Capitol Records, Inc. is an American record label owned by Universal Music Group through its Capitol Music Group imprint. It was founded as the first West Coast-based record label in the United States in 1942 by Johnny Mercer, Buddy DeSylva, Glenn E. Wallichs. Capitol was acquired by British music conglomerate EMI as its North American subsidiary in 1955. EMI was acquired by Universal Music Group in 2012 and was merged with the company a year making Capitol and the Capitol Music Group both a part of UMG; the label's circular headquarter building in Hollywood is a recognized landmark of California. Capitol's roster includes Katy Perry, Sir Paul McCartney, Mary J. Blige, the Beach Boys, the Beastie Boys, Neil Diamond, Brian Wilson, Avenged Sevenfold, 5 Seconds of Summer, Don Henley, Sam Smith, Migos, NF, Emeli Sandé, Troye Sivan, Calum Scott, Tori Kelly, Jon Bellion, Niall Horan. Songwriter Johnny Mercer founded Capitol Records in 1942 with financial help from songwriter and film producer Buddy DeSylva and the business acumen of Glenn Wallichs, owner of Wallichs Music City.
Mercer raised the idea of starting a record company while golfing with Harold Arlen and Bobby Sherwood and with Wallichs at Wallichs's record store. On February 2, 1942, Mercer and Wallichs met DeSylva at a restaurant in Hollywood to talk about investment by Paramount Pictures. On March 27, 1942, the three men incorporated as Liberty Records. In May 1942, the application was amended to change the company's name to Capitol Records. On April 6, 1942, Mercer supervised Capitol's first recording session where Martha Tilton recorded the song "Moon Dreams". On May 5, Bobby Sherwood and his orchestra recorded two tracks in the studio. On May 21, Freddie Slack and his orchestra recorded three tracks in the studio. On June 4, 1942, Capitol opened its first office in a second-floor room south of Sunset Boulevard. On that same day, Wallichs presented the company's first free record to Los Angeles disc jockey Peter Potter. On June 5, 1942, Paul Whiteman and his Orchestra recorded four songs at the studio. On June 12, the orchestra recorded five more songs in the studio, including "Trav'lin' Light" with Billie Holiday, On June 11, Tex Ritter recorded " Jingle Jangle Jingle" and "Goodbye My Little Cherokee" for his first Capitol recording session, the songs formed Capitol's 110th produced record.
The earliest recording artists included co-owner Mercer, Johnnie Johnston, Morse, Jo Stafford, the Pied Pipers, Tex Ritter, Paul Weston and Margaret Whiting Capitol's first gold single was Morse's "Cow Cow Boogie" in 1942. Capitol's first album was Capitol Presents Songs by Johnny Mercer, a three disc set with recordings by Mercer and the Pied Pipers, all with Weston's Orchestra; the label's other 1940s musicians included Les Baxter, Les Brown, Jimmy Bryant, Billy Butterfield, Nat King Cole, Sammy Davis Jr. Dinning Sisters, Tennessee Ernie Ford, Mary Ford, Benny Goodman, Skitch Henderson, Betty Hutton, Stan Kenton, Peggy Lee, Billy May, Les Paul, Alvino Rey, Andy Russell, Smilin' Jack Smith, Kay Starr, Speedy West, Cootie Williams. Musicians on the Capitol Americana label included Lead Belly, Cliffie Stone, Hank Thompson, Merle Travis, Wesley Tuttle, Jimmy Wakely, Tex Williams. Capitol was the first major west coast label to compete with labels on the east coast such as Columbia, RCA Victor.
In addition to its Los Angeles recording studio, Capitol owned a second studio in New York City and sent mobile recording equipment to New Orleans and other cities. In 1946, writer-producer Alan W. Livingston created Bozo the Clown for the company's children's record library. Examples of notable Capitol albums for children during that era are Sparky's Magic Piano and Rusty in Orchestraville. Capitol developed a noted jazz catalog that included the Capitol Jazz Men and issued the Miles Davis's album Birth of the Cool Capitol released a few classical albums in the 1940s, some of which contained a embossed, leather-like cover; these recordings appeared on 78 rpm format released on the 33 format in 1949. Among the recordings: Brazilian composer Heitor Villa-Lobos' Choros No. 10, with contributions from a Los Angeles choral group and the Janssen Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Werner Janssen. In 1949, Capitol opened a branch office in Canada and purchased KHJ Studios on Melrose Avenue adjacent to Paramount in Hollywood.
By the mid-1950s, Capitol had become a huge company. The label's roster included the Andrews Sisters, Ray Anthony, Shirley Bassey, June Christy, Tommy Duncan, Tennessee Ernie Ford, the Four Freshmen, the Four Knights, the Four Preps, Jane Froman, Judy Garland, Jackie Gleason, Andy Griffith, Dick Haymes, Harry James, the Kingston Trio, the Louvin Brothers, Dean Martin, Al Martino, Skeets McDonald, Louis Prima, Nelson Riddle, Dinah Shore, Frank Sinatra, Keely Smith. Capitol began recording roll acts such as the Jodimars and Gene Vincent. There were comedy records by Stan Freberg, Johnny Standley, Mickey Katz. Children listened to Capitol's Bozo the Clown albums. Although various people played Bozo the Clown on television, Capitol used the voice of Pinto Colvig, the voice of Goofy in Walt Disney cartoons. Don Wilson released children's records. In June 1952, Billboard magazine contained a chronicle of the label's first ten years in business. In 1955, the British record company EMI ended its 55-year mutual distribution
Gordon Meredith Lightfoot Jr. is a Canadian singer-songwriter who achieved international success in folk, folk-rock, country music. He is credited with helping to define the folk-pop sound of the 1970s, he is referred to as Canada's greatest songwriter and is known internationally as a folk-rock legend. Lightfoot's songs, including "For Lovin' Me", "Early Morning Rain", "Steel Rail Blues", "Ribbon of Darkness"—a number one hit on the U. S. country chart with Marty Robbins's cover in 1965—and "Black Day in July" about the 1967 Detroit riot, brought him wide recognition in the 1960s. Canadian chart success with his own recordings began in 1962 with the No. 3 hit " I'm the One", followed by recognition and charting abroad in the 1970s. He topped the US Hot 100 and/or AC chart with the hits "If You Could Read My Mind", "Sundown". Several of Lightfoot's albums achieved multi-platinum status internationally, his songs have been recorded by renowned artists such as Elvis Presley, Johnny Cash, Hank Williams Jr.
The Kingston Trio, Marty Robbins, Jerry Lee Lewis, Neil Young, Bob Dylan, Judy Collins, Barbra Streisand, Johnny Mathis, Herb Alpert, Harry Belafonte, Scott Walker, Sarah McLachlan, Eric Clapton, John Mellencamp, Jack Jones, Bobby Vee, Roger Whittaker, Tony Rice, Peter and Mary, Glen Campbell, The Irish Rovers, Olivia Newton-John, Paul Weller, Nine Pound Hammer, Ultra Naté, The Tragically Hip, The Unintended. Robbie Robertson of the Band described Lightfoot as "a national treasure". Bob Dylan a Lightfoot fan, called him one of his favorite songwriters and, in an often-quoted tribute, Dylan observed that when he heard a Lightfoot song he wished "it would last forever". Lightfoot was a featured musical performer at the opening ceremonies of the 1988 Winter Olympic Games in Calgary, Alberta, he received an honorary Doctor of Laws degree in 1979 and the Companion of the Order of Canada in 2003. In November 1997, Lightfoot was bestowed the Governor General's Performing Arts Award, Canada's highest honour in the performing arts.
On February 6, 2012, Lightfoot was presented with the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal by the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario. June of that year saw his induction into the Songwriters Hall of Fame. On June 6, 2015, Lightfoot received an honorary doctorate of music in his hometown of Orillia from Lakehead University. Lightfoot was born in Orillia, Ontario, to Gordon Lightfoot, Sr. who owned a large dry cleaning firm, Jessie Vick Trill Lightfoot. His mother recognized Lightfoot's musical talent early on and schooled him into a successful child performer, his first public performance was "Too Ra Loo Ra Loo Ral" in grade four, broadcast over his school's public address system on a parents' day event. As a youth, he sang, under the direction of choirmaster Ray Williams, in the choir of Orillia's St. Paul's United Church. According to Lightfoot, Williams taught him how to sing with emotion and how to have confidence in his voice. Lightfoot was a boy soprano. At the age of twelve, after winning a competition for boys whose voices had not yet changed, he made his first appearance at Massey Hall in Toronto.
As a teenager, Lightfoot taught himself to play drums and percussion. He held concerts in Muskoka, a resort area north of Orillia, singing "for a couple of beers."Lightfoot performed extensively throughout high school, Orillia District Collegiate & Vocational Institute, taught himself to play folk guitar. A formative influence on his music at this time was 19th-century master American songwriter Stephen Foster, he was an accomplished high school track-and-field competitor and set school records for shot put and pole vault, as well as being the starting nose tackle on his school's Georgian Bay championship winning football team. His athletic and scholarly aptitude earned him entrance bursaries at McGill University's Schulich School of Music and the University of Toronto, Faculty of Music. Lightfoot moved to California in 1958 to study jazz composition and orchestration for two years at Hollywood's Westlake College of Music, which had many Canadian students. To support himself, he sang on demonstration records and wrote and produced commercial jingles.
Among his influences were the folk music of Pete Seeger, Bob Gibson and Sylvia Tyson, The Weavers. He rented lodging in Los Angeles for a period, but missed Toronto and returned there in 1960, living in Canada since, though he has done much work in the United States, under an H-1B visa. After his return to Canada, Lightfoot performed with The Singin’ Swingin’ Eight, a group featured on CBC TV's Country Hoedown, with the Gino Silvi Singers, he soon became known at Toronto folk music oriented coffee houses. In 1962, Lightfoot released two singles, both recorded at RCA in Nashville and produced by Chet Atkins, that were local hits in Toronto and received some airplay elsewhere in Canada. " I'm the One" reached No. 3 on CHUM radio in Toronto in July 1962 and was a top 20 hit on Montreal's CKGM a influential Canadian Top 40 radio station. The follow-up single was "Negotiations"/"It's Too Late, He Wins", he sang with Terry Whelan in a duo called the "Two-Tones". They recorded a live album, released in 1962 called Two-Tones at the Village Corner.
In 1963, Lightfoot travelled in Europe and in the United Kingdom, for one year he
Jay and the Americans
Jay and the Americans are an American pop rock group popular in the 1960s. Their initial line-up consisted of John "Jay" Traynor, Howard Kane, Kenny Vance and Sandy Deanne, though their greatest success on the charts came after Traynor had been replaced as lead singer by Jay Black, they were discovered while performing in student venues at New York University in the late 1950s. They auditioned for Stoller, who gave the group its name. Soon they signed with United Artists Records. With Jay Traynor singing lead, they first hit the Billboard charts in 1962 with the tune "She Cried," which reached #5; the next two singles did not fare as well, Traynor left the group. Empires' guitarist Marty Sanders joined the group, he brought David Black of "The Empires" in to take Traynor's place, Black sang lead for the rest of the group's major hits. They returned to the charts in 1963 with "Only In America," a song meant for The Drifters. Other notable hits for Jay and the Americans were "Come a Little Bit Closer" in 1964, which hit #3, "Cara Mia" in 1965, which hit #4.
They recorded a commercial for H. I. S. Slacks and a public service announcement for the Ad Council, featuring a backing track by Brian Wilson and Phil Spector. Two tracks from this era found favor with the Northern Soul crowd: "Got Hung Up Along The Way" and "Living Above Your Head". In 1966, the group was featured in the Universal comedy film, Wild Wild Winter, singing "Two of a Kind" at the film's finale, with surf band The Astronauts depicted as providing backup instrumentals; as of February 2017, the song has only been released on the 1966 soundtrack LP. In 1968, they recorded an album of their favorite oldies called Sands of Time, which included "This Magic Moment,", done by the Drifters; the single went to #6 in early 1969. It sold over one million copies, was awarded a gold disc by the R. I. A. A. in May 1969. "This Magic Moment" was the last top ten record for Jay and the Americans, although a follow-up album, Wax Museum, in January 1970, did yield the #19 hit single "Walkin' In The Rain," first recorded by The Ronettes.
Their next singles failed to chart, the band grew apart, but the demand for appearances remained. From 1970 to 1971 Jay and the Americans' touring band included Walter Becker and Donald Fagen on backup bass guitar and electric organ; the group split in 1973. All of the members moved on to solo musical careers, with the exception of Jay Black, who continued to perform as "Jay and the Americans", using a variety of musicians. In 2001, he was featured in the PBS special Rock and Doo Wop as "Jay Black & The Americans"; the original version of "Cara Mia" went to #1 in the Netherlands when it was re-released in 1980. In 2006, Jay Black filed for bankruptcy due to gambling debts, his ownership of the name "Jay & The Americans" was sold by the bankruptcy trustee to Sandy Deanne, Black's former band mate and original member of Jay & The Americans for $100,000. With the name purchase, former members Deanne, Howard Kane, Marty Sanders reunited, recruited a sound-alike singer from Chicago, coincidentally nicknamed "Jay."
Thus, John "Jay" Reincke became the third "Jay" and the band returned to playing both national and international music venues. Their show covers the history of Jay and The Americans, acknowledging all three Jays and featuring all of the top hits in their original arrangements. David Blatt still tours under his stage name, "Jay Black". Kenny Vance is the lead singer of Kenny Vance and the Planotones, a neo-doo wop band that he formed in the 1970s. After leaving the group, John Traynor recorded a handful of songs on the Coral label, including "I Rise, I Fall" in 1964. None were hits; the label billed Traynor as "JAY of Jay and the Americans." Traynor toured with Jay Siegel's Tokens until shortly before his death on January 2, 2014. The group was inducted into the Vocal Group Hall of Fame in 2002. Sandy Deane - vocals Howard Kane - vocals Marty Sanders - guitar, vocals Jay Reincke - lead vocals Kenny Vance - vocals Jay Traynor - lead vocals Jay Black - lead vocals Key: Billboard and Cashbox charts peak positions Jay Black's website Jay and the Americans website'Jay and The Americans' Vocal Group Hall of Fame Page History of Jay and the Americans Descriptions of and lyrics for the songs on the best-of compilation Come a Little Bit Closer Singing "Two of a Kind" in Wild Wild Winter
The Pink Panther
The Pink Panther is a British-American media franchise focusing on a series of comedy-mystery films featuring an inept French police detective, Inspector Jacques Clouseau. The franchise began with the release of the classic Pink Panther film in 1963; the role of Clouseau was originated by and is most associated with Peter Sellers. Most of the films were written and directed by Blake Edwards, with theme music composed by Henry Mancini. Elements and characters inspired by the films were adapted into other media, including books, comic books and animated series; the first film in the series derives its name from the eponymous pink diamond that has an enormous size and value. The diamond is called the "Pink Panther" because the flaw at its center, when viewed is said to resemble a leaping pink panther; the phrase reappears in the title of the fourth film The Return of the Pink Panther, in which the theft of the diamond is again the centre of the plot. The phrase was used for all the subsequent films in the series when the jewel did not figure in the plot.
The jewel appeared in six of the eleven films. The first film in the series had an animated opening sequence, created by DePatie–Freleng Enterprises, featuring The Pink Panther Theme by Mancini, as well as the Pink Panther character; this character, designed by Hawley Pratt and Friz Freleng, was subsequently the subject of his own series of animated cartoons which gained its highest profile when aired on Saturday mornings as The Pink Panther Show. The character would be featured in the opening of every film in the movie series except A Shot in the Dark and Inspector Clouseau. Although the original film was centred on the Phantom/Sir Charles Lytton, portrayed by David Niven. Niven's and Sellers's co-stars included Capucine, Robert Wagner, Claudia Cardinale. Released less than a year after The Pink Panther. Clouseau returns to muddle his way through a murder investigation; this marks the first appearance of Herbert Lom's Commissioner Dreyfus, his assistant François, Clouseau's manservant, all of whom became series regulars.
Co-starring Elke Sommer, George Sanders, Graham Stark and Tracy Reed. This film stars Alan Arkin as Clouseau, does not have any other recurring characters from the rest of the series. Although it was produced by the Mirisch Corporation, Peter Sellers, Blake Edwards, Henry Mancini were not involved in the making of this film; this not only marks the return of the famous "Pink Panther" diamond but - after an 11-year hiatus - that of Peter Sellers as Clouseau, along with director Edwards, Mancini and Cato. Sir Charles Lytton is portrayed by Christopher Plummer. Dreyfus' insanity reaches a pinnacle, as he tries to intimidate the rest of the world into killing Clouseau. With co-stars Leonard Rossiter, Lesley-Anne Down and Colin Blakely, featuring a cameo by Omar Sharif; this film pits Clouseau against the French Connection. It is the last, he died two years after its release. With co-stars Robert Webber, Dyan Cannon, Tony Beckley and Robert Loggia; the Romance of the Pink Panther was to be the 7th film in the franchise, to be written by Peter Sellers and Jim Moloney.
Due to hostility between Sellers and Blake Edwards, Edwards would not have directed the film. The basic plot was to involve Inspector Clouseau becoming smitten with a cat burglar called "The Frog", played by Pamela Stephenson. Two drafts were written before Sellers' death, each with different endings. Shortly afterwards, it was suggested that Dudley Moore should play Clouseau, but Blake Edwards chose to introduce a new character in the series to replace Clouseau. Features Peter Sellers as Clouseau utilizing scenes cut from Strikes Again as well as flashbacks from the previous Pink Panther films; this movie was intended as a tribute to Sellers, but after its release Sellers' widow Lynne Frederick sued Edwards and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer for tarnishing her late husband's memory. David Niven and Capucine reprise their original roles from the first Pink Panther film. Trail was a commercial failure. Inspector Clouseau and the Pink Panther diamond, both of which had gone missing in Trail, are pursued by a bungling American detective, Sgt. Clifton Sleigh.
Clouseau returns, after having plastic surgery to disguise his identity, in a cameo played by Roger Moore. Although intended to spawn a new series of misadventures for Sergeant Sleigh, the film's dismal box-office performance and critical drubbing led to a decade-long hiatus of the series. Blake Edwards tried again to revive the series, this time by casting Roberto Benigni as Gendarme Jacques Gambrelli, Inspector Clouseau's illegitimate son by Maria Gambrelli, the murder suspect from A Shot in the Dark. Once again, many former Panther co-stars return – Herbert Lom, Burt Kwouk, Graham Stark, a star of the original 1963 film, Claudia Cardinale. Although intended to relaunch the series with a new lovable inept hero, Son failed critically and commercially and became the final installment in the original Pink Panther series; this reboot launches a new series starring Steve Martin as Inspector Clouseau and Kevin Kline as Chief Inspector Dreyfus. Not a remake of the original film, it forms a new starting point for a contemporary series, introducing the Clouseau and Dreyfus characters along with the famous diamond to a new generation.
The sequel to Steve Martin's 2006 film. Martin reprise
A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum (film)
A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum is a 1966 British-American DeLuxe Color musical comedy film, based on the stage musical of the same name. It was inspired by the farces of the ancient Roman playwright Plautus – Pseudolus, Miles Gloriosus and Mostellaria – and tells the bawdy story of a slave named Pseudolus and his attempts to win his freedom by helping his young master woo the girl next door; the film was directed by Richard Lester, with Zero Mostel and Jack Gilford reprising their stage roles. It features Buster Keaton in his last motion picture role; the musical was adapted for the screen by Melvin Frank and Michael Pertwee from the stage musical of the same name with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and a book by Burt Shevelove and Larry Gelbart. The film's cinematography was by Nicolas Roeg. In the city of Rome during the reign of Emperor Nero, Pseudolus is "the lyingest, sloppiest slave in all of Rome", whose only wish is to buy his freedom from his master's parents, the henpecked Senex and his dominating wife Domina.
When he finds out that his master, Senex's handsome but dim son Hero, has fallen in love with Philia, a beautiful virgin courtesan from the house of Marcus Lycus and seller of beautiful women next door, Pseudolus makes a deal: he will get the girl for Hero in return for his freedom. The virgin has been sold to the great Roman soldier, Captain Miles Gloriosus, who now is on his way from conquering Crete to claim her as his bride. In an attempt to fake out the great Gloriosis and buy enough time to come up with a plan that will give Philia to Hero and his overseer, stage a sit-down orgy for fourteen. Pseudolus informs the captain that his bride is dead and blackmails Hysterium into masquerading as the corpse of Philia to fool the captain and send him heartbroken away; when the dead "Philia" comes back to life after the great Gloriosis announces his intention of cutting "her" heart out as a memorial, an hilarious chase across Rome and on into the countryside ensues. Miles Gloriosis collars Hero, the real Philia, Marcus Lycus and Gymnasia, the silent courtesan fancied by Pseudolus, brings them back to Rome to untangle the skein of deception and see that justice is done.
In the end, Hero gets Philia. Veteran film comedian Buster Keaton was terminally ill with cancer at the time of filming; the 70-year-old actor was able to do many of his own stunts in the film, to the amazement of the cast and crew. Forum would be his final film appearance. Future Doctor Who star Jon Pertwee, brother of screenwriter Michael Pertwee, appears as Crassus, who reports that there is no plague in Crete, he had played the part of Lycus in the 1963 West End stage production. Roy Kinnear appeared in eight other films directed by Richard Lester: Help!, How I Won the War, The Bed Sitting Room, The Three Musketeers, The Four Musketeers, Royal Flash and The Return of the Musketeers. "Comedy Tonight" — Pseudolus and Company "Lovely" — Philia and Hero "Everybody Ought to Have a Maid" — Pseudolus, Senex and Hysterium "Bring Me My Bride" — Miles Gloriosus and Company "Lovely" — Pseudolus and Hysterium "Funeral Sequence" - Pseudolus, Miles Gloriosus and Company "Finale" — CompanySongs from the original Broadway score which were cut for the film: "Love I Hear", "Free", "Pretty Little Picture", "I'm Calm", "Impossible", "That Dirty Old Man" and "That'll Show Him" Sondheim's music was adapted for the film version of Forum by Ken Thorne, who worked with The Beatles on Help!.
Thorne won the only award that Forum received, a 1967 Academy Award for "Best Music, Scoring of Music, Adaptation or Treatment". Although the musical had been written with Phil Silvers in mind, Zero Mostel starred on Broadway as Pseudolus, Richard Lester was his choice to direct the film version. Other directors who were considered included Orson Welles and Mike Nichols, it was filmed at the Samuel Bronston Studios in Madrid, on location around that city, on an estimated budget of $2 million. Filming took place from September to November 1965. Jack Gilford was re-creating his stage role, as Hysterium, there are other connections to the Broadway production. Tony Walton, who designed the production, including the costumes, was the designer of the Broadway show. For Walton, married to Julie Andrews from 1959 to 1967, Forum came at the beginning of both his film and stage careers: it was his second Broadway production, his third film - he had designed costumes for Mary Poppins in 1964, did the overall production design of Fahrenheit 451 in 1966.
Bob Simmons, a renowned stunt coordinator and performed many of the action scenes in the film. Forum is remarkable as one of the few films in which Buster Keaton appeared where he employed a double. Keaton was suffering from terminal canc
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. is an American media company, involved in the production and distribution of feature films and television programs. One of the world's oldest film studios, MGM's headquarters are located at 245 North Beverly Drive in Beverly Hills, California. MGM was founded in 1924 when the entertainment entrepreneur Marcus Loew gained control of Metro Pictures, Goldwyn Pictures, Louis B. Mayer Pictures. In 1971, it was announced that MGM was to merge with 20th Century Fox, but the plan never came to fruition. Over the next 39 years, the studio was bought and sold at various points in its history until, on November 3, 2010, MGM filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. MGM emerged from bankruptcy on December 20, 2010, at which time the executives of Spyglass Entertainment, Gary Barber and Roger Birnbaum, became co-chairmen and co-CEOs of the holding company of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; as of 2017, MGM co-produces, co-finances, co-distributes a majority of its films with Sony Pictures, Paramount Pictures and Warner Bros.
MGM Resorts International, a Las Vegas-based hotel and casino company listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol "MGM", was created in 1973 as a division of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. The company was spun out in 1979, with the studio's owner Kirk Kerkorian maintaining a large share, but it ended all affiliation with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 1986. MGM was the last studio to convert to sound pictures, but in spite of this fact, from the end of the silent film era through the late 1950s, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer was the dominant motion picture studio in Hollywood. Always slow to respond to the changing legal and demographic nature of the motion picture industry during the 1950s and 1960s, although at times its films did well at the box office, the studio lost significant amounts of money throughout the 1960s. In 1966, MGM was sold to Canadian investor Edgar Bronfman Sr. whose son Edgar Jr. would buy Universal Studios. Three years an unprofitable MGM was bought by Kirk Kerkorian, who slashed staff and production costs, forced the studio to produce low-budget fare, shut down theatrical distribution in 1973.
The studio continued to produce five to six films a year that were released through other studios United Artists. Kerkorian did, commit to increased production and an expanded film library when he bought United Artists in 1981. MGM ramped up internal production, as well as keeping production going at UA, which included the lucrative James Bond film franchise, it incurred significant amounts of debt to increase production. The studio took on additional debt as a series of owners took charge in early 1990s. In 1986, Ted Turner bought MGM, but a few months sold the company back to Kerkorian to recoup massive debt, while keeping the library assets for himself; the series of deals left MGM more in debt. MGM was bought by Pathé Communications in 1990, but Parretti lost control of Pathé and defaulted on the loans used to purchase the studio; the French banking conglomerate Crédit Lyonnais, the studio's major creditor took control of MGM. More in debt, MGM was purchased by a joint venture between Kerkorian, producer Frank Mancuso, Australia's Seven Network in 1996.
The debt load from these and subsequent business deals negatively affected MGM's ability to survive as a separate motion picture studio. After a bidding war which included Time Warner and General Electric, MGM was acquired on September 23, 2004, by a partnership consisting of Sony Corporation of America, Texas Pacific Group, Providence Equity Partners, other investors. In 1924, movie theater magnate Marcus Loew had a problem, he had bought Metro Pictures Corporation in 1919 for a steady supply of films for his large Loew's Theatres chain. With Loew's lackluster assortment of Metro films, Loew purchased Goldwyn Pictures in 1924 to improve the quality. However, these purchases created a need for someone to oversee his new Hollywood operations, since longtime assistant Nicholas Schenck was needed in New York headquarters to oversee the 150 theaters. Approached by Louis B. Mayer, Loew addressed the situation by buying Louis B. Mayer Pictures on April 17, 1924. Mayer became head of the renamed Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, with Irving Thalberg as head of production.
MGM produced more than 100 feature films in its first two years. In 1925, MGM released the extravagant and successful Ben-Hur, taking a $4.7 million profit that year, its first full year. In 1925, MGM, Paramount Pictures and UFA formed a joint German distributor, Parufamet; when Samuel Goldwyn left he sued over the use of his name. Marcus Loew died in 1927, control of Loew's passed to Nicholas Schenck. In 1929, William Fox of Fox Film Corporation bought the Loew family's holdings with Schenck's assent. Mayer and Thalberg disagreed with the decision. Mayer was active in the California Republican Party and used his political connections to persuade the Justice Department to delay final approval of the deal on antitrust grounds. During this time, in the summer of 1929, Fox was badly hurt in an automobile accident. By the time he recovered, the stock market crash in the fall of 1929 had nearly wiped Fox out and ended any chance of the Loew's merger going through. Schenck and Mayer had never gotten along, the abortive Fox merger increased the animosity between the two men.
From the outset, MGM tapped into the audience's need for sophistication. Having inherited few big names from their predecessor companies and Thalberg began at once
The Hawaiians (film)
The Hawaiians, released in the UK as Master of the Islands, is a 1970 American historical film based on the novel Hawaii by James A. Michener, it was directed by Tom Gries with a screenplay by James R. Webb; the cast included Charlton Heston as Geraldine Chaplin. The performance by Tina Chen led to a Golden Globe nomination as best supporting actress; the film was based on the book's chapters, which covered the arrival of the Chinese and Japanese and the growth of the plantations. The third chapter of the book had been made into the film Hawaii in 1966; the story begins 40 years after the events depicted in the original Hawaii as a new generation of Americans and Asians must deal with a changing island and world. One of them is a sea captain. Whipple "Whip" Hoxworth returns home to Hawaii to find his grandfather has died and left his fortune to Hoxworth's cousin, Micah Hale. Whip, the black sheep of his otherwise conservative and disapproving family, starts a plantation, staffing it with newly arrived Chinese indentured servants Mun Ki, his second wife/concubine Nyuk Tsin.
Mun Ki fathers children with Nyuk Tsin, all the while dreaming of returning to China and his first and "real" wife. Nyuk Tsin has other ideas. For the remainder of the story she is referred to as "Wu Chow's Auntie". Wu Chow is their firstborn son, the nickname serves to support the traditional fiction that Mun Ki's official spouse in China is the "real" mother of his children. Whip steals valuable pineapples from French Guiana in the hope, he gives the forlorn plants to Wu Chow's Auntie, knowing that she has a "green thumb". When she succeeds in nurturing the plants into flourishing, the overjoyed Whip offers to buy her some land as a reward. Over Mun Ki's opposition, she accepts; this is the first step in the rise of both Whip and Wu Chow's Auntie, as well as of the pineapple industry in Hawaii. Meanwhile, Whip marries native Hawaiian and has a son with her. However, because of her inbred royal Hawaiian ancestry, she is mentally fragile, her mind gives way, she can no longer abide to live with Whip.
Their son Noel grows to manhood experiencing an uneasy relationship with his father. When Mun Ki contracts leprosy, Wu Chow's Auntie accompanies him to the leper colony on Molokai. Upon Mun Ki's death years she returns to be reunited and reacquainted with her now-grown and prospering children. A complication arises. Neither parent approves of the marriage; the movie opened to mixed reviews, with many critics feeling it was not as successful as the 1966 movie Hawaii, liked by both moviegoers and critics. It made less money than the original. Writing for The New York Times, Roger Greenspun called it a "movie with reasonable claims to having something for everybody", with "spectacle" that proceeds with "efficient and attractive modesty", he calls Tina Chen "not remarkable" though she has a "role equal to Heston's". Time magazine was less complimentary, saying "the plot is laced with the usual colonial tensions and pretensions: Hoxworth feuds with a polyglut of races while his pineapple princess goes mad.
Every time the pace slackens, someone goes to sea, either to pick up field hands or to transport lepers to Molokai. The incessant ebb and flow is intended as a metaphor for the turbulent tides of Hawaiian life, but the real metaphor here is the pineapple, which in the good old gangster days was a synonym for bomb. Tina Chen received a Golden Globe nomination for Best Supporting Actress. Bill Thomas was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Costume Design; the Hawaiians was released on a home video format on January 28, 2011 as part of the MGM Limited Edition Collection series. List of American films of 1970 The Hawaiians on IMDb The Hawaiians at the TCM Movie Database The Hawaiians at AllMovie The Hawaiians, video on demand from Hulu