Barcelona is a city in Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within city limits, its urban area extends to numerous neighbouring municipalities within the Province of Barcelona and is home to around 4.8 million people, making it the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, Madrid, the Ruhr area and Milan. It is one of the largest metropolises on the Mediterranean Sea, located on the coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs, bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola mountain range, the tallest peak of, 512 metres high. Founded as a Roman city, in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. After merging with the Kingdom of Aragon, Barcelona continued to be an important city in the Crown of Aragon as an economic and administrative centre of this Crown and the capital of the Principality of Catalonia.
Barcelona has a rich cultural heritage and is today an important cultural centre and a major tourist destination. Renowned are the architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner, which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites; the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean are located in Barcelona. The city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics as well as world-class conferences and expositions and many international sport tournaments. Barcelona is one of the world's leading tourist, trade fair and cultural centres, its influence in commerce, entertainment, fashion and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities, it is a major cultural and economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world and a financial centre. In 2008 it was the fourth most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union and 35th in the world with GDP amounting to €177 billion. In 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $170 billion. In 2009 the city was ranked one of the world's most successful as a city brand.
In the same year the city was ranked Europe's fourth best city for business and fastest improving European city, with growth improved by 17% per year, the city has been experiencing strong and renewed growth for the past three years. Since 2011 Barcelona has been a leading smart city in Europe. Barcelona is a transport hub, with the Port of Barcelona being one of Europe's principal seaports and busiest European passenger port, an international airport, Barcelona–El Prat Airport, which handles over 50 million passengers per year, an extensive motorway network, a high-speed rail line with a link to France and the rest of Europe; the name Barcelona comes from the ancient Iberian Barkeno, attested in an ancient coin inscription found on the right side of the coin in Iberian script as, in ancient Greek sources as Βαρκινών, Barkinṓn. Some older sources suggest that the city may have been named after the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca, supposed to have founded the city in the 3rd century BC, but there is no evidence that Barcelona was a Carthaginian settlement, or that its name in antiquity, had any connection with the Barcid family of Hamilcar.
During the Middle Ages, the city was variously known as Barchinona, Barçalona and Barchenona. Internationally, Barcelona's name is wrongly abbreviated to'Barça'. However, this name refers only to the football club; the common abbreviated form used by locals is Barna. Another common abbreviation is'BCN', the IATA airport code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport; the city is referred to as the Ciutat Comtal in Catalan, Ciudad Condal in Spanish, owing to its past as the seat of the Count of Barcelona. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear; the ruins of an early settlement have been found, including different tombs and dwellings dating to earlier than 5000 BC. The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends; the first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules. The second legend attributes the foundation of the city directly to the historical Carthaginian general, Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal, who named the city Barcino after his family in the 3rd century BC, but there is no historical or linguistic evidence that this is true.
In about 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum centred on the "Mons Taber", a little hill near the contemporary city hall. Under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia, or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. Pomponius Mela mentions it among the small towns of the district as it was eclipsed by its neighbour Tarraco, but it may be gathered from writers that it grew in wealth and consequence, favoured as it was with a beautiful situation and an excellent harbour, it enjoyed immunity from imperial burdens. The city minted its own coins. Important Roman vestiges are displayed in Plaça del Rei underground, as a part of the Barcelona City History Museum; some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have been incorporated into the cathedral. The cathedral known as the Basilica La Seu, is said to have been founded in 343; the city
Crane Theological School
The Crane Theological School was a Universalist seminary at Tufts University founded in 1869 as the Tufts College Divinity School and closed in 1968. It was one of three Universalist seminaries founded in America during the nineteenth century. During its history, it granted 281 Bachelor of Divinity degrees, 152 bachelor of sacred theology degrees, two masters of religious education for a total of 435 degrees; the name changed multiple times. Founded as "Tufts College Divinity School", it became "Crane Theological School" in 1906 upon Albert Crane's gift of $100,000 in 1906 in honor of his father, Thomas. In 1925, the school became the "Tufts College School of Religion - Crane Theological School," after extensive discussions, including a conference with the widow of Albert Crane. By the 1960s, the name had shortened again to "Crane Theological School"; the Crane Chapel remains part of the Tufts campus as the Crane Room. The school was one of the Associated Schools of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences from 1903-1962 and 1965-1968.
The school was never denominationally controlled, nor was it accredited by the American Association of Theological Schools. Universalist layman and major Tufts supporter Silvanus Packard founded the school with a bequest in 1869; the divinity school was housed on the second floor of Ballou Hall. With the construction of West Hall in 1872, divinity students were offered accommodation there. In 1891, students saw the building of separate quarters for the school with the construction of Miner and Paige halls. Miner Hall provided classroom and office space for the school while Paige Hall served as a dormitory and chapel. Miner Hall was constructed in 1891 to serve as headquarters for the School of Theology and was named for Alonzo A. Miner, second president of Tufts College and the major donor to the project. Paige Hall was built in 1892 to serve as a dormitory for Theological School Students and bears the name of Lucius R. Paige, Universalist minister and trustee 1859–1896. In 1902, the school began to offer a combined 5-year A.
B./S. T. B.. Between 1910 and 1915, both Miner and Paige halls became home to the newly established Jackson College for Women, until women were integrated into the rest of Tufts in 1915 and the facilities were returned to the Crane School. During World War I, the school's buildings were taken for use as barracks and training facilities and Dean McCollester held classes for the handful of students enrolled in his living room for the duration of hostilities. In 1929, architects George and Ruffing designed Crane chapel as an addition to Paige Hall along with the two-level Fischer arcade connecting it to Miner Hall. Designed as an adaptation of a chapel in Oxford, the oak paneling was brought from Warwick Forest in England. By 1945, the school had no endowment and faculty. After the 1951 destruction by fire of Fisher Hall, the main building of the Universalist St. Lawrence Theological School, Ratcliff favored merging the two schools, an offer which St. Lawrence rejected; the next year included a fundraising drive by Tufts.
The school launched into its own fundraising program, although this was unsuccessful. In 1953, when Dean Ratcliff died unexpectedly, Eugene Ashton, a Congregational minister and assistant chaplain of Tufts, was appointed to replace him until a successor could be found. Shortly before his successor's appointment in 1954, Ashton released a report on the school arguing that it was "not in a healthy state", he observed that of 151 men enrolled between 1947 and 1952, 80 were non-graduates. The American Unitarian Association Board of Trustees in 1959 appointed a commission to study theological education in anticipation of merger with the Universalists. In 1962, the report advocated the merger of St. Lawrence and Crane, the 1964 General Assembly debated a resolution that advocated a merger with Star King or Meadville, however neither attempt was successful; the lack of funds to continue operation was the main reason for closing Crane. The school operated with a deficit for a number of years—in 1964 half of the $90,000 Crane budget required funding from Tufts general operating fund.
In 1962, Crane disassociated itself from the faculty of arts and sciences to report directly to the trustees. While the aim was to become a graduate school independent of a college, resources were inadequate for a quasi-independent existence, in 1965 the faculties recombined; the program would have included an undergraduate degree for admission called for elimination of the combined AB/STB program. In 1967, the trustees reached the decision to close the school the following year. A number of factors contributed to the decision; the committee that recommended closure gave finances as the primary reason, estimating $250,000 per year was required to operate the school, with no funding prospects, as the Tufts operating deficit in 1967 was more than $500,000. However, the trustees' June 1967 recommendation for closure cited that the school had not "maintained its place of considerable distinction in theological education."Tufts President Hallowell was given authority by a Massachusetts state court to dispose of school funds, he created the Crane Program fund amounting to $213,000 in 1972 to support Tufts's religion department and chaplaincy, as well as scholarships for students pursuing liberal ministry and social welfare work.
The Crane Library Collection was always a part of the Tufts University Library and was now retained by the university library.
International Council of Unitarians and Universalists
The International Council of Unitarians and Universalists is an umbrella organization founded in 1995 bringing together many Unitarian and Unitarian Universalist organizations. The size of the affiliated organizations varies widely; some groups represent only a few hundred people. The original initiative for its establishment was contained in a resolution of the General Assembly of Unitarian and Free Christian Churches in 1987; this led to the establishment of the Advocates for the Establishment of an International Organization of Unitarians, which worked towards creating the council. However, the General Assembly resolution provided no funding; the Unitarian Universalist Association became interested in the establishment of a council when it had to deal with an increasing number of applications for membership from congregations outside North America. It had granted membership to congregations in Adelaide, the Philippines and Pakistan, congregations in Sydney and Spain had applied for membership.
Rather than admit congregations from all over the world, the UUA hoped that they would join a world council instead. The UUA thus became willing to provide funding for the council's establishment; as a result, the council was established at a meeting in Essex, United States on 23–26 March 1995. The Preamble to the Constitution of the International Council of Unitarians and Universalists reads: We, the member groups of the International Council of Unitarians and Universalists, affirming our belief in religious community based on: liberty of conscience and individual thought in matters of faith, the inherent worth and dignity of every person. Justice and compassion in human relations, responsible stewardship in human relations, our commitment to democratic principles,declare our purposes to be: to serve the Infinite Spirit of Life and the human community by strengthening the worldwide Unitarian and Universalist faith, to affirm the variety and richness of our living traditions, to facilitate mutual support among member organizations, to promote our ideals and principles around the world, to provide models of liberal religious response to the human condition which upholds our common values.
Australian and New Zealand Unitarian Universalist Association, 500 members Brazilian Unitarian Association Burundi Unitarian Church Canadian Unitarian Council, 5,150 Czech Republic: Náboženská společnost českých unitářů Denmark: Unitarisk Kirkesamfund, 55 families European Unitarian Universalists, 120 members across Europe Finland: Unitarian Universalist Society of Finland, 22 members Germany: Unitarier - Religionsgemeinschaft freien Glaubens Hungary: Unitarian Church of Hungary, 25,000 members India: The Indian Council of Unitarian Churches, which includes the Khasi Unitarian Union, 9,000 members, the Unitarian Christian Church of Madras, 225 members Indonesia Global Church of God, around 200 members Netherlands: Vrijzinnige Geloofsgemeenschap NPB, 4,385 members, 60 congregations Nigeria: First Unitarian Church of Nigeria and Ijo Isokan Gbogbo Eda Norwegian Unitarian Church Philippines: Unitarian Universalist Church of the Philippines founded 1954, 2000 members Romania: Unitarian Church of Transylvania, 80,000 members South Africa: Unitarian Church of South Africa, 110 members Spain: Unitarian Universalist Society of Spain, 55 members UK: General Assembly of Unitarian and Free Christian Churches, 6,000 members USA: Unitarian Universalist Association, 162,796 Kosciol Unitarianski, 80 attendees and friends.
Polish Unitarians have reported a need for a period of reorganization, that at this time they are unable to maintain the level of activity needed to be full Council members, be it moved that membership of these groups be suspended. This action is taken with regret and the ICUU looks forward to welcoming Poland back into membership at the earliest possible date. Churches and religious associations which have expressed their will to become members of the Council may be admitted as "Provisional Members" for a period of time, until the Council decides that they have shown their organizational stability, affinity with the ICUU principles and commitment to deserve becoming Full Members of the Council. Provisional Members can not vote. Kenyan Unitarians According to the Bylaws of the ICUU, Emerging Groups are "applicants that are deemed to be reasonable prospects for membership, but do not fulfil the conditions of either Provisional membership or Full Membership"; these groups may be designated as Emerging Groups by the Executive Committee upon its sole discretion.
Emerging Groups may be invited as observers to General Meetings. The current list of Emerging Groups after the last meeting of the Executive Committee is as follows: Congo Unitarians French Unitarians Unitarian Universalists Hong Kong—Hong Kong Italian Unitarians Mexico Organizations with beliefs and purposes akin to those of ICUU but which by nature of their constitution are not eligible for full membership or which do not wish to become full members now or in the foreseeable future, may become Associates of the ICUU; the application must be approved by the ICUU Council Meeting. Peace and Harmony Center—Ushuaia, Argentina Christian Unitarian Church of Argentina—Buenos
Beacon Press is an American non-profit book publisher. Founded in 1854 by the American Unitarian Association, it is a department of the Unitarian Universalist Association. Under director Gobin Stair, new authors included James Baldwin, Kenneth Clark, André Gorz, Herbert Marcuse, Jürgen Habermas, Howard Zinn, Ben Bagdikian, Mary Daly, Jean Baker Miller. Wendy Strothman became Beacon's director in 1983, she turned a budget deficit into a surplus. In 1995, her last year at Beacon, Strothman summarized the Press's mission: "We at Beacon publish the books we choose because they share a moral vision and a sense that greater understanding can influence the course of events, they are books we believe in." Strothman was replaced by Helene Atwan in 1995. In 1971, it published the "Senator Gravel edition" of The Pentagon Papers for the first time in book form, when no other publisher was willing to risk publishing such controversial material. Robert West, then-president of the Unitarian Universalist Association, approved the decision to publish The Pentagon Papers, which West claims resulted in two-and-a-half years of harassment and intimidation by the Nixon administration.
In Gravel v. United States, the Supreme Court decided that the Constitution's "Speech or Debate Clause" protected Gravel and some acts of his aide, but not Beacon Press. Beacon Press seeks to publish works that "affirm and promote" several principles: the inherent worth and dignity of every person. Beacon Press is a member of the Association of American University Presses. Beacon Press publishes non-fiction and poetry titles; some of Beacon's best-known titles are listed below. In 2009, Beacon Press announced a new partnership with the Estate of Martin Luther King Jr. for a new publishing program, "The King Legacy." As part of the program, Beacon is printing new editions of published King titles and compiling Dr. King's writings, orations and prayers into new editions, including new introductions by leading scholars. Beacon Press launched its blog, Beacon Broadside, in late September 2007. In 1992, Beacon won a New England Book Award for publishing. In 1993, Beacon was voted "Trade Publisher of the Year" by the Literary Market Place.
Skinner House Books, another book publisher of the UUA, specializing in books for Unitarian Universalists Wilson, Susan. "Beacon's Modern Era: 1945–2003," Journal of Scholarly Publishing 35#4 pp. 200–209 online Beacon Press's Home Page Democracy Now! Special: "How the Pentagon Papers Came to Be Published by the Beacon Press: Mike Gravel, Daniel Ellsberg, Robert West
A Coruña is a city and municipality of Galicia, Spain. It is the second most populated city in the autonomous community and seventeenth overall in the country; the city is the provincial capital of the province of the same name, having served as political capital of the Kingdom of Galicia from the 16th to the 19th centuries, as a regional administrative centre between 1833 and 1982, before being replaced by Santiago de Compostela. A Coruña is a busy port located on a promontory in the Golfo Ártabro, a large gulf on the Atlantic Ocean, it provides a distribution point for agricultural goods from the region. In English, use of the Spanish or Galician forms now predominates. However, the traditional English form Corunna can persist in reference to the Battle of Corunna in the Peninsular War. Archaically, English-speakers knew the city as "The Groyne" from French La Corogne. In Spain, the only official form of the name is now the Galician one: "A Coruña". Nonetheless, use of the Spanish form, La Coruña, remains widespread, it is the traditional name in Spanish recommended by the Real Academia Española for texts in Spanish.
Certain groups of people have advocated elevating the reintegrationist spelling "Corunha" to official status, pointing to the provisions of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 and claiming that it is unconstitutional to stipulate use of the Real Academia Galega spelling, but they have not been successful as of 2018. There is no clear evidence as to, it seems to be from Crunia, of unknown meaning. At the time of Ferdinand II of León the name Crunia was documented for the first time; as usual in Galician-Portuguese, the cluster ni evolved into the sound, written n, nn or nh in old Galician orthography, nn in Spanish, nh in Portuguese and alternative Galician spelling. "A" is the Galician article equivalent to English the. One proposed etymology derives Crunia from the town in France. During its height the Cluniac religious movement became prominent in Europe. There is another town named Coruña in Burgos Province. Another possibility is that the name means "The Crown"; the Galician word for "crown" is coroa.
It is possible it came about through changes to the French La Couronne meaning "the Crown". It seems less that it traces back to the Galician clunia. A folk etymology incorrectly derives Tower of Hercules. A Coruña is located on a peninsula, its isthmus was at times formed only by a small strip of sand. Erosion and sea currents caused a progressive accumulation of sand, enlarging it to its present dimensions. A Coruña has five parishes or "parroquias": A Coruña Elviña Oza San Cristovo das Viñas Visma A Coruña has a warm-summer mediterranean climate in the Köppen climate classification moderated by the Atlantic Ocean. Autumn and winter are unsettled and unpredictable, with strong winds and abundant rainfall coming from Atlantic depressions, it is overcast; the ocean keeps temperatures mild, frost and snow are rare. Summers are sunny, with only occasional rainfall. Spring is cool and calm; the warmest month on record was subdued, being August 2003 with an average high temperature of 25 °C. Temperatures above 25 °C occur many days in the summer, while temperatures above 30 °C are infrequent.
A Coruña spread onto the mainland. The oldest part, known popularly in Galician as Cidade Vella, Cidade Alta or the Cidade, is built on an ancient Celtic castro, it was inhabited by the Brigantes and Artabrians, the Celtic tribes of the area. The Romans came to the region in the 2nd century BC, the colonisers made the most of the strategic position and soon the city became quite important in maritime trade. In 62 BC Julius Caesar came to the city in pursuit of the metal trade, establishing commerce with what are now France and Portugal; the town began growing during the 1st and 2nd centuries, but declined after the 4th century and with the incursions of the Normans, which forced the population to flee towards the interior of the Estuary of O Burgo. After the fall of the Roman Empire, A Coruña still had a commercial port connected to foreign countries, but contacts with the Mediterranean were replaced by a more Atlantic-oriented focus; the process of deurbanisation that followed the fall of the Roman Empire affected A Coruña.
Between the 7th and 8th centuries, the city was no more than a little village of labourers and sailors. The 11th-century Chronica iriense names Faro do Burgo as one of the dioceses that king Miro granted to the episcopate of Iria Flavia in the year 572: "Mirus Rex Sedi suae Hiriensi contulit Dioceses, scilicet Morratium, Bregantinos, Farum..."""The Muslim invasion of the Iberian peninsula left no archaeological evidence in the northwest, so it cannot be said whether or not the Muslim invaders reached the city. As Muslim rule in early 8th century Galicia consisted little more than a short-lived overlordship of th
Canadian Unitarian Universalist Women's Association
Canadian Unitarian Universalist Women's Association is a Canadian Unitarian Universalist women's rights organization, an associate member of the Canadian Unitarian Council. The association wants to close the gender gap. For example, research has shown that in businesses, women have less than one-fifth of a chance to get promoted and move up the company. Before the official Canadian Unitarian Universalist Women's Association was established, it was called the Canadian Unitarian Universalist Women's Federation that wanted to raise awareness for women's education, human rights, equality of income. In doing so, they got participants from Prairie Women's Gathering and the Vancouver Island Women's retreat which got them a pre-conference workshop in Victoria. At this meeting, many women were attracted to this organization and many Canadian women were there. From there, they changed the name to Canadian Unitarian Universalist Women's Association and is the first national women movement in Canada; the Canadian Unitarian Universalist Women's Association main mission is to raise awareness of women history.
In the past years, women weren't acknowledged for their works. The Association aims to change the attitudes society placed on women and inform our society of the issues that women have dealt with on a national and international level. Women have always faced a gender wage gap from men and deserves to get paid for their contributions. In addition, the Canadian Unitarian Universalist Women's Association wants to circulate educational learning materials that highlight their work to prove to others of their contributions. Women deserve to deserve more recognition; the women's movement hopes to have access to the women members in the congregation of their contributions and responsibilities that are affiliated with the Unitarian Universalist in Canada. In addition, the movement hopes to achieve other women individuals to step up and join this organization; the Canadian Unitarian Universalist Women's Association are hosting annual meetings located in Host City or the Canadian Unitarian Council Annual Conference and hopes others will come out to support it.
List of women's organizations Official website
USC Canada is a non-profit, international development organization working to improve livelihoods by promoting agricultural biodiversity. The organization was founded in 1945 by Lotta Hitschmanova as the Unitarian Service Committee of Canada. USC Canada’s mission is to promote sustainable living through strong rural communities with family farms and healthy ecosystems; the Canadian organization partners with programs in Africa and Latin America to provide training and to promote self-sustaining communities that strengthen biodiversity, food sovereignty, the human rights. As of 2017, the organization is run by a staff of 30, most of whom are based in Ottawa, Canada. USC Canada's award-winning flagship program, Seeds of Survival was featured in a National Geographic article in July, 2011. USC Canada works to influence global food production policies and practices that nurture fertile landscapes, regenerating the water and vegetation that seeds and animals depend on. Lotta Hitschmanova founded the organization in 1945, receiving registered charity status on August 30 of that year.
She served as Executive Director for nearly 40 years, retiring in 1982. Throughout her career, her work took her to newly independent countries. Through Public Service Announcements on television and radio, Hitschmanova became one of Canada’s most recognized humanitarians and public figures, her distinctive Czech accent as she pronounced USC Canada’s address, 56 Sparks Street, Ottawa became an unforgettable signature. She mobilized a whole generation to take action and help. Today, USC Canada works in 12 countries including Canada; the organization's mission is to "build food sovereignty by working with partners to enhance biodiversity, promote ecological food systems, counter inequity."In 2013, USC Canada partnered with Seeds of Diversity Canada to start The Bauta Family Initiative on Canadian Seed Security. This initiative is building a movement for resilient seed systems across Canada. Working with farmers, seed producers and partners from civil society and business, the program conserves and advances biodiversity, maintains public access to seed, delivers research and training programs on ecological seed production, promotes the wisdom and knowledge of farmers.
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