A beauty salon or beauty parlor, or sometimes beauty shop, is an establishment dealing with cosmetic treatments for men and women. Other variations of this type of business include hair spas. There is a distinction between a beauty salon and a hair salon and although many small businesses do offer both sets of treatments. Massage for the body is a popular beauty treatment, with various techniques offering benefits to the skin and for increasing mental well-being. Hair removal is offered at some beauty salons through treatments such as threading; some beauty salons style hair instead of going to a separate hair salon, some offer sun tanning. Other treatments of the face are known as facials. Specialized beauty salons known as nail salons offer treatments such as manicures and pedicures for the nails. A manicure is a treatment for the hands, incorporating the fingernails and cuticles and involving the application of nail polish, while a pedicure involves treatment of the feet, incorporating the toenails and the softening or removal of calluses.
Beauty salons have proven to be a recession-proof industry across United States. Although sales had declined from 2008 highs due to the Great Recession, they remain robust with long term positive forecast. Though during recessions, consumers tend to be more price conscious, spending continues to increase. With rising per capita incomes across the United States since 2015, beauty salons are booming with the industry generating $56.2 billion in the United States. Hair care is the largest segment with 86,000 locations. Skin care is expected to have revenue of $11 billion by 2018; this growth is being driven in part by a increasing awareness of the importance of skin care among American woman, but specifically due to an increase in the market for men. The market is distributed across America, with a concentration in the Northeast and Midwest. There is a growing trend in boutique salons popping up and leveraging online marketing to gain customers and compete with the franchise chains; the US Labor Department estimates employment in the United States will increase 20% between 2008–2014, with greatest employment growth from skin care specialists.
Beauty Barber Hair coloring Hair straightening Turban training centre
In biology, gonochorism or unisexualism or gonochory describes the state of having just one of at least two distinct sexes in any one individual organism. The term is most used with animals, in which the individual organisms are gonochorous. Gonochory is less common in plants. For example, in flowering plants, individual flowers may be hermaphroditic or gonochorous, having either no stamens or no ovaries. Among flowering plant species that have unisexual flowers, some produce hermaphrodite flowers, the three types occur in different arrangements on separate plants. Sex is most genetically determined, but may be determined by other mechanisms. For example, alligators use temperature-dependent sex determination during egg incubation. Examples of gonochoric or dioecious pollination include hollies and kiwifruit. In these plants the male plant that supplies the pollen is referred to as the pollenizer. Gonochorism stands in contrast to other reproductive strategies such as asexual reproduction and hermaphroditism.
The sex of an individual may change during its lifetime – this sequential hermaphroditism can for example be found in parrotfish and cockles. Diclinous Monoclinous Plant sexuality
Mixed-sex education known as mixed-gender education, co-education or coeducation, is a system of education where males and females are educated together. Whereas single-sex education was more common up to the 19th century, mixed-sex education has since become standard in many cultures in Western countries. Single-sex education, remains prevalent in many Muslim countries; the relative merits of both systems have been the subject of debate. The world's oldest co-educational day and boarding school is Dollar Academy, a junior and senior school for males and females from ages 5 to 18 in Scotland, United Kingdom. From its opening in 1818 the school admitted both boys and girls of the parish of Dollar and the surrounding area; the school continues in existence to the present day with around 1,250 pupils. The first co-educational college to be founded was Oberlin Collegiate Institute in Ohio, it opened on December 3, 1833, including 29 men and 15 women. Equal status for women did not arrive until 1837, the first three women to graduate with bachelor's degrees did so in 1840.
By the late 20th century, many institutions of higher learning, for people of one sex had become coeducational. In early civilizations, people were educated informally: within the household; as time progressed, education became more formal. Women had few rights when education started to become a more important aspect of civilization. Efforts of the ancient Greek and Chinese societies focused on the education of males. In ancient Rome, the availability of education was extended to women, but they were taught separately from men; the early Christians and medieval Europeans continued this trend, single-sex schools for the privileged classes prevailed through the Reformation period. In the 16th century, at the Council of Trent, the Roman Catholic church reinforced the establishment of free elementary schools for children of all classes; the concept of universal elementary education, regardless of sex, had been created. After the Reformation, coeducation was introduced in western Europe, when certain Protestant groups urged that boys and girls should be taught to read the Bible.
The practice became popular in northern England and colonial New England, where young children, both male and female, attended dame schools. In the late 18th century, girls were admitted to town schools; the Society of Friends in England, as well as in the United States, pioneered coeducation as they did universal education, in Quaker settlements in the British colonies and girls attended school together. The new free public elementary, or common schools, which after the American Revolution supplanted church institutions, were always coeducational, by 1900 most public high schools were coeducational as well. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, coeducation grew much more accepted. In Great Britain and the Soviet Union, the education of girls and boys in the same classes became an approved practice. In Australia there is a trend towards increased coeducational schooling with new coeducational schools opening, few new single sex schools opening and existing single sex schools combining or opening their doors to the opposite gender.
The first mixed-sex institution of higher learning in China was the Nanjing Higher Normal Institute, renamed National Central University and Nanjing University. For millennia in China, public schools public higher learning schools, were for men. Only schools established by zongzu were for both male and female students; some schools such as Li Zhi's school in Ming Dynasty and Yuan Mei's school in Qing Dynasty enrolled both male and female students. In the 1910s women's universities were established such as Ginling Women's University and Peking Girls' Higher Normal School, but there were no coeducation in higher learning schools. Tao Xingzhi, the Chinese advocator of mixed-sex education, proposed The Audit Law for Women Students at the meeting of Nanjing Higher Normal School held on December seventh, 1919, he proposed that the university recruit female students. The idea was supported by the president Guo Bingwen, academic director Liu Boming, such famous professors as Lu Zhiwei and Yang Xingfo, but opposed by many famous men of the time.
The meeting decided to recruit women students next year. Nanjing Higher Normal School enrolled eight Chinese female students in 1920. In the same year Peking University began to allow women students to audit classes. One of the most notable female students of that time was Jianxiong Wu. In 1949, the People's Republic of China was founded; the Chinese government has provided more equal opportunities for education since and all schools and universities have become mixed-sex. In recent years, many female and/or single-sex schools have again emerged for special vocational training needs but equal rights for education still apply to all citizens. In China Muslim Hui and Muslim Salars are against coeducation, due to Islam, Uyghurs are the only Muslims in China that do not mind coeducation and practice it. Admission to the Sorbonne was opened to girls in 1860; the baccalaureat became gender-blind in 1924, giving equal chances to all girls in applying to any universities. Mixed-sex education became mandatory for primary schools in 1957 and for all universities in 1975.
St. Paul's Co-educational College was the first mixed-sex secondary school in Hong Kong, it was founded in 1915 as St. Paul's Girls' College. At the end of World War II it was temporarily merged with St. Paul's College, a boys' school; when classes at the campus of St. Paul'
A public toilet is a room or small building with toilets that does not belong to a particular household. Rather, the toilet is available for use by the general public, travellers, employees of a business, school pupils, prisoners etc. Public toilets are separated into male and female facilities, although some are unisex for small or single-occupancy public toilets. Public toilets are accessible to people with disabilities. Public toilets are known by many other names depending on the country. Examples are: restroom, men's room, women's room in the US, washroom in Canada, toilets, water closet and gents in Europe; some public toilets are free of charge. In the latter case they are called pay toilets and sometimes have of a coin-operated turnstile. Local authorities or commercial businesses may provide public toilet facilities; some are unattended. In many cultures, it is customary to tip the attendant if they provide a specific service, such as might be the case at upscale nightclubs or restaurants.
Public toilets are found in many different places: inner-city locations, factories, schools and other places of work and study. Museums, bars, entertainment venues provide public toilets. Railway stations, filling stations, long distance public transport vehicles such as trains and planes provide toilets for general use. Portable toilets are available at large outdoor events. In many Asian and countries influenced by Muslim cultures, public toilets are of the squat type, as this is regarded as more hygienic for a shared facility. Public toilets are known by many names in different varieties of English. In American English, "restroom" denotes a facility featuring toilets and sinks designed for use by the public, but "bathroom" is common in schools. "Comfort station" sometimes refers to a visitor welcome center such as those in national parks. In Canadian English, public facilities are called "washrooms", although usage varies regionally; the word "toilet" denotes the fixture itself rather than the room.
The word "washroom" is used to mean "utility room" or "mud room" as it is in some parts of the United States. "Bathroom" is used to refer to the room in a person's home that includes a bathtub or shower. In public athletic or aquatic facilities, showers are available in locker rooms. In Britain, Hong Kong and New Zealand, the terms in use are "public toilet", "public lavatory", "public convenience", more informally, "public loo"; as public toilets were traditionally signed as "gentlemen" or "ladies", the colloquial terms "the gents' room" and "the ladies' room", or "the gents" and "the ladies" are used to indicate the facilities themselves. The British Toilet Association, sponsor of the Loo of the Year Awards, refers to public toilets collectively as "away-from-home" toilets. In Philippine English, "comfort room", or "C. R.", is the most common term in use. Some European languages used words cognate with "toilet", or the initialism "W. C.", an abbreviation for "water closet", an older term for the flush toilet.
Public urinals are known in several Romance languages by the name of a Roman Emperor: vespasienne in French, vespasiani in Italian, vespasiene in Romanian. Mosques and other places Muslims gather, have public sex-segregated "ablution rooms" since Islam requires specific procedures for cleansing parts of the body before prayer; these rooms adjoin the toilets, which are subject to Muslim hygienical jurisprudence and Islamic toilet etiquette. Many public toilets are permanent small buildings visible to passers-by on the street. Others are underground, including older facilities in Canada. Contemporary street toilets include self-cleaning toilets in self-contained pods. An Indian version of these automated toilet pods, remotely monitored by sensors, are the Electronic Public Toilets or eToilets. Another traditional type, modernized is the screened French street urinal known as a pissoir. An updated cylindrical urinal that lowers beneath street level out of the way and pops up during hours when it is needed is the Urilift Pop Up Urinal.
It is installed in entertainment districts and is operational only during weekends and nights. This urinal brand, invented in the Netherlands offers a pop-up toilet for women. Private firms may maintain permanent public toilets; the companies are permitted to use the external surfaces of the enclosures for advertising. The installations are part of a street furniture contract between the out-of-home advertising company and the city government, allow these public conveniences to be installed and maintained without requiring funds from the municipal budget. Various portable toilet technologies are used as public toilets. Portables can be moved into place where and when needed and are popular at outdoor festivals and events. A portable toilet can either be connected to the local sewage system or store the waste in a holding tank until it is emptied by a vacuum truck. Portable composting toilets require removal of the container to a composting facility; the standard wheelchair-accessible public toilet features wider doors, ample space for turning, lowered sinks, grab bars for saf
Unisex clothing is best described as clothing designed to be suitable for both sexes in order to make men and women look similar. The term unisex was first used in 1968 in Life, an American magazine that ran weekly from 1883 to 1972. Although the first use of "unisex" as a term dates from the 1960s, it can be argued that "unisex clothing" its first appearance dates from the late nineteenth century, as part of the "Victorian dress reform", it can be argued that in the nineteenth century fashionable clothing, which originated in France, reflected the dominance of traditional feminine roles. John Berger his famous statement'men act, women appear' can be useful to further discuss the appearance of "unisex clothing". Berger claims that, in Western European cultures, the role of men is considered active and that of women considered passive or, to put it differently, men observe women and women are observed by men; this asymmetry in the relationship between men and women was visualized in dress in the nineteenth century: women were more and more prescribed to fashionable clothing, clothing that disabled them to be active due to, for example, crinoline dresses that were heavy, whereas men had the ability to be active due to their sober and simple clothing.
An attempt to develop alternative feminine roles by the use of alternative clothing behavior started in England and the United States. For example, members of the women's movement deplored the use of corsets and sets of ponderous garments and centred their proposals of dress reform on the adoption of trousers. However, they were unable to win the support of many women outside of their own group due to the basic premise of nineteenth century ideology concerning women's roles in which "the belief in fixed gender identities and enormous differences – physical and intellectual – between men and women" was at centre. One example of this was the organized "Symposium on Dress" in which three designs, that included either a divided skirt or trousers, were presented; these dress reform proposals were, at that time controversial and seen as too radical by the middle-class women, leaning more towards alienation than involvement of this potential group of supporters of the women's rights movement. A more fruitful account of the recognition of non-conformist costume or dress of that time lies in the history of "alternative dress".
The alternative dress style can be described as a "set of signs, borrowed from male clothing, that appeared sometimes singly, sometimes in combination with one another, but always associated with items of female clothing." This alternative dress is a form of non-verbal communication and is different than the "Victorian dress reform", being a form of verbal communication. Bicycling, for example, was a late nineteenth century sport, not identified as a male activity. Women, were able to wear divided skirts and knee-length bloomers without having difficulties considering gender roles because this "alternative dress" did not intend to undermine patriarchy. After a while and many other alternative dress examples, such as uniforms, became more effective in conveying a message than that of dress reformers, because alternative dress had more "followers" in everyday life; the bicycle, can be seen as'one of the symbols of emancipation' that has changed the attitude towards women's sports apparel. The 1960s can be considered the decade in which "unisex" and "unisex clothing" became spread.
The "unisex" trend arose in response to the youth revolution and the hippie movement of the 1960s and the women's liberation movement of the early 1970s. However, this trend can be considered a more recent form of the aforementioned fashionable clothing, because it confirms a traditional feminine role subservient to the masculine role given the fact that "unisex clothing" represents women wearing men's clothing. Today, a common mode of unisex clothing may be an outfit made up of shirt, pants, or both, as these articles are considered appropriate for either gender in western society. Both men and women wear shirt and pants on regular basis in the western world and it has become quite a fashion favourite despite feminine style clothing maintaining a secure place in female fashion. Rad Hourani first unisex gender neutral brand in fashion history. Gender mainstreaming Gender role Unisex name Rad Hourani "A Brief History of Unisex Fashion" by Kimberly Chrisman-Campbell, The Atlantic, Apr 14 2015
A unisex name is a given name that can be used by a person regardless of their sex. Unisex names are common in the English speaking world in the United States. By contrast, some countries have laws preventing unisex names, requiring parents to give their children sex-specific names. In other countries, unisex names are sometimes avoided for social reasons such as potential discrimination and psychological abuse. Names may have different gender connotations from country to language to language. For example, the Italian male name Andrea is understood as a female name in many languages, such as English, Hungarian and Spanish. Parents may name their child in honor of a person of another sex, which – if done – can result in the name becoming unisex. For example, Christians Catholics, may give a child a second/middle name of the opposite sex, e.g. name a son Marie or Maria in honor of the Virgin Mary or Anne for Saint Anne. This practice is rare in English-speaking countries; some masculine and feminine names are homophones, pronounced the same for both sexes but spelled differently.
For example and Eve and Artemus and Artemis. These names are not unisex names. Unisex names can be used as a source of humor, such as Julia Sweeney's sexually ambiguous character "Pat" on Saturday Night Live. A running joke on the TV show Scrubs is that every woman J. D. sleeps with has a unisex name: Jordan, Danni, Jamie, etc. The sex of the baby Jamie in Malcolm in the Middle was purposely kept ambiguous when first introduced at the end of the show's fourth season to build suspense. In Gilmore Girls, Rory is bothered by the discovery that her boyfriend Logan's workmate Bobby, is female. Rory had assumed Bobby was male and it is only upon their first meeting that Rory discovers Bobby's gender; the name "Rory" was a male name until Gilmore Girls reached popularity, at which point the name reached rough gender parity. In Japanese dramas and manga, a unisex name may be given to an androgynous or gender-bending character as part of a plot twist to aid in presenting the character as one sex when they are another.
In mystery fiction, unisex names have been used to tease readers into trying to solve the mystery of a character's sex. The novels of Sarah Caudwell feature a narrator named Hilary Tamar, a law professor, never identified as either male or female. Unisex names of African origin include: Armani Ashanti Ivory Jaylen Jaylin Lashawn Alemayehu Berhane Businge Desta Imani Lishan Makena Amahle Andile Bandile Buhle Chifundo Chimwemwe Dalitso Farai Kagiso Neo Thando Tsholofelo Thapelo Refilwe Lerato Lesego Thabang Thembeka Botshelo Bohlale Lethabo Tumelo Tshiamo Onthatile Onalerona Shona, a Bantu group in Zimbabwe, have unisex names which may indicate the circumstances of the baby or the family during the time of the birth. All Shona names have a meaning, some celebrate virtue or worship God. Popular unisex names in the Shona ethnic groupare: Akatendeka Anenyasha Anesu Chipo Farai Kudzai Nyasha Rufaro Shingirayi Tendai Tafadzwa Tanaka Tatenda Vimbai Abimbola Ade Anan Ayo Chi Chidi Chike Dayo Efe Folami Kayin Udo Tolu Chinese given names are based on Chinese characters.
Some characters are specially given to males. Below are examples of unisex Chinese given names. 洋 睿 喜 Many of the modern Hebrew names have become unisex, that suitable for both girls. Some popular examples are: Many Indian names become unisex when written with Latin characters because of the limitations of transliteration; the spellings Chandra and Krishna, for example, are transliterations of both the masculine and feminine versions of those names. In Indian languages, the final a in each of these names are different letters with different pronunciations, so there is no ambiguity. However, when they are seen by someone unfamiliar with Indian languages, they become sexually ambiguous. Other Indian names, such as Ananda, are or nearly masculine in India, but because of their a ending, are assumed to be feminine in Anglophone societies. Many unisex names in India are ridiculed. For instance Nehal, Snehal, Niral and Anmol are used to name baby boys or girls in western states of India such as Gujarat.
Names like Kajal, Viral, Deepal, Mrinal, Shakti, Kiran, Ashwini, Malhar, Umang and Anupam are very common sex-neutral names or unisex names in India. Most Punjabi Sikh first names such as "Sandeep, Kuldeep, Mandeep", "Surjeet, Kuljeet, Manjeet", "Harpreet, Jaspreet, Manpreet", "Prabhjot, Gurjot, Jasjot" and "Sukhjinder, Jasbinder, Kulvinder, Ranjodh, Hardeep, Sukhdeep, Encarl, Rajan" are unisex names and commonly given to either sex. Names derived from Dari Persian and Arabic, but not used among native speakers of those languages, are common among South Asian Muslims. Since Persian does not assign genders to inanimate nouns, some of these names are gender-neutral, for example Roshan and Insaaf. Cahya, Cahaya Dian Eka, Eko Mega Rizki, Rizqi Tirta Tri Despite there being only a small number of Japanese unisex
Mixed bathing is the sharing of a pool, beach or other place by swimmers of both sexes. Mixed bathing refers to swimming or other water-based recreational activities in public or semi-public facilities, such as hotel or holiday resort pool, in a non-sex segregated environment. In ancient Rome, mixed bathing at public facilities was prohibited at various periods, while commonplace at others, it is possible that sex segregated bathing was the rule at some facilities but not at others. In many parts of the world, mixed bathing was not allowed and moral campaigners argued that mixed bathing was immoral or immodest. Women's swimsuits were considered inherently immodest. To avoid the exposure of people in swimsuits to people of the opposite sex, many popular beach resorts were equipped with bathing machines. Legal segregation of beaches ended in Britain in 1901, the use of the bathing machines declined rapidly. Another measure in the moral campaign was to ban sea bathing altogether or during daylight hours.
Australian bathers were only permitted to swim during daylight hours after 1903. Before mixed bathing became culturally accepted from the late-19th century, public bathing, when permitted or practiced at all, was segregated on the basis of gender, using either separate facilities or using some form of divide or by allocation of times for use by men and women. By the 1920s, the public in many Western countries began to flout the ban on mixed bathing in public places such as beaches, the prohibitions began being repealed; the main objection to the prohibition to mixed bathing was that it prevented families and couples from enjoying the beach together. Following the repeal of bans on mixed bathing, beaches became a popular meeting place and place of recreation for young people, not for swimming, it took longer for pools, including public pools. For example, when Tooting Bec Lido, an open-air pool in South London, opened in 1906, it was segregated by the sexes, with women and girls permitted to use the pool on one morning a week.
Mixed bathing was not introduced until 1931, only at specified times. At the same time, an "aerator", or fountain, was added to help pump the water round the pool and keep it clean; the main reason given for this act of modernisation was because more women would be swimming there and higher standards of hygiene were needed. Dulwich Public Baths in South London allowed mixed bathing in 1946. London's Hampstead Heath has three open-air public swimming ponds; the popularity of the swimming pool at the City Baths in Melbourne, Australia increased with the introduction of mixed bathing in 1947. Until the Young Men's Christian Association began to admit females in the early 1960s, young men who used their swimming pools were required to swim in the nude; this was regarded as a sanitary measure. When girls were admitted, the wearing of swimsuits became mandatory. In some English schools, Manchester Grammar School for example, nude swimming was compulsory until the 1970s. Swimsuits became mandatory; this was the case for some American high schools.
And junior high schools. And in some summer camps. Although mixed bathing is commonplace today, it was not always the case, it continues to be illegal or contentious in some parts of the world. In Muslim countries which are re-imposing sharia law, mixed bathing is being banned. For example, after Hamas took over the Gaza Strip, it closed down the Crazy Water Park, one of the Gaza Strip's most popular entertainment sites, for allowing mixed bathing. Strict Orthodox Jews and fundamentalist Christians in the Southern United States do not engage in mixed bathing. Many countries have anti-sex discrimination legislation which extend to the provision of sporting and recreational facilities, including private facilities. However, there are provisions for exemptions being granted, exemptions have been granted in some cases for women-only bathing on the basis, for example, of religious and cultural sensitivities. In Japan, nude mixed bathing was the norm at public baths until the Meiji Restoration when sex segregation was enforced at sentō-type baths.
In prefectures that permit mixed bathing, some rural onsen-type mixed baths require participants to be nude. Communal shower