger, the bishop of Liege since 972, received secular control of the County of Huy from Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor; the Prince-Bishopric belonged from 1500 on to the Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle. Its territory included most of the present Belgian provinces of Liège and Limburg, some exclaves in other parts of Belgium and the Netherlands, it became a republic from 1789 to 1791, before reverting to a Prince-Bishopric in 1791. The role of the Bishop as prince permanently ended when the state was annexed by France in 1795. In 1815 the territories it had held became part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, in 1830 they were within the part of that kingdom which split off to become Belgium.
The principality ruled by the bishops of Liège was never part of the Seventeen Provinces or the Spanish and Austrian Southern Netherlands, but from the 16th century onwards its politics were influenced by the dukes of Burgundy and the Habsburgs. In 1559 its 1,636 parishes were grouped into eight archdeaconries, twenty-eight councils, chrétientés; the most important cities of the bishopric were: Liège, Bilzen, Bree, Châtelet, Couvin, Fosses-la-Ville, Hasselt, Herk-de-Stad, Maaseik, Sint-Truiden, Thuin, Verviers, Visé and Waremme. The city of Maastricht fell under the joint jurisdiction of the Prince-Bishop of Liège and the Duke of Brabant; the second city of the prince-bishopric thus kept its status aparte throughout the ancien régime. The large diocese of the medieval bishops was, until 1559, much larger than the princedom, in their possession. However, the princely domain was enlarged by donations and by acquisitions. In the 10th century, the bishops received secular power over the county of Huy, which lay within of the diocese.
Bishop Notger thus became a sovereign prince. This status was retained by his successors until the French Revolution, throughout that period of nearly eight centuries the Prince-Bishopric of Liège succeeded in maintaining a level of autonomy, though theoretically it was part of the Holy Roman Empire; this virtual independence was owed to the ability of its bishops, who on several occasions played an important part in international politics, being strategically positioned between France and Germany. Throughout the Middle Ages, the prince-bishopric was further expanded with the lordship of Bouillon in 1096, the acquisition of the county of Loon in 1366 and the county of Horne in 1568. Notger, the founder of the principality rebuilt the cathedral of St Lambert, as well as the episcopal palace, he was involved in other building activities in the city, which flourished under his rule. This bishop strengthened the parochial organization of the city, he was one of the first church leaders to spread the observance of All Souls' Day, which he authorized for his diocese.
Under Notger's administration, following up on the work of Heraclius, educational institutions in Liège flourished. With these two bishops "The schools of Liège were, in fact, at that time one of the brightest literary foci of the period". In the 11th century the city was indeed known as the Athens of the North. "Liège for more than a century occupied among the nations a position in regard to science which it has never recovered". Subsequent bishops, Balderic of Looz, Durandus, Nitard, the learned Wazo, Theoduin, valiantly sustained the heritage of Notger; the schools formed many brilliant scholars, gave the Catholic Church popes Stephen IX and Nicholas II. The diocese supplied the University of Paris with a number of important doctors — William of Saint-Thierry, Gerard of Liège and Godfrey of Fontaines. Alger of Liège was an important intellectual of the period, he was first appointed deacon of church of St Bartholomew and retired at the monastery of Cluny. In the reign of Henry of Verdun a tribunal was instituted to prevent war and enforce the Peace of God.
Otbert increased the territory of the principality by purchasing the Lordship of Bouillon. He remained faithful to emperor Henry IV. Henry of Namur was venerated as a martyr. During the administration of Alexander of Juliers the pope, the emperor and St Bernard visited Liège; the episcopate of Raoul of Zachringen was marked by the preaching of the reformer Lambert le Bègue, credited with founding the béguines. Albert of Louvain was elected Bishop of Liège in 1191, but Emperor Henry VI, on the pretext that the election was doubtful, gave the see to Lothair of Hochstadt. Albero's election was confirmed by the pope but in 1192, shortly after he took office, he was assassinated by three German knights at Reims, it is probable that the emperor was privy to this murder but Albero was canonized. In 1195, Albert de Cuyck formally recognized the political franchise of the people of Liège. During the 12th century, the cathedral chapter, along with the bishop, assum
The Salian Franks called the Salians, were a northwestern subgroup of the earliest Franks who first appear in the historical records in the third century. They lived at the mouth of the Rhine river in what was the Roman Empire and today Netherlands and Belgium. Like the other Franks in this period, the Salian Franks were a Germanic people living near the river Rhine, which had long been a militarized border; the Salians, unlike other Franks, first appear living inside the Roman Empire, living in the Rhine delta in the modern Netherlands. In modern works they are contrasted with their neighbours to the east, known as the Rhineland or Ripuarian Franks, who held the Roman city of Cologne, in modern Germany. How the Franks in these areas were politically connected or separated, how many groups there were, is unknown until the time when they all fell under the reign of Clovis I. A much author, Gregory of Tours, said that in old records he found it seemed the Franks had once had kinglets in each city they held.
Although treated as a tribe it has been argued by Matthias Springer that this might represent a misunderstanding. All of the classical mentions of them seem to derive from one mention by Ammianus Marcellinus of "Franks, those namely whom custom calls the Salii". Ammianus, who served in the Roman military, reported that the Salii were pushed from their home in Batavia, into Toxandria, by the non-Roman Chamavi; the first historian to say that the Salians had been pushed into the empire from outside was Zosimus, but his description of events seems to be confused and derived from others. The account of Zosimus, that the Salians had been pushed into the empire as a single tribe, is still accepted. In this case, their homeland may have been between the Rhine and the IJssel in the modern day Dutch region of the Veluwe and they may have given their name to the region of Salland, it has been proposed that the Salii might have been one of the peoples making up the large nation of the Chauci during the Roman empire, most of whom became Saxons.
In 358, the Salians came to some form of agreement with the Romans, which allowed them to keep settlements south of the delta in Toxandria, between the rivers Scheldt and Demer the area of the current Dutch province of Noord-Brabant, adjacent parts of the two bordering Belgian provinces of Antwerpen and Belgian Limburg, the so-called "Kempen". The Merovingian kings responsible for the conquest of Gaul are thought to have had Salian ancestry, because they applied so-called Salian law in their Roman-populated territories between the Loire and Silva Carbonaria, although they clearly had connections with the Rhineland or Ripuarian Franks before they conquered them; the Lex Ripuaria originated about 630 and has been described as a development of the Frankish laws known from Lex Salica. On the other hand, following the interpretation of Springer the Lex Salica may have meant something like "Common Law". Various etymologies are proposed; the ethnonym is unrelated to the name for the dancing priests of Mars, who were called Salii.
In line with theories that the Salians existed as a tribe outside the Roman empire, the name may have derived from the name of the IJssel river called Hisloa or Hisla, in ancient times, which may be the Salians' original residence. Today this area is called Salland. Alternatively, the name may derive from a proposed Germanic word *saljon meaning friend or comrade, indicating that the term implied an alliance. In that case, the name may have originated in the empire itself, or the river and/or region might be named after the inhabitants. Apart from some isolated fragments, there is no record of the Salian Frankish language but it is presumed to be ancestral to the modern family of Low Franconian dialects, which are represented today by Dutch and Flemish dialects, Afrikaans. Before the Merovingian takeover, the Salian tribes constituted a loose confederacy that only banded together, for example to negotiate with Roman authority; each tribe consisted of extended family groups centered on a renowned or noble family.
The importance of the family bond was made clear by the Salic Law, which ordained that an individual had no right to protection if not part of a family. While the Goths or the Vandals had been at least converted to Christianity since the mid-4th century, polytheistic beliefs are thought to have flourished among the Salian Franks until the conversion of Clovis to Catholicism shortly before or after 500, after which paganism diminished gradually. On the other hand it is possible many Salians in Gaul were Arian Christians, like contemporary Germanic kingdoms. Within the Roman empire, Germanic tribes had lived in the river deltas now in the Netherlands long before the names "Frank" or "Salii" appeared; the most important are known to history as the Batavi, a name based on the older name of the island they lived on, where we first find the Salians living. They were reported by Tacitus to be immigrants from the Chatti; the first mention of Franks in the area was about 286 AD, during the reign of emperor Probus, when Carausius was put in charge of defending the coasts of the Straits of Dover against Saxon and Frankish pirates.
In the time of Probus there is record of a large group who decided to hijack some Roman ships and return with them from the Black Sea – reaching the Atlantic after causing chaos through Greece and Gibraltar. It has been proposed that the