United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates, sometimes called the Emirates, is a country in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north. The sovereign constitutional monarchy is a federation of seven emirates consisting of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ras Al Khaimah and Umm Al Quwain, their boundaries are complex, with numerous enclaves within the various emirates. Each emirate is governed by a ruler. One of the rulers serves as the President of the United Arab Emirates. In 2013, the UAE's population was 9.2 million, of which 1.4 million are Emirati citizens and 7.8 million are expatriates. Human occupation of the present UAE has been traced back to the emergence of anatomically modern humans from Africa some 125,000 BCE through finds at the Faya-1 site in Mleiha, Sharjah. Burial sites dating back to the Neolithic Age and the Bronze Age include the oldest known such inland site at Jebel Buhais.
Known as Magan to the Sumerians, the area was home to a prosperous Bronze Age trading culture during the Umm Al Nar period, which traded between the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia as well as Iran and the Levant. The ensuing Wadi Suq period and three Iron Ages saw the emergence of nomadism as well as the development of water management and irrigation systems supporting human settlement in both the coast and interior; the Islamic age of the UAE dates back to the expulsion of the Sasanians and the subsequent Battle of Dibba. The UAE's long history of trade led to the emergence of Julfar, in the present day emirate of Ras Al Khaimah, as a major regional trading and maritime hub in the area; the maritime dominance of the Persian Gulf by Emirati traders led to conflicts with European powers, including the Portuguese and British. Following decades of maritime conflict, the coastal emirates became known as the Trucial States with the signing of a Perpetual Treaty of Maritime Peace with the British in 1819, which established the Trucial States as a British Protectorate.
This arrangement ended with independence and the establishment of the United Arab Emirates on 2 December 1971 following the British withdrawal from its treaty obligations. Six emirates joined the UAE in 1971, the seventh, Ras Al Khaimah, joined the federation on 10 February 1972. Islam is the official religion and Arabic is the official language of the UAE; the UAE's oil reserves are the seventh-largest in the world while its natural gas reserves are the world's seventeenth-largest. Sheikh Zayed, ruler of Abu Dhabi and the first President of the UAE, oversaw the development of the Emirates and steered oil revenues into healthcare and infrastructure; the UAE's economy is the most diversified in the Gulf Cooperation Council, while its most populous city of Dubai is an important global city and an international aviation and maritime trade hub. The country is much less reliant on oil and gas than in previous years and is economically focusing on tourism and business; the UAE government does not levy income tax although there is a system of corporate tax in place and value added tax was established in 2018 at 5%.
The UAE's rising international profile has led to it being recognised as a regional and a middle power. It is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, OPEC, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Gulf Cooperation Council; the land of the Emirates has been occupied for thousands of years. Stone tools recovered from Jebel Faya in the emirate of Sharjah reveal a settlement of people from Africa some 127,000 years ago and a stone tool used for butchering animals discovered at Jebel Barakah on the Arabian coast suggests an older habitation from 130,000 years ago. There is no proof of contact with the outside world at that stage, although in time lively trading links developed with civilisations in Mesopotamia and the Harappan culture of the Indus Valley; this contact persisted and became wide-ranging motivated by the trade in copper from the Hajar Mountains, which commenced around 3,000 BCE. Sumerian sources talk of the UAE as home to Magan people. There are six major periods of human settlement with distinctive behaviours in the pre-Islamic UAE, which includes the Hafit period from 3,200-2,600 BCE.
From 1,200 BC to the advent of Islam in Eastern Arabia, through three distinctive Iron Ages and the Mleiha period, the area was variously occupied by Achaemenid and other forces and saw the construction of fortified settlements and extensive husbandry thanks to the development of the falaj irrigation system. In ancient times, Al Hasa adjoined Greater Oman. From the second century AD, there was a movement of tribes from Al Bahreyn towards the lower Gulf, together with a migration among the Azdite Qahtani and Quda'ah tribal groups from south-west Arabia towards central Oman; the spread of Islam to the North Eastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula is thought to have followed directly from a letter sent by the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, to the rulers of Oman in 630 AD, nine years after the hijrah. This led to a group of rulers travelling to Medina, converting to Islam and subsequently driving a successful u
Barcelona is a city in Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within city limits, its urban area extends to numerous neighbouring municipalities within the Province of Barcelona and is home to around 4.8 million people, making it the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, Madrid, the Ruhr area and Milan. It is one of the largest metropolises on the Mediterranean Sea, located on the coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs, bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola mountain range, the tallest peak of, 512 metres high. Founded as a Roman city, in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. After merging with the Kingdom of Aragon, Barcelona continued to be an important city in the Crown of Aragon as an economic and administrative centre of this Crown and the capital of the Principality of Catalonia.
Barcelona has a rich cultural heritage and is today an important cultural centre and a major tourist destination. Renowned are the architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner, which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites; the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean are located in Barcelona. The city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics as well as world-class conferences and expositions and many international sport tournaments. Barcelona is one of the world's leading tourist, trade fair and cultural centres, its influence in commerce, entertainment, fashion and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities, it is a major cultural and economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world and a financial centre. In 2008 it was the fourth most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union and 35th in the world with GDP amounting to €177 billion. In 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $170 billion. In 2009 the city was ranked one of the world's most successful as a city brand.
In the same year the city was ranked Europe's fourth best city for business and fastest improving European city, with growth improved by 17% per year, the city has been experiencing strong and renewed growth for the past three years. Since 2011 Barcelona has been a leading smart city in Europe. Barcelona is a transport hub, with the Port of Barcelona being one of Europe's principal seaports and busiest European passenger port, an international airport, Barcelona–El Prat Airport, which handles over 50 million passengers per year, an extensive motorway network, a high-speed rail line with a link to France and the rest of Europe; the name Barcelona comes from the ancient Iberian Barkeno, attested in an ancient coin inscription found on the right side of the coin in Iberian script as, in ancient Greek sources as Βαρκινών, Barkinṓn. Some older sources suggest that the city may have been named after the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca, supposed to have founded the city in the 3rd century BC, but there is no evidence that Barcelona was a Carthaginian settlement, or that its name in antiquity, had any connection with the Barcid family of Hamilcar.
During the Middle Ages, the city was variously known as Barchinona, Barçalona and Barchenona. Internationally, Barcelona's name is wrongly abbreviated to'Barça'. However, this name refers only to the football club; the common abbreviated form used by locals is Barna. Another common abbreviation is'BCN', the IATA airport code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport; the city is referred to as the Ciutat Comtal in Catalan, Ciudad Condal in Spanish, owing to its past as the seat of the Count of Barcelona. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear; the ruins of an early settlement have been found, including different tombs and dwellings dating to earlier than 5000 BC. The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends; the first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules. The second legend attributes the foundation of the city directly to the historical Carthaginian general, Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal, who named the city Barcino after his family in the 3rd century BC, but there is no historical or linguistic evidence that this is true.
In about 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum centred on the "Mons Taber", a little hill near the contemporary city hall. Under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia, or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. Pomponius Mela mentions it among the small towns of the district as it was eclipsed by its neighbour Tarraco, but it may be gathered from writers that it grew in wealth and consequence, favoured as it was with a beautiful situation and an excellent harbour, it enjoyed immunity from imperial burdens. The city minted its own coins. Important Roman vestiges are displayed in Plaça del Rei underground, as a part of the Barcelona City History Museum; some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have been incorporated into the cathedral. The cathedral known as the Basilica La Seu, is said to have been founded in 343; the city
1992 Summer Olympics
The 1992 Summer Olympic Games known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event celebrated in Barcelona, Spain from July 25 to August 9, 1992. Beginning in 1994, the International Olympic Committee decided to hold the games in alternating even-numbered years; the games were the first to be unaffected by boycotts since 1972 and the first summer games since the end of the Cold War. The Unified Team topped the medal table, winning 112 overall medals. Barcelona is the second-largest city in Spain, the hometown of then-IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch; the city was a host for the 1982 FIFA World Cup. On October 17, 1986, Barcelona was selected to host the 1992 Summer Games over Amsterdam, The Netherlands. With 85 out of 89 members of the IOC voting by secret ballot, Barcelona won a majority of 47 votes. Samaranch abstained from voting. In the same IOC meeting, France, won the right to host the 1992 Winter Games. Barcelona had bid for the 1936 Summer Olympics, but they lost to Berlin.
At the Opening Ceremony Greek mezzo-soprano Agnes Baltsa sang "Romiossini" as the Olympic flag was paraded around the stadium. Alfredo Kraus sang the Olympic Hymn in both Catalan and Spanish as the flag was hoisted; the Olympic flame cauldron was lit by a flaming arrow, shot by Paralympic archer Antonio Rebollo. The arrow had been lit by the flame of the Olympic Torch. Rebollo shot above the cauldron; the arrow landed outside the stadium. This was the original design of the lighting scheme, to avoid any chance that the arrow would land in the stadium if Rebollo missed his target. South Africa was allowed to compete in the Olympic Games for the first time since the 1960 Summer Olympics, after a long suspension for its apartheid policy. After a close race in the Women's 10,000 metres event, white South African runner Elana Meyer and black Ethiopian runner Derartu Tulu ran a victory lap together, hand-in-hand. Following its reunification in 1990, Germany sent a single, unified Olympic team for the first time since the 1964 Summer Olympics.
As the Soviet Union was dissolved in 1991, the Baltic nations of Estonia and Lithuania, sent their own teams for the first time since 1936. Other former Soviet republics preferred to compete as the Unified Team; this team consisted of present-day Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The team finished first in the medal standings; the separation of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia led to the Olympic debuts of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Due to United Nations sanctions, athletes from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia were not allowed to participate with their own team. However, some individual athletes competed under the Olympic flag as Independent Olympic Participants. In basketball, the admittance of NBA players led to the formation of the "Dream Team" of the United States, featuring Michael Jordan, Magic Johnson, Larry Bird and other NBA stars. Prior to 1992, only European and South American professionals were allowed to compete, while the Americans used college players.
The Dream Team won the gold medal and was inducted as a unit into the Basketball Hall of Fame in 2010. Fermín Cacho won the 1,500 metres in his home country, earning Spain's first-ever Olympic gold medal in a running event. Chinese diver Fu Mingxia, age 13, became one of the youngest Olympic gold medalists of all time. In men's artistic gymnastics, Vitaly Scherbo from Belarus, won six gold medals, including four in a single day. Scherbo tied Eric Heiden's record for individual gold medals at a single Olympics, winning five medals in an individual event. In women's artistic gymnastics, Tatiana Gutsu took gold in the All-Around competition edging the United States' Shannon Miller. Russian swimmers dominated the men’s freestyle events, with Alexander Popov and Yevgeny Sadovyi each winning two events. Sadovyi won in the relays. Evelyn Ashford won her fourth Olympic gold medal in the 4×100-metre relay, making her one of only four female athletes to have achieved this in history; the young Krisztina Egerszegi of Hungary won three individual swimming gold medals.
In women's 200 metre breaststroke, Kyoko Iwasaki of Japan won a gold medal at age of 14 years and six days, making her the youngest-ever gold medalist in swimming competitions at the Olympics. Algerian athlete Hassiba Boulmerka, criticized by Muslim groups in Algeria who thought she showed too much of her body when racing, received death threats and was forced to move to Europe to train, won the 1,500 metres holding the African women's record in this distance. After being demonstrated in six previous Summer Olympic Games, baseball became an Olympic sport. Badminton and women's judo became part of the Olympic program, while slalom canoeing returned to the Games after a 20-year absence. Roller hockey, Basque pelota, taekwondo were all demonstrated at the 1992 Summer Olympics. Several of the U. S. men's volleyball gold medal team from the 1988 Olympics returned to vie for another medal. In the preliminary round, they lost a controversial match to Japan, sparking them to shave their heads in protest.
This notably included player Steve
Flag of the United Arab Emirates
The flag of the United Arab Emirates contains the Pan-Arab colors red, green and black. It was designed in 1971 by a 19-year-old Emirati, Abdullah Mohammed Al Maainah, adopted on December 2, 1971; the main theme of the flag's four colors is the unity of Arab nations. In 2008, there was a minor change to the Emblem. Merchant ships may fly the alternative civil ensign, a red flag with the national flag in the canton. All Emirates use the federal flag interchangeably as the flag of the emirate; each of the seven emirates within the United Arab Emirates had a common red plain flag as each emirate's banner, the red banner represents the descension to the prophet Muhammad. In 1820, six out of the seven emirates signed the General treaty agreement with the British Empire which compelled them to be under the British Protectorate rule and protection in the region. A white segment was enforced to be added to the hoist of each emirate's flag. Fujairah was the only emirate which did not sign the general treaty in 1820 with the British protectorate and therefore continued to use its plain red flag.
The flag of Abu Dhabi is a red flag with a white rectangle at the top-left corner. According to the 1820 General Maritime Treaty with the British, in times of war a full red flag would be used by the Bani Yas. Although per the 1820 General Maritime Treaty with Britain Abu Dhabi was supposed to fly the Truical States flag, the White Pierced Red flag, in practice Abu Dhabi continued to fly a plain red flag. Percy Cox, the British Colonial Office administrator in the Middle East, was unsuccesful to convince Zayed bin Khalifa Al Nahyan to adopt the Truical States flag, which Zayed argued that it represents the Al Qawasim tribal federation. Abu Dhabi adopted a red flag with a top left white rectangle to distinguish it from the surrounding emirates; the flags of Ajman and Dubai are identical. They are both i.e. closest to the flag staff. The flag is known as the White Red Halved and was adopted as an alternative to the Sharjah and Ras Al Khaimah White Pierced Red by the Emirate of Dubai and Ajman to distinguish their authority from the Al Qawasim in defiance of the bonds of the 1820 General Maritime Treaty with the British.
To the British, this flag was titled as Truical Coast Flag No.1 and Abu Dhabi and Umm Al Quwain were expected to adopt it. According to the 1820 General Maritime Treaty with the British, in times of war a full red flag would be used by the Bani Yas. Before 1952, the flag of Fujairah was plain red. Fujairah did not sign the general treaty in 1820 with the British protectorate and therefore is still using its red plain flag. In 1952, the emirate's name was added to the flag, a red flag with a white Arabic calligraphy of the emirate name was adopted as an ensign to distinguish it from the surrounding emirates; the flags of Ras Al Khaimah and Sharjah are identical as they are both ruled by two branches of the same house. They show a large red rectangle on a white background; the flag is known as the White Pierced Red and was the intended flag for all the Truical States according to the 1820 Maritime Treaty of the Truical States with the British. It was attributed to the Al Qawasim tribal federation.
Percy Cox, the British Colonial Office administrator in the Middle East, was unsuccessful in convincing the rest of the emirates Sheikhs to adopt it. To the British, this flag was titled as Truical Coast Flag No.2. According to the 1820 General Maritime Treaty with the British, in times of war a green white and red flag would be used by the Qawasim; the flag of Umm Al Quwain consists of a red background, a white bar at the hoist similar the flags of Ajman and Dubai, a large white star and crescent in the center as a symbol of Islam and representing allegiance to the Islamic world. Umm Al Quwain flag was supposed to be the same flag used by Dubai and Ajman, the White Red Halved, but a star and crescent was added to distinguish it from the surrounding emirates. Emblem of the United Arab Emirates Trucial States United Arab Emirates Flag | All The Details Of Flag First raising of the flag on 2 December, 1971 United Arab Emirates at Flags of the World Interview of the designer of the U. A. E flag Anthems and Flags of the Truical States in the British Library
United Arab Emirates at the 2008 Summer Olympics
The United Arab Emirates participated at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, which were held from 8 to 24 August 2008. The country's participation at the Beijing Olympics marked its seventh appearance in the Summer Olympics since its début at the 1984 Summer Olympics; the delegation sent by the United Arab Emirates National Olympic Committee consisted of eight athletes in seven sports: athletics, judo, shooting and taekwondo. Two of the eight athletes were women, making Beijing the first time the country had sent female athletes to an Summer Olympiad, most of their athletes qualified for the Games by using a wild card or receiving an invitation from the Tripartite Commission. All eight competitors did not win any medals at the Games though the best performance of the delegation was from sport shooter Ahmad Al-Makotum who placed seventh in the qualification round of the men's double trap and lost a subsequent four-man shoot-out; the United Arab Emirates National Olympic Committee was recognised by the International Olympic Committee on 1 January 1980.
The nation its debut at the Olympic Games four years at the 1984 Los Angeles Summer Olympics, have taken part in every Summer Olympics since, making Beijing their seventh appearance in a Summer Olympiad. They have never participated in a Winter Olympic Games; the 2008 Summer Olympics were held from 8–24 August 2008. In April 2008, the United Arab Emirates National Olympic Committee announced their largest delegation of athletes to an Olympic Games for sixteen years with eight for Beijing, they were sprinter Omar Jouma Bilal Al-Salfa, equestrian rider Latifa bint Ahmed Al Maktoum, judoka Saeed Rashid Al Qubaisi, sailor Adil Mohammad, shooters Ahmad Al Maktoum and Saeed Al Maktoum, short-distance swimmer Obaid Al Jasmi and taekwondo Maitha Al Maktoum. All the athletes were promised monetary awards of $272,000; the inclusion of Latifa and Matiha Al Maktoum meant it was the first time the United Arab Emirates had sent female athletes to an Olympic Games. Maitha Al Makotum was selected the flag bearer for the opening ceremony, while Al-Salfa carried it at the closing ceremony.
At the age of 18, Omar Jouma Bilal Al-Salfa was the only athlete representing the United Arab Emirates in athletics competition. Beijing was his only appearance in the Olympic Games. Al-Salfa qualified for the men's 200 metres by using a wildcard because his personal best time of 20.94 seconds was 0.19 seconds slower than the "B" qualifying standard for the discipline. He spent six weeks preparing for the Games at a training camp in Poland with the team's national coach Vasko Anguelov Dimov. Al-Salfa said his objective was to improve his personal best and sought to reach the second round of the contest, saying, "I must do something good at this Olympics. If I don’t, I will not be happy." On 18 August, he was placed in heat seven of the men's 200 metres. Al-Salfa finished last out of all the finishing sprinters with a time of 21 seconds. However, only the top three from a heat and the eight next fastest overall from all ten heats were allowed to advance to the second round, Al-Salfa was eliminated since he was 40th overall.
KeyNote–Ranks given for track events are within the athlete's heat only NR = National record Men Shaikha Latifa Bint Ahmad Bin Juma Al Maktoum was 22 years old at the time of the Beijing Summer Games, was making her only appearance in an Olympic Games. She automatically qualified for the women's individual jumping contest because her time of 47.72 seconds at the Seventh Qatar International Show Jumping Championship in March 2007 was sufficient enough to make the Games. Latifa Al Maktoum missed the 2007 Pan Arab Games in Cairo to focus on training for the Olympics. Before the Games, she said, "I was under tremendous pressure in the first two rounds and it is always difficult to perform under pressure, it wasn't an easy course, as we saw not many riders get through, but in the end all that matters is the qualifier for the Olympics and I have done it." During the first part of the August 15 preliminary round, Latifa Al Maktoum and her horse Kalska De Semilly accrued eight penalty points from jump penalties and three points from time penalties, earning eleven penalty points overall.
Of the 77 competitors in this first portion of the event, she tied with Saudi Arabia's Faisal Al-Shalan and Kamal Bahamdan for 61st overall. In the second round, the pair three for time penalties; this placed Latifa Al Maktoum 54th out of 70 finishing riders, tying Bahamdan and Bruce Goodin of New Zealand, was eliminated from the competition. The United Arab Emirates selected Saeed Rashid Al Qubaisi as the athlete to take part in men's judo. At the time of the Beijing Summer Olympics, he was the youngest athlete to represent his country at these Games at the age of 18 and was the first Emirati judoka to compete in Olympic combat sports. Al Quabisi qualified to compete in the men's lightweight tournament after receiving a wild card invitation from the Tripartite Commission, he trained with the Tunisian national judo team at the Abu Dhabi Combat Club and visited training camps in Belarus and Tunisia to prepare for the Olympics. Al Qubaisi said before the Games that he hoped to win the gold medal and felt ready, "I feel proud and I will look to do my country proud.
Like this I can be an example to many youngsters, that you can be an Olympian at 18." He was drawn to face Marlon August of South Africa in the Round of 32 at the Beijing Science and Technology University Gymnasium on 11 August. In the one minute and 27 second match, Al Qubaisi was thrown onto the mat by August who won by an Ippon score to eliminate his opponent from advancing furth
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Swimming at the 1992 Summer Olympics
At the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, Spain, 31 swimming events were contested. There was a total of 641 participants from 92 countries competing. * Swimmers who participated in the heats only and received medals. * Swimmers who participated in the heats only and received medals. 641 swimmers from 92 nations competed. Official Olympic Report