The fourragère is a military award, distinguishing military units as a whole, in the form of a braided cord. The award was first adopted by France, followed by other nations such as the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg. Fourragères have been awarded to units of both national and foreign militaries, except for that of Luxembourg, which has not been awarded to any foreign units; the origin of the award is not certain, but at least two conjectural stories have been posited. The first involves Flemish soldiers serving under the Duke of Alva who were reported as having been cowardly in battle; the Duke threatened them all with hanging if they did not perform better in future engagements, the soldiers, so insulted by the insinuation, took to wearing cords tied to large nails around their shoulders, as if to say, "Hang me by this cord and nail if you see me run from battle." Following this, the units members performed so well that the nail became a badge of honor. The other is that to the extent that an aiguillette is a form of fourragère, the wearing of armor by European knights required the use of ropes with metal tabs and a squire to cinch the armor into place— the squire would carry these cords over his shoulder, hence the association with aides de camp.
As a regimental distinction the fourragère should not be confused with the aiguillette, introduced by Napoleon I and which it resembles. The modern fourragère of the French Army is awarded to all members of military units which have been awarded a mention in despatches, it should not be confused with unit awards of particular decorations, where the medal itself is hung on the flag of the unit. For example, there are many units wearing the fourragère of the médaille militaire, whereas only six units wore the medal on their flags. See the article dealing with the Croix de Guerre, it was introduced during the First World War, when the French Ministry of War first awarded the fourragère to units, recorded as distinguishing themselves more than once in the Orders of the Army. There were six fourragères, depending on the numbers of Mentions in Dispatches awarded to the unit: If a unit received this distinction in both the First and Second World Wars, its fourragère bears two olives, one for each conflict it earned mentions.
These olives are different: During the Second World War, the medal of the Ordre de la Libération was awarded to the flags of 17 military units, whose members now wear a fourragère since June 18, 1996. This fourragère is considered the top unit award in the French military, as the ordre de la Libération award is seen to be more important than any mention in Dispatches. Certain French military units wear combinations of fourragères, if they were mentioned in Orders in both one of the World War and an overseas war. For example, the famous Foreign Legion regiment the 3rd Foreign Infantry wears a double fourragère red and green with red stripes, with an olive red with green stripes and a fourragère yellow with green stripes, with an olive red and blue. Fourragères used by the French Foreign Legion are: 2e REI – Croix de Guerre des TOE 2e REP – Légion d'honneur 1er REC - Croix de Guerre; when they leave the unit, they have to relinquish the fourragère. However members who took part in the actions leading to the award of the fourragère can continue to wear the fourragère after leaving the unit.
They can only wear a fourragère corresponding to the number of actions they took part in. Thus, if a member of a 5-mentions regiment leaves but took part in only two mentioned actions, he can only wear the croix de guerre fourragère and not the médaille militaire fourragère; the 5th Marine Regiment and the 6th Marine Regiment of the United States Marine Corps were awarded the fourragère for having earned the Croix de Guerre with palm leaf three times during World War I. The 23rd Infantry Regiment, 2nd Division, A. E. F. was awarded the French Croix de Guerre with Palm three times, awarded the French fourragère for service during World War I campaigns at Chateau Thierry, Aisne-Marne, Meuse-Argonne. In addition, because several U. S. soldiers were present in front-line action during each battle for which the 23rd Infantry was awarded the Croix de Guerre, the French Government and U. S. Army Adjutant General allowed these soldiers to wear the fourragère as an individual decoration regardless of future unit assignment—a rare honor.
In total, 434 A. E. F. Officers and men were certified to wear the French fourragère as an individual decoration, per the Final Report of the Secretary of War, 1922. During World War I, the 5th S. S. U. was awarded the fourragère aux couleurs du ruban de la médaille militaire. During World War II, the 2nd Armored Division as well as the 16th, 18th, 26th Infantry Regiments, the 5th and 7th Field Artillery Battalions, the 1st Engineer Battalion and the 1st Signal Company were awarded the fourragère aux couleurs du ruban de la médaille militaire. 17 French military units wear the fourragère of the Ordre de la Libération. 370th Infantry Regiment BEF Units of World War I 82nd Airborne Division during the Battle of Normandy in June 1944. The 3rd Division was awarded the Fo
Croix de guerre (Belgium)
The Croix de guerre or Oorlogskruis, both translating as "War Cross", is a military decoration of the Kingdom of Belgium established by royal decree on 25 October 1915. It was awarded for bravery or other military virtue on the battlefield; the award was reestablished on 20 July 1940 by the Belgian government in exile for recognition of bravery and military virtue during World War II. The post-1940 decoration could be awarded to units that were cited; the decoration was again reestablished by royal decree on 3 April 1954 for award during future conflicts. The World War I Croix de guerre was established by royal decree on 25 October 1915 as an award for bravery or other military virtue on the battlefield, it was only awarded to individuals. The Croix de guerre was not only awarded for bravery but for three years or more of service on the front line, or for good conduct on the battlefield, it was awarded to volunteers older than 40 or younger than 16 after a minimum of 18 months of service, to escaped prisoners of war rejoining the armed forces, to military personnel who were placed on inactive duty because of injury.
The World War I Croix de guerre was a 40mm wide bronze Maltese cross with 3mm in diameter balls at its eight points. It had a 14mm in diameter central medallion bearing the relief image of a "lion rampant" on its obverse and the royal cypher of King Albert I on its reverse. Two 37mm long crossed swords point upwards between it arms. A 14mm high "inverted V" between the two points of the top cross arm is secured to the inside of a 25mm wide by 25mm high royal crown, the ribbon's suspension ring passes through the top orb of the crown giving the cross a total height of 65mm; the World War I Croix de guerre's ribbon is red with five 2mm wide light green longitudinal stripes, three at the center separated by 3mm and one on each side 3mm from the edges. When the person being awarded the Croix de guerre was mentioned in despatches, this distinction was denoted by a device worn on the ribbon, either a small lion or a palm adorned with the monogram "A": Bronze lion: regimental level Silver lion: brigade level Gold lion: divisional level Bronze palm: Army level Silver palm: five bronze palms Gold palm: five silver palmsWhen awarded posthumously, the ribbon of the Croix de guerre was adorned with a narrow black enamel bar.
The individuals listed below were awarded the World War I Croix de guerre: BelgianHis Majesty the King. Robert, 7th Duke d'Ursel Charles de Hemricourt de Grunne Aviator Lieutenant Colonel Baron Willy Coppens Lieutenant General Jean-Baptiste Piron Cavalry Lieutenant General Baron Victor Van Strijdonck de Burkel Lieutenant General knight Antonin de Selliers de Moranville Lieutenant General Félix Wielemans Lieutenant General Baron Émile Dossin de Saint-Georges Lieutenant General Count Gérard-Mathieu Leman Lieutenant General Baron Jules Jacques de Dixmude Lieutenant General Albert Lantonnois van Rode Lieutenant General Baron Armand de Ceuninck Cavalry Lieutenant General Baron Léon de Witte de Haelen Major General Doctor Antoine Depage ′Major General Baron Edouard Empain Georges Lemaître François Ernest SamrayOther CountriesCommandant Kristian Løken Lieutenant Colonel James Neville Marshall Lieutenant Charles Nungesser Sergeant Archie Barwick Corporal Richard Reading, CdeG Major Richard Winters Private Arthur H Whitwell CdeG 1st Class, 12th Royal Fusiliers <London Gazette 15/04/1918 Page 4543> Captain William R. Strong, U.
S. Army 91st Devision <The Helena Independent 21/10/1919 Page 1> The World War II Croix de guerre was established on 20 July 1940 by the Belgian government in exile, it differed from the World War I version in its statute and slight changes to the reverse of the central medallion and the ribbon. It was still awarded to individuals, but was now authorized as a unit award. A war cross being presented to a unit was denoted by a ribbon of the war cross being affixed to the unit coloursThe Belgian fourragère was awarded by the Belgian Government to a unit, cited twice. Award of the fourragère required a specific decree of the Belgian Government; the fourragère is in the same colours as the ribbon of the World War II Croix de guerre. The Belgian fourragère was only worn by those; the World War II Croix de guerre was constructed in the same dimensions as its World War I predecessor, the only real difference being the royal cypher of King Leopold III on its reverse. The new ribbon was still red with light green stripes but there were now six, 1mm wide, positioned three on each side 2mm apart beginning 2mm from the edge of the ribbon.
The same ribbon devices were used as in World War I except the palms were now adorned with the monogram "L". The individuals listed below were awarded the World War II Croix de guerre: Lieutenant General Jean-Baptiste Piron Lieutenant General Jules Joseph Pire Cavalry Lieutenant General Sir Maximilien de Neve de Roden Cavalry Lieutenant General Baron Victor Van Strijdonck de Burkel Count Charles of Limburg Stirum Josephine Van Durme Membre de la résistance Belge François Ernest Samray Larry "Scrappy" Blumer USAAF General George Patton Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery General Harry Crerar Prince Bernhard of Lippe-Biesterfeld Colonel Whitfield Jack First Lieutenant Audie Murphy Major Richard D. "Dick" Winters Christopher Peto General Carl Spaatz William P. Straitiff Sgt. Allison Greenfield TSgt. Captain William A. Dwight Liberation of Bastogne Private - William John Hobson On 3 April 1954, the Belgian government re-established the Croix de guerre but this time without any reference to a specific conflict.
Distinguished Service Cross (United States)
The Distinguished Service Cross is the second highest military award that can be given to a member of the United States Army, for extreme gallantry and risk of life in actual combat with an armed enemy force. Actions that merit the Distinguished Service Cross must be of such a high degree that they are above those required for all other U. S. combat do not meet the criteria for the Medal of Honor. The Distinguished Service Cross is equivalent to the Navy Cross, the Air Force Cross, the Coast Guard Cross; the Distinguished Service Cross was first awarded during World War I. In addition, a number of awards were made for actions before World War I. In many cases, these were to soldiers who had received a Certificate of Merit for gallantry which, at the time, was the only other honor for gallantry the Army could award, or recommend a Medal of Honor. Others were belated recognition of actions in the Philippines, during the Boxer Rebellion and on the Mexican Border; the Distinguished Service Cross is distinct from the Distinguished Service Medal, awarded to persons in recognition of exceptionally meritorious service to the government of the United States in a duty of great responsibility.
The Distinguished Service Cross is only awarded for actions in combat, while the Distinguished Service Medal has no such restriction. A cross of bronze, 2 inches high and 1 13⁄16 inches wide with an eagle on the center and a scroll below the eagle bearing the inscription "FOR VALOR". On the reverse side, the center of the cross is circled by a wreath with a space for engraving the name of the recipient; the service ribbon is 1 3⁄8 inches wide and consists of the following stripes: 1⁄8 inch Old Glory Red 67156. The Distinguished Service Cross is awarded to a person who, while serving in any capacity with the Army, distinguishes himself or herself by extraordinary heroism not justifying the award of a Medal of Honor; the act or acts of heroism must have been so notable and have involved risk of life so extraordinary as to set the individual apart from his or her comrades. The following are authorized components of the Distinguished Service Cross: Decoration: MIL-D-3943/4. NSN 8455-00-269-5745 for decoration set.
NSN 8455-00-246-3827 for individual replacement medal. Decoration: MIL-D-3943/4. NSN 8455-00-996-50007. Ribbon: MIL-R-11589/50. NSN 8455-00-252-9919. Lapel Button: MIL-L-11484/1. NSN 8455-00-253-0808. Additional awards of the Army's Distinguished Service Cross are denoted with oak leaf clusters; the Distinguished Service Cross was established by President Woodrow Wilson on January 2, 1918. General Pershing, Commander-in-Chief of the Expeditionary Forces in France, had recommended that recognition other than the Medal of Honor be authorized for the Armed Forces of the United States for valorous service rendered in like manner to that awarded by the European Armies; the request for establishment of the medal was forwarded from the Secretary of War to the President in a letter dated December 28, 1917. The Act of Congress establishing this award, dated July 9, 1918, is contained in 10 U. S. C. § 3742. The establishment of the Distinguished Service Cross was promulgated in War Department General Order No.
6, dated January 12, 1918. The Distinguished Service Cross was designed by J. Andre Smith, an artist employed by the United States Army during World War I; the Distinguished Service Cross was first cast and manufactured by the United States Mint at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The die was cast from the approved design prepared by Captain Aymar E. Embury II, Engineers Officer Reserve Corps. Upon examination of the first medals struck at the Mint, it was considered advisable to make certain minor changes to add to the beauty and the attractiveness of the medal. Due to the importance of the time element involved in furnishing the decorations to General Pershing, one hundred of the medals were struck from the original design; these medals were furnished with the provision that these crosses be replaced when the supply of the second design was accomplished. 10 U. S. C. § 3991 provides for a 10% increase in retired pay for enlisted personnel who have retired with more than 20 years of service if they have been awarded the Distinguished Service Cross.
Order of precedence and wear of decorations is contained in Army Regulation 670-1. Policy for awards, approving authority and issue of decorations is contained in AR 600-8-22. During World War I, 6,309 awards of the Distinguished Service Cross were made to 6,185 recipients. Several dozen Army soldiers, as well as eight marines and two French Army officers, received two Distinguished Service Crosses. A handful Air Service aviators, were decorated three or more times. Eddie Rickenbacker, the top U. S. ace of the war, was awarded a record eight Distinguished Service Crosses, one of, upgraded to the Medal of Honor, while flying with the 94th Aero Squadron. Fellow aviators Douglas Campbell of the 94th, Frank O'Driscoll "Monk" Hunter of the 103rd Aero Squadron each received five. Another 94th aviator, Reed McKinley Chambers, was awarded four Distinguished Service Crosses. Three aviators received three Di
Air Force Cross (United States)
The Air Force Cross is the second highest military award that can be given to a member of the United States Air Force. The Air Force Cross is the Air Force decoration equivalent to the Distinguished Service Cross, the Navy Cross, the Coast Guard Cross; the Air Force Cross is awarded for extraordinary heroism not justifying the award of the Medal of Honor. It may be awarded to any individual who, while serving in any capacity with the U. S. Air Force, herself by extraordinary heroism in combat. Entitled the "Distinguished Service Cross", the Air Force Cross was first proposed in 1947 after the creation of the United States Air Force as a separate armed service; the medal was designed by Eleanor Cox, an employee of the Air Force, was sculpted by Thomas Hudson Jones of the Institute of Heraldry. The Air Force Cross was established by Congress in Public Law 88-593 on July 6, 1960, amending Section 8742 of Title 10, U. S. Code to change the designation of "Distinguished Service Cross" to "Air Force Cross" in case of awards made under Air Force Authority.
Additional awards of the Air Force Cross are annotated by oak leaf clusters, the reverse of every Air Force Cross is engraved with the recipient's name. Title 10, Section 8742. Air Force Cross: Award "The President may award an Air Force Cross of appropriate design, with ribbons and appurtenances, to a person who, while serving in any capacity with the Air Force, distinguishes himself by extraordinary heroism not justifying the award of a Medal of Honor: while engaged in an action against an enemy of the United States; the Air Force Cross consists of a bronze cross with an oxidized satin finish. Centered on the obverse of the cross is a gold-plated American bald eagle, wings displayed against a cloud formation; this design is encircled by a laurel wreath in green enamel, edged in gold. The reverse of the cross is suitable for engraving; the service ribbon has a wide center stripe of Brittany blue with narrow stripes of white and red at the edges. The ribbon is identical to that of the Distinguished Service Cross, except for the lighter blue center stripe, indicating the close connection of these awards.
The first award of that Air Force Cross was made posthumously to Major Rudolf Anderson, a U-2 pilot, for extraordinary heroism during the Cuban Missile Crisis. As of October 2017, there have been 202 awards of the Air Force Cross to 197 individuals. One award, the first made, was for actions in the Cuban Missile Crisis. Three were retroactively awarded for actions in World War II. One hundred eighty were awarded for heroism in the Vietnam War, four for heroism during the 1975 Mayagüez Incident following. Two were awarded for the 1991 Gulf War. One was awarded to combat controller Zachary Rhyner for actions in the Shok Valley, Afghanistan on April 6, 2008. Another was awarded to USAF Pararescueman MSgt Ivan Ruiz for heroism in Kandahar Province, Dec. 10, 2013. On October 17, 2017, the Air Force Cross was awarded to Staff Sergeant Richard Hunter, for actions against the Taliban in Kunduz province Afghanistan on November 2, 2016. Fifty awards have been posthumous, including 30 to members missing in action.
Twenty-four have been awarded including 12 Pararescuemen. Seventeen graduates of the United States Air Force Academy have been presented the award, 13 were awarded for conduct while a prisoner of war. There have been four multiple recipients: James H. Kasler John A. Dramesi Leland T. Kennedy Robinson Risner Maj Rudolf Anderson, Jr.: First recipient, posthumously awarded for valor during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Gen Charles G. Boyd, POW for 7 years and the only Vietnam-era POW to reach the four-star rank. Lt Col Charlie L. Brown: One of the three recipients of the award for actions during World War II, while serving with the United States Army Air Forces, the predecessor of USAF. MSgt John A. Chapman, awarded posthumously for heroism in the Battle of Takur Ghar, during the War in Afghanistan. Upgraded to the Medal of Honor. Col George E. "Bud" Day: Medal of Honor recipient and Vietnam War POW Capt Charles B. "Chuck" DeBellevue: F-4 weapon systems officer ace, credited with six MiG kills, the most of any U.
S. aviator during the Vietnam War. Maj Urban L. Drew: One of the three recipients of the award for actions during World War II, while serving with the United States Army Air Forces, the predecessor of USAF. CMSgt Richard Etchberger: USAF Airman who died in the Battle of Lima Site 85. Award upgraded to Medal of Honor. A2C Duane D. Hackney: Pararescueman decorated for valor in Vietnam. Maj Gen Paul Johnson: an A-10 pilot during the Gulf War, helped rescue a downed pilot behind enemy lines. Lt Col James H. Kasler: Vietnam War fighter pilot and POW. Capt Leland T. Kennedy: Vietnam War rescue helicopter pilot. Brig Gen Robin Olds: World War II and Vietnam War fighter pilot, triple ace. Col Ralph Parr: Korean War fighter ace a recipient of the Distinguished Service Cross. A1C William H. Pitsenbarger: Pararescueman and the f
The Silver Star Medal, unofficially the Silver Star, is the United States Armed Forces's third-highest personal decoration for valor in combat. The Silver Star Medal is awarded to members of the United States Armed Forces for gallantry in action against an enemy of the United States; the Silver Star Medal is the successor award to the "Citation Star", established by an Act of Congress on July 9, 1918, during World War I. On July 19, 1932, the Secretary of War approved the conversion of the "Citation Star" to the SSM with the original "Citation Star" incorporated into the center of the medal. Authorization for the Silver Star Medal was placed into law by an Act of Congress for the U. S. Navy on August 7, 1942, an Act of Congress for the U. S. Army on December 15, 1942; the current statutory authorization for the medal is Title 10 of the United States Code, 10 U. S. C. § 3746 for the U. S. Army, 10 U. S. C. § 8746 for the U. S. Air Force, 10 U. S. C. § 6244 for the U. S. Navy; the U. S. Army and Air Force award the medal as the "Silver Star".
The U. S. Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard continue to award the medal as the "Silver Star Medal". Since 21 December 2016, the Department of Defense refers to the decoration as the Silver Star Medal; the Silver Star Medal is awarded for gallantry, so long as the action does not justify the award of one of the next higher valor awards: the Distinguished Service Cross, the Navy Cross, or the Air Force Cross. The gallantry displayed must have taken place while in action against an enemy of the United States, while engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing foreign force, or while serving with friendly foreign forces engaged in an armed conflict against an opposing armed force in which the United States is not a belligerent party; the Silver Star Medal is awarded for singular acts of valor or heroism over a brief period, such as one or two days of a battle. Air Force pilots and combat systems officers and Navy/Marine Corps naval aviators and flight officers flying fighter aircraft, are considered eligible to receive the Silver Star upon becoming an ace, which entails the pilot and, in multi-seat fighters, the weapons system officer or radar intercept officer and risking his life multiple times under combat conditions and emerging victorious.
However, during the Vietnam War, the last conflict to produce U. S. fighter aces: an Air Force pilot and two navigators/weapon systems officers, a naval aviator and a naval flight officer/radar intercept officer who had achieved this distinction, were awarded the Air Force Cross and Navy Cross in addition to SSMs awarded for earlier aerial kills. Unit award equivalentAir Force – Gallant Unit Citation Army – Valorous Unit Award Coast Guard – Coast Guard Unit Commendation Navy-Marine Corps – Navy Unit Commendation The Silver Star Medal is a gold five-pointed star, 1 1⁄2 inches in circumscribing diameter with a laurel wreath encircling rays from the center and a 3⁄16 inch diameter silver star superimposed in the center; the pendant is suspended from a rectangular shaped metal loop with rounded corners. The reverse has the inscription FOR GALLANTRY IN ACTION; the ribbon is 1 3⁄8 inches wide and consists of the following stripes: 7⁄32 inch Old Glory red. Ribbon devicesSecond and subsequent awards of the Silver Star Medal are denoted by bronze or silver oak leaf clusters in the Army and Air Force and by gold or silver 5⁄16 inch stars in the Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard.
The Department of Defense does not keep extensive records for the Silver Star Medal. Independent groups estimate that between 100,000 and 150,000 SSMs have been awarded since the decoration was established. Colonel David Hackworth, awarded ten SSMs while serving in the Army during the Korean War and Vietnam War, is to be the person awarded the most SSMs. Three Army nurses that served in World War I were cited in 1919 and 1920 with Citation Stars for gallantry in attending to the wounded while under artillery fire in July 1918. In 2007, it was discovered; the three nurses were awarded the Silver Star Medal posthumously: Jane Rignel – Mobile Hospital No. 2, 42nd Division, for gallantry in "giving aid to the wounded under heavy fire" in France on July 15, 1918 Linnie Leckrone – Shock Team No. 134, Field Hospital No. 127, 32nd Division, for gallantry while "attending to the wounded during an artilley bombardment" in France on July 29, 1918 Irene Robar – Shock Team No. 134, Field Hospital No. 127, 32nd Division, for gallantry while "attending to the wounded during an artillery bombardment" in France on July 29, 1918An unknown number of servicewomen received the award in World War II.
Four Army nurses serving in Italy during the war—First Lieutenant Mary Roberts, Second Lieutenant Elaine Roe, Second Lieutenant Rita Virginia Rourke, Second Lieutenant Ellen Ainsworth —became the first women recipients of the Silver Star, all cited for their bravery in evacuating the 33rd Field Hospital at Anzio on February 10, 1944. That same year, Corporal Magdalena Leones, a Filipino American, received the medal for clandestine activities on Luzon; the next known servicewomen to receive the Silver Star is Army National Guard Sergeant Leigh Ann Hester in 2005, for gallantry during an insurgent ambush on a convoy in Iraq and Army
Awards and decorations of the Armed Forces of the Philippines
Awards and decorations of the Armed Forces of the Philippines are military decorations which recognize service and personal accomplishments while a member of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. Medal of Valor Distinguished Conduct Star Distinguished Service Star Gold Cross Medal Philippine Legion of Honor Outstanding Achievement Medal Military Merit Medal Gawad sa Kaunlaran Distinguished Aviation Cross Bronze Cross Medal Silver Wing Medal Military Commendation Medal Wounded Personnel Medal Military Civic Action Medal Kapanalig ng Sandatahang Lakas ng Pilipinas Armed Forces Conduct Medal Sagisag ng Ulirang Kawal Kagitingan Sa Barangay Kagitingan Sa Barangay Kagitingan Sa Barangay Distinguished Honor Medal Superior Honor Medal Civilian Merit Medal Annual Efficiency "E" Award for Naval Vessels Long Service Medal Long Service Medal Philippine Defense Medal & Ribbon Philippine Liberation Medal & Ribbon Resistance Movement Medal Philippine Independence Medal Anti-Dissidence Campaign Medal & Ribbon Luzon Anti-Dissidence Campaign Medal & Ribbon Mindanao Anti-Dissidence Campaign Medal & Ribbon Visayan Anti-Dissidence Campaign Medal & Ribbon Jolo and Sulu Campaign Medal & Ribbon Philippine Korean Campaign Medal United Nations Service Medal & Ribbon Peace and Order Medal Vietnam Service Medal & Ribbon Disaster Relief & Rehabilitation Operation Ribbon Philippine Republic Presidential Unit Citation Badge Martial Law Unit Citation People Power I Unit Citation People Power II Unit Citation Barangay Presidential Unit Citation Badge AFP Enlisted Personnel of the Year Badge AFP ROTC Cadet of the Year Badge AFP Civilian Personnel of the Year Badge Combat Commander's Badge PAF Gold Wings Badge Command at Sea Badge Command Badge Marksmanhip Badge AFP Parachutist Badge Inspector General's Service Badge Adjutant General's Service Badge Infantry's Service Badge Cavalry's Service Badge Artillery's Service Badge Finance's Service Badge Ordnance and Chemical's Service Badge Military Intelligence's Service Badge Quartermaster's Service Badge Psychological Operations Badge Tanglaw Badge AFP Home Defense Badge PAF Aviation Badge Naval Aviation Badge Avionics/Aircraft Maintenance Officer Specialty Badge UOG/Seal Team Badge UOG/SCUBA Diver's Badge AFP Election Duty Badge Enlisted Personnel Administrative Assistant Course Badge Scout Ranger Qualification Badge Special Forces Qualification Badge Air to Ground Operations Badge Naval Surface Warfare Badge Army Aviation Badge Army Instructor Badge Army Readiness Badge AFP Drill Master's Badge Presidential Streamer Secretary of Defense Streamer Chief of Staff, AFP Streamer Commanding General, PA Streamer Commanding General, PAF Streamer Flag Officer-In-Command, PN Streamer Decorations and Medals of the Philippines Philippine Army Website - Awards & Decorations Armed Forces Philippines - Awards & Decorations The AFP Adjutant General, AFP Awards and Decorations Handbook, 1995, 1997, OTAG
Bronze Star Medal
The Bronze Star Medal, unofficially the Bronze Star, is a United States decoration awarded to members of the United States Armed Forces for either heroic achievement, heroic service, meritorious achievement, or meritorious service in a combat zone. When the medal is awarded by the Army and Air Force for acts of valor in combat, the "V" Device is authorized for wear on the medal; when the medal is awarded by the Navy, Marine Corps, Coast Guard for acts of valor or meritorious service in combat, the Combat "V" is authorized for wear on the medal. Officers from the other Uniformed Services of the United States are eligible to receive this award, as are foreign soldiers who have served with or alongside a service branch of the United States Armed Forces. Civilians serving with U. S. military forces in combat are eligible for the award. For example, UPI reporter Joe Galloway was awarded the Bronze Star with "V" Device during the Vietnam War for rescuing a badly wounded soldier under fire in the Battle of la Drang, in 1965.
Another civilian recipient was writer Ernest Hemingway. The Bronze Star Medal was established by Executive Order 9419, 4 February 1944; the Bronze Star Medal may be awarded by the Secretary of a military department or the Secretary of Homeland Security with regard to the Coast Guard when not operating as a service in the Navy, or by such military commanders, or other appropriate officers as the Secretary concerned may designate, to any person who, while serving in any capacity in or with the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, or Coast Guard of the United States, after 6 December 1941, distinguishes, or has distinguished, herself or himself by heroic or meritorious achievement or service, not involving participation in aerial flight— while engaged in an action against an enemy of the United States. The acts of heroism are of a lesser degree than required for the award of the Silver Star; the acts of merit or acts of valor must be less than that required for the Legion of Merit but must have been meritorious and accomplished with distinction.
The Bronze Star Medal is awarded only to service members in combat zones who are receiving imminent danger pay. The Bronze Star Medal may be awarded to each member of the Armed Forces of the United States who, after 6 December 1941, was cited in orders or awarded a certificate for exemplary conduct in ground combat against an armed enemy between 7 December 1941 and 2 September 1945. For this purpose, the US Army's Combat Infantryman Badge or Combat Medical Badge award is considered as a citation in orders. Documents executed since 4 August 1944 in connection with recommendations for the award of decorations of higher degree than the Bronze Star Medal cannot be used as the basis for an award under this paragraph. Effective 11 September 2001, the Meritorious Service Medal may be bestowed in lieu of the Bronze Star Medal for meritorious achievement in a designated combat theater; the Bronze Star Medal was designed by Rudolf Freund of the jewelry firm Banks & Biddle. The medal is a bronze star 1 1⁄2 inches in circumscribing diameter.
In the center is a 3⁄16 inch diameter superimposed bronze star, the center line of all rays of both stars coinciding. The reverse bears the inscription "HEROIC OR MERITORIOUS ACHIEVEMENT" with a space for the name of the recipient to be engraved; the star hangs from its ribbon by a rectangular metal loop with rounded corners. The suspension ribbon is 1 3⁄8 inches wide and consists of the following stripes: 1⁄32 inch white 67101; the Bronze Star Medal with the "V" device to denote heroism is the fourth highest military decoration for valor. Although a service member may be cited for heroism in combat and be awarded more than one Bronze Star authorizing the "V" device, only one "V" may be worn on each suspension and service ribbon of the medal; the following ribbon devices must be authorized in the award citation in order to be worn on the Bronze Star Medal, the criteria for and wear of the devices vary between the services: Oak leaf cluster – In the Army and Air Force, the oak leaf cluster is worn to denote additional awards.
5/16 inch star – In the Navy and Marine Corps and Coast Guard, the 5/16 inch star is worn to denote additional awards. "V" device – In the Army, the "V" is worn to denote "participation in acts of heroism involving conflict with an armed enemy.". Combat "V" – In the Navy and Marine Corps and Coast Guard, the "V" is worn to denote combat heroism or to recognize individuals who are "exposed to personal hazard during direct participation in combat operations". Colonel Russell P. "Red" Reeder conceived the idea of the Bronze Star Medal in 1943. Reeder felt another medal was needed as a ground equivalent of the Air Medal, suggested calling the proposed new award the "Ground Medal"; the idea rose through the military bureaucracy and gained supporters. General George C. Marshall, in a memorandum to President Franklin D. Roosevelt dated 3