William Clarke (cricketer)
William Clarke was an English cricketer and team manager who played first-class cricket from 1826 to 1855. He founded and captained the All-England Eleven, he has been described as "one of certain figures who, in the history of cricket, stand like milestones along the way". Clarke died at Wandsworth in Surrey. In the late 1820s, he lost sight in one eye after being struck there by a fives ball on the court behind the Bell Inn in Nottingham. Clarke was a bricklayer by trade, but from his earnings as a bowler and an advantageous marriage he was able in 1837 to take up the traditional cricketer's trade of publican, he married Mary Chapman, the landlady of the Trent Bridge Inn, they arranged for the land behind the inn to be made available. He opened the enclosed Trent Bridge cricket ground behind the inn and, from July 1840, it became the main venue for Nottinghamshire matches instead of the Forest racecourse, not enclosed. A stand at Trent Bridge has been named after Clarke. Clarke was a great spin bowler.
He began his first-class career as roundarm bowling was being introduced but he decided to persist with the slow right-arm underarm leg-spin he had learned as a boy. In his career, he took 795 wickets at the outstanding average of 10.06 in 143 known first-class matches with a best analysis of 9/29. He took five wickets in ten wickets in a match 26 times, he was a moderate batsman, scoring first-class 2133 runs at an average of 10.35 with a highest score of 75. He took 55 catches. Clarke played in the inaugural North v. South fixture at Lord's, this being his first appearance there, he is believed to be the only player to take a first-class hat-trick that included the same batsman twice. Besides his bowling, Clarke's greatest attribute was his leadership, he was an astute tactician and the sport's first tactical captain who could "think out" the opposition by means of planned field positions and rotation of his bowlers. Taking the reins from Joseph Dennis, Clarke captained the old Nottingham town club from 1830 and automatically succeeded to the captaincy of Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club when it was formed out of the town club in various stages between 1835 and 1840.
In 1845, Clarke had become a ground bowler at Lord's as an MCC employee. Another ground bowler was William Lillywhite. Clarke had a great season in 1845 and few batsmen could play him well. Although most MCC ground staff were satisfied with their pay, Clarke was not and in 1846 he decided to take matters into his own hands. In August 1846, when the MCC season finished, he formed the All-England Eleven as a touring team of leading players to play matches at big city venues in the "unfashionable but prosperous" North of England; the team played three matches in 1846 against 18 of Manchester and 18 of Yorkshire. Clarke's team was indeed a top-class side worthy of its title and the matches in Sheffield and Leeds were a huge success. Clarke's touring team continued for several years to showcase the best players of the day and the venture became profitable for the entrepreneurial Clarke, careful to pay his players more than MCC did to keep them interested, he kept the surplus for himself and became wealthy.
John Arlott wrote of him: "He was the first man to make a fortune out of cricket. Because of its strength, the AEE played sides composed of twenty-two men, though these odds were reduced when opposed to such sides as Sheffield, some county teams and the rival United All-England Eleven. Birley, Derek. A Social History of English Cricket. Aurum. Bowen, Rowland. Cricket: A History of its Growth and Development. Eyre & Spottiswoode. Haygarth, Arthur. Scores & Biographies, Volumes 2–9. Lillywhite. Major, John. More Than a Game. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-718364-7. Sutton, JF; the Date-Book of Remarkable and Memorable Events Connected with Nottingham and its Neighbourhood: 1750–1850. Simpkin & Marshall. West Norwood Cemetery's Sportsmen, Friends of West Norwood Cemetery, 1995 Media related to William Clarke at Wikimedia Commons William Clarke at ESPNcricinfo Notts County Cricket Club – Early Nottinghamshire cricketers
Inter-county cricket matches are known to have been played since the early 18th century, involving teams that are representative of the historic counties of England and Wales. Since the late 19th century, there have been two county championship competitions played at different levels: the County Championship, a first-class competition which involves eighteen first-class county clubs among which seventeen are English and one is from Wales. County cricket started in the eighteenth century, the earliest known inter-county match being played in 1709, though an official County Championship was not instituted until 1890. Having been badly hit by the Seven Years' War, county cricket ceased altogether during the Napoleonic Wars and there was a period from 1797 to 1824 during which no inter-county matches took place. Inter-county cricket was popular throughout the 18th century, although the best team, such as Kent in the 1740s or Hampshire in the days of the famous Hambledon Club, was acknowledged as such by being matched against All-England.
The most successful county teams were Hampshire, Middlesex and Sussex. There was, however a crossover between town and county with some strong local clubs tending at times to represent a whole county. Examples are London, which played against county teams and was in some respects a county club in itself. One of the best county teams in the late 18th century was Berkshire, which no longer has first-class status. All matches prior to 1988 were scheduled for three days of a nominal six hours each plus intervals, but with the first two days lengthened by up to an hour and the final day shortened, so that teams with fixtures elsewhere on the following day could travel at sensible hours; the exception to this was the 1919 season, when there was an experiment with two-day matches played over longer hours, up to nine o'clock in the evening in mid-summer. This experiment was not repeated. From 1988 to 1992 some matches were played over four days. From 1993 onward, all matches have been scheduled for four days.
The eighteen first-class counties are the top league cricket teams. They include one Welsh county, Glamorgan; the English first-class counties are: The full name of the cricket team is formed from the name of the county followed by the words County Cricket Club, which are abbreviated as CCC. The opening first-class game of an English county cricket season has traditionally been played at Lord's between the MCC and the Champion County; when the Marylebone Cricket Club plays against one of the first-class counties, the game is granted first-class status. The six MCC-sponsored University teams, are afforded first-class status for some of their matches against a first-class county, they are: Cambridge MCCU Oxford MCCU Durham MCCU Loughborough MCCU Cardiff MCCU Leeds/Bradford MCCU Most of the first-class counties play three-day games against university cricket teams in the early part of the English cricket season. This is because the start of the cricket season coincides with the end of the university academic year, because the games act as pre-season warm-ups for the county clubs.
The minor counties are the cricketing counties of England. Present members are: Eastern Division Bedfordshire County Cricket Club Buckinghamshire County Cricket Club Cambridgeshire County Cricket Club Cumberland County Cricket Club Hertfordshire County Cricket Club Lincolnshire County Cricket Club Norfolk County Cricket Club Northumberland County Cricket Club Staffordshire County Cricket Club Suffolk County Cricket ClubWestern Division Berkshire County Cricket Club Cheshire County Cricket Club Cornwall County Cricket Club Devon County Cricket Club Dorset County Cricket Club Herefordshire County Cricket Club Oxfordshire County Cricket Club Shropshire County Cricket Club Wales Minor Counties Cricket Club Wiltshire County Cricket Club Some teams outside of the English counties have been allowed to take part in some English county cricket one-day competitions, they include: Ireland Netherlands Scotland Denmark Unicorns An important year was 1873, when player qualification rules came into force, requiring players to choose at the start of each season whether they would play for the county of their birth or their county of residence.
Before this, it was quite common for a player to play for both counties during the course of a single season. Three meetings were held, at the last of these, held at The Oval on 9 June 1873, the following rules were decided on: That no cricketer, whether amateur or professional, shall play for more than one county during the same season; every cricketer born in one county and residing in another shall be free to choose at the commencement of each season for which of those counties he will play, shall, during that season, play for the one county only. A cricketer shall be qualified to play for the county in which he is residing and has resided for the previous two years: or a cricketer may elect to play for the county in which his family home is, so long as it remains open to him as an occasional residence; that should any question arise as to the residential qualification, the same shall be left to the decision of the Marylebone Cricket Club
Norman Alan Stewart Gibson was an English journalist and radio broadcaster, best known for his work in connection with cricket, though he sometimes covered football and rugby union. At various times Alan Gibson was a university lecturer, poet, BBC radio producer, Baptist lay preacher and Liberal Party parliamentary candidate. Alan Gibson was born at Sheffield in Yorkshire, but the family moved to Leyton, on the north-eastern outskirts of London, when he was seven, subsequently to the West Country, where he attended Taunton School. Apart from his time at university, he spent all his subsequent life in that region, most of his cricket reporting being of Somerset and Gloucestershire matches. After school he went to Queen's College, where he gained a First in history and was elected President of the Oxford Union, though he never took office because of being called for National Service. Gibson was a member of the Liberal Party and served as President of the Falmouth and Camborne Liberal Association.
He stood as parliamentary candidate for that constituency at the 1959 General election but came third. He was a travelling lecturer with University College, before getting a job with the West Region of the BBC Radio Home Service; that led him into cricket commentary on matches in the region, though he did not do much of this until leaving the BBC staff and becoming a freelance. He graduated to national broadcasts, including appearances on Test Match Special from 1962 to 1975, he was a presenter of the BBC West regional TV news magazine programme Westward Ho! during 1953. Between 1955 and 1966, with his fellow compere Derek Jones, he presented a Saturday morning radio programme for the West Region called Good Morning!, interspersing popular music with unscripted chat between the presenters. He was the narrator for the short documentary film Falmouth for Orders in 1965 and for three episodes of the BBC TV natural history series The World About Us between 1968 and 1973. Subsequently he did some TV cricket commentary on county matches for HTV.
He wrote on cricket at various times for The Sunday Telegraph, The Guardian, The Spectator and The Cricketer. From 1967 until 1986 he was a cricket reporter for The Times, he reported rugby union, in print and on radio. He appeared on the radio shows Round Britain Quiz. In 1961 he joined the recently-launched Westward Television to present Westward Diary after "he had been involved in a disagreement with the West Region authorities of the BBC over a comment he is alleged to have made in a two-way records programme with Derek Jones"; as a cricket commentator he was articulate and drily humorous. On a Saturday afternoon sport programme, Neil Durden-Smith once mentioned that he had been having tea with the Bishop of Leicester. On being cued in, Gibson began his commentary stint with: "No episcopal visitations here." His cricket writing for The Times was light-hearted concentrating more on his journey to the match than on the cricket itself. On at least one occasion his day's report was published though rain had prevented any cricket from taking place.
In his pieces he coined the descriptions "the Sage of Longparish" for his colleague John Woodcock, "the Demon of Frome" for Colin Dredge of Somerset, the Old Bald Blighter for Brian Close and "the Shoreditch Sparrow" for Robin Jackman. Woodcock said concerning their reports for The Times: "I write about the cricket, Alan writes about'A Day at the Cricket'." His cricket books, though still containing plenty of humour, were more serious affairs and well researched. In 1975 he was chosen to give the address at the memorial service for Sir Neville Cardus, held at St Paul's, Covent Garden; this was printed in the following year's edition of Wisden Cricketer's Almanack. He was elected the first President of the Cricket Writers' Club in 1982. Not a robust man, he had spells of depression, once spending some time in a psychiatric hospital, he had a drink problem. His reports for The Times referred to his regular appearances at'The Star' public house in High Littleton, where he lived, reports of matches involving Gloucestershire invariably mentioned the GRIP – the Gloriously Red-headed Imperturbable Pamela, the barmaid in the main pavilion bar at the County Ground at Bristol.
He married twice: to Olwen Thomas in 1948 and to Rosemary King in 1968. Both marriages produced both ended in divorce, he died at Taunton in Somerset. Jackson's Year: The Test Matches of 1905, Sportsman Book Club, 1966. A Mingled Yarn, Collins, 1976. ISBN 0-00-216115-X Growing Up With Cricket - Some Memories of a Sporting Education, George Allen & Unwin, 1985. ISBN 0-04-796099-X The Cricket Captains of England, The Pavilion Library, 1989. ISBN 1-85145-390-3 West Country Treasury: A Compendium of Lore and Literature and Places, Ex Libris Press, 1989, ISBN 0-948578-19-X Of Didcot and the Demon: The Cricketing Times of Alan Gibson, Fairfield Books, 2009, ISBN 978-0-9560702-5-8 Wisden obituary Another Wisden piece Cricinfo profile Gibson, Alan. Growing Up With Cricket - Some Memories of a Sporting Education, George Allen & Unwin, 1985. ISBN 0-04-796099-X
William Clarke's All-England Eleven
The All-England Eleven was an itinerant all-professional first-class cricket team created in 1846 by Nottinghamshire cricketer William Clarke. Known by its acronym AEE, it took advantage of opportunities offered by the newly developed railways to play against local teams throughout Great Britain and made its profit by receiving payments from the home clubs. In 1852, some players broke away from the AEE to form the United All-England Eleven. Similar enterprises were launched in the following years including the United North of England Eleven and Edgar Willsher's United South of England Eleven which became associated with WG Grace. Clarke, as well as being the manager, was the captain of the AEE team until his death in 1856, he was succeeded by his Nottinghamshire colleague George Parr who agreed that the AEE and UEE should play against each other, something that Clarke would not allow. In 1859, the first England national cricket team was formed as a composite of the AEE and the UEE to tour North America.
With the rise of county cricket and the introduction of international cricket, the travelling elevens lost influence and popularity. The AEE faded from the scene and had disappeared by 1880. In the late 1840s, Nottinghamshire CCC player William Clarke recognised that a professional touring eleven could enhance the local and fragmented popularity of cricket. In 1846, he founded what would become known as the "All-England Eleven" as an all-professional team that played a few games in the North of England against more-than-eleven local teams, he called his side "Eleven of England". The squad arguably comprised the best English professional players of the time, as well as two nominally "amateur" cricketers, Alfred Mynn and Nicholas Felix; the All-England Eleven was inundated with requests for fixtures and received a payment from its opponents. During the following years, helped by the development of railways, the team toured Great Britain, doing much to increase the popularity of the game in areas that had not seen high class cricket.
The players were better paid by Clarke than they were by the Marylebone Cricket Club or the counties, but Clarke, captain as well as manager of the team, received by far the largest part of the profit. In 1852 some of the professionals, led by John Wisden and Jemmy Dean, were dissatisfied by Clarke's ungenerous and undemocratic behaviour and sought larger wages, they created the United All-England Eleven. Other similar teams appeared from the late 1850s. George Parr led the team after Clarke's death in 1856. From 1857 the two main "All-England Elevens" played against each other. In 1859, six members of each team composed the squad of the first overseas touring English team, which several played games in the United States and in Canada. Derek Birley, A Social History of English Cricket, Aurum, 1999 John Major, More Than A Game, HarperCollins, 2007
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
William Caffyn, known as Billy Caffyn, was an English cricketer who played for Surrey County Cricket Club and various England representative sides. Caffyn was died in 1919 aged 91 in the town, he made five appearances for New South Wales, two for Kent and one for Lancashire as well as appearing five times for Marylebone Cricket Club. Caffyn was a genuine all-rounder being a sound middle order right-handed batsman and a effective rightarm medium fast roundarm bowler, he played a major part in the success of Surrey during the 1850s. Caffyn's known first-class career spanned the 1849 to 1873 seasons, he took 602 wickets in 200 matches at an average of 13.47 runs each with a best analysis of 9/29. He took five wickets in 10 wickets in an innings 11 times, he scored 5885 runs at an average of 17.99 with a highest score of 103. He took 149 catches. In 1860 whilst employed as a professional at Winchester College he played and beat an XI of the Town of Winchester single handed by 28 runs. Caffyn made scores of 35 and 1, with two men fielding for him he bowled out the opposition for 4 and 4.
At the end of the 1859 English cricket season, Caffyn was one of the 12 players who took part in cricket's first-ever overseas tour when an England cricket team led by George Parr visited North America. Caffyn was instrumental in the early development of Australian cricket and the establishment of Anglo-Australian competition. Known in England as the Surrey Pet, he came to Australia with a sponsored 1861/62 team which consisted of Surrey cricketers, again in 1864 after which he stayed on as coach of the Melbourne Cricket Club. After a term in Melbourne, he moved to Sydney where he started a hairdressing business with his wife and coached at the Warwick Club. During this time he was associated with fellow ex-Surrey professional cricketer Charles Lawrence who coached at the Albert Cricket Club in Sydney. In his book Seventy-one Not Out he wrote: The cricket out there in the ten years that have elapsed between the first visit of an English eleven and my leaving the country had made phenomenal improvement...
It is a source of the greatest satisfaction to me that I have in some measure contributed to the successful state of things. Caffyn has the distinction of bowling the first ball in the first match between a team from England and Australia at the Melbourne Cricket Ground which took place on New Year's Day in 1862 in which his visiting England XI were up against a Victorian XVIII, he played in the first Anglo-Australian first-class cricket match, played from 1 March 1862 and dubbed The World v Surrey at the MCG. The first Test match was not played until 15 years in March 1877, he returned to England in May 1871 and died at his home in Surrey at the age of 91. His house still remains at'Sydneyville' 20 Parkgate Road, unaltered from the time he resided there, the name a testament to his time in Australia. John Arlott rated his book of reminiscences Seventy-one Not out, edited by "Mid-On". Arlott wrote: "...despite its literary limitations, Seventy-one Not out is an essential book for anyone who wants to understand the history of cricket."
History of Test cricket William Caffyn at ESPNcricinfo William Caffyn, Seventy-one not out: the reminiscences of William Caffyn, edited by "Mid-on", Blackwood, 1899 H S Altham, A History of Cricket, Volume 1, George Allen & Unwin, 1926 Derek Birley, A Social History of English Cricket, Aurum, 1999 Rowland Bowen, Cricket: A History of its Growth and Development, Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1970 Arthur Haygarth, Scores & Biographies, Volumes 3-9, Lillywhite, 1862–1867 John Major, More Than A Game, HarperCollins, 2007 – includes the famous 1859 touring team photo taken on board ship at Liverpool Chris Harte, A History of Australian Cricket, Andre Deutsch, 1993 Jack Egan, The Story of Cricket in Australia, Macmillan Australia, 1987
James "Jemmy" Dean was an English first-class cricketer with professional status. Associated with Sussex, he is recorded in 305 matches from 1835 to 1861 which are designated first-class by CricketArchive, totalling 5,115 runs at an average of 10.54 with a highest score of 99, holding 206 catches and taking 1,144 wickets with a best analysis of 9/34. Dean achieved 5 wickets in 10 wickets in a match 18 times, his nephews David and James, both played first-class cricket. Dean was more notable as a bowler, he bowled right arm fast with a roundarm action. A good fielder, he played as a wicketkeeper. Although a Sussex player, Dean played for numerous other teams but for the United All-England Eleven, from 1853 to 1858, of which he was the co-founder with his friend John Wisden. From 1848 to 1852, he had represented the All-England Eleven. In Scores & Biographies, Arthur Haygarth describes Dean as "very stout for a cricketer" because he weighed 12 stone though his height was only 5 foot 7 inches. Dean's pace, says Haygarth, was "always straight and ripping, his balls getting up remarkably quick".
He was a sawyer by trade and nicknamed "by some" as "The Ploughboy". Dean was engaged by MCC as a bowler in 1837 and remained in situ till he resigned at the end of the 1861 season. Haygarth, a contemporary, recounts that Dean began the UEE in 1852 "in conjunction with Wisden" and that his likeness, by John Corbett Anderson has been published by Fred Lillywhite. Harry Altham mentions Dean's "splendid work" for Sussex, Marylebone Cricket Club and the AEE before Dean was in 1862 engaged as a coach at Winchester College. Altham relates that Dean and Wisden founded the UEE in 1852 as a result of "profound dissatisfaction" with William Clarke's management of the AEE. Several leading players such as Jem Grundy and John Lillywhite joined them and Dean and Wisden became the joint secretaries of the UEE. In his Phoenix History, Roy Webber says that interest in the AEE "dropped to reasonable proportions" after the initial sensation and offshoots began to appear, the first being Dean and Wisden's UEE in 1852 with "other sides to follow".
Birley, Derek. A Social History of English Cricket. Aurum. Major, John. More Than A Game. HarperCollins