My Step Alliance
The My Step Alliance is a political alliance formed by the Civil Contract party, the Mission Party and various independent representatives of civil society. It was formed in August 2018, before the Yerevan City Council election, 2018; the leader of the alliance is the Prime Minister of Armenia Nikol Pashinyan. On 31 March, at the beginning of the 2018 Armenian revolution, Nikol Pashinyan and a group of supporters began a march from Gyumri, Armenia's second largest city; the campaign, named "My Step", was declared with the intention to prevent Sargsyan's election as prime minister on 17 April. On 23 September 2018 the alliance participated and won in the Yerevan City Council election, 2018 with Hayk Marutyan as a candidate of Mayor and won 57 seats out of 65 in Yerevan City Council; the alliance ran in the Armenian parliamentary election, 2018. They won 88 оf 132 seats; the alliance is composed of the following parties, as well as some independents
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism in opposition to social hierarchy. It involves a concern for those in society whom its adherents perceive as disadvantaged relative to others as well as a belief that there are unjustified inequalities that need to be reduced or abolished; the term left-wing can refer to "the radical, reforming, or socialist section of a political party or system". The political terms "Left" and "Right" were coined during the French Revolution, referring to the seating arrangement in the French Estates General: those who sat on the left opposed the monarchy and supported the revolution, including the creation of a republic and secularization, while those on the right were supportive of the traditional institutions of the Old Regime. Use of the term "Left" became more prominent after the restoration of the French monarchy in 1815 when it was applied to the "Independents"; the word "wing" was appended to Left and Right in the late 19th century with disparaging intent and "left-wing" was applied to those who were unorthodox in their religious or political views.
The term was applied to a number of movements republicanism during the French Revolution in the 18th century, followed by socialism, communism and social democracy in the 19th and 20th centuries. Since the term left-wing has been applied to a broad range of movements including civil rights movements, feminist movements, anti-war movements and environmental movements, as well as a wide range of parties. According to former professor of economics Barry Clark, " claim that human development flourishes when individuals engage in cooperative, mutually respectful relations that can thrive only when excessive differences in status and wealth are eliminated". In politics, the term "Left" derives from the French Revolution, as the anti-monarchist Montagnard and Jacobin deputies from the Third Estate sat to the left of the presiding member's chair in parliament, a habit which began in the French Estates General of 1789. Throughout the 19th century in France, the main line dividing Left and Right was between supporters of the French Republic and those of the monarchy.
The June Days Uprising during the Second Republic was an attempt by the Left to assert itself after the 1848 Revolution, but only a small portion of the population supported this. In the mid-19th century, socialism and anti-clericalism became features of the French Left. After Napoleon III's 1851 coup and the subsequent establishment of the Second Empire, Marxism began to rival radical republicanism and utopian socialism as a force within left-wing politics; the influential Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, published in 1848, asserted that all human history is the history of class struggle. They predicted that a proletarian revolution would overthrow bourgeois capitalism and create a classless, post-monetary communist society, it was in this period that the word "wing" was appended to both Right. In the United States, many leftists, social liberals and trade unionists were influenced by the works of Thomas Paine, who introduced the concept of asset-based egalitarianism, which theorises that social equality is possible by a redistribution of resources.
The International Workingmen's Association, sometimes called the First International, brought together delegates from many different countries, with many different views about how to reach a classless and stateless society. Following a split between supporters of Marx and Mikhail Bakunin, anarchists formed the International Workers' Association; the Second International became divided over the issue of World War I. Those who opposed the war, such as Vladimir Lenin and Rosa Luxemburg, saw themselves as further to the left. In the United States after Reconstruction, the phrase "the Left" was used to describe those who supported trade unions, the civil rights movement and the anti-war movement. More in the United States, left-wing and right-wing have been used as synonyms for Democratic and Republican, or as synonyms for liberalism and conservatism respectively. Since the Right was populist, both in the Western and the Eastern Bloc anything viewed as avant-garde art was called leftist in all Europe, thus the identification of Picasso's Guernica as "leftist" in Europe and the condemnation of the Russian composer Shostakovich's opera in Pravda as follows: "Here we have'leftist' confusion instead of natural, human music".
The following positions are associated with left-wing politics. Leftist economic beliefs range from Keynesian economics and the welfare state through industrial democracy and the social market to nationalization of the economy and central planning, to the anarcho-syndicalist advocacy of a council- and assembly-based self-managed anarchist communism. During the industrial revolution, leftists supported trade unions. At the beginning of the 20th century, many leftists advocated strong government intervention in the economy. Leftists continue to criticize what they perceive as the exploitative nature of globalization, the "race to the bottom" and unjust lay-offs. In the last quarter of the 20th century, the belief that government ought to be directly involved in the day-to-day workings of an economy declined in popularity amongst the center-left social democrats who became influenced by "Third Way" ideology. Other leftists believe in Marxian economics; some distinguish Marx's economic theories from his political philos
Armenian Communist Party
The Armenian Communist Party is a communist party in Armenia. It considers itself the successor to the Armenian branch the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, it is the main communist party in Armenia and claimed 18,000 members in 2006. HKK publishes Pravda Armenii, it should not be confused with the historical Communist Party of Armenia during the Soviet era, nor the Democratic Party of Armenia, a party founded by the last secretary of the Communist Party of Armenia, Aram Gaspar Sargsyan. The title of the party leader is First Secretary. 1991–1999: Sergey Badalyan 2000–2005: Vladimir Darbinyan 2005–2014: Ruben Tovmasyan 2014–2017: Tachat Sargsyan The party was described as "staunchly pro-Russian" by the US-funded Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty in 2002. In 2011, party members marched through downtown Yerevan towards the square named after Stepan Shahumyan, an early Armenian communist revolutionary, they held banners reading “Socialism”, “Long Live the Communist Party of Armenia”, “Down with Capitalism”, “Forever with Russia”.
Its leader, Ruben Tovmasyan, stated: "History has proved. The moment the Russian flag stops flying in Gyumri Armenia will start moving towards its end as the enemy will be quick to attack us; the Communist Party of Armenia has always been in favor of consolidation among fraternal peoples." At a 2006 rally the slogan was "Down with America, Always with Russia."In 2001 the party and several thousand supporters advocated Armenia's membership into the Union State of Russia and Belarus. They continued the campaign for Armenia's membership into the union with Russia and Belarus in 2002; the party supported the creation of the Eurasian Economic Union and in 2013 welcomed Armenia's accession into the EEU as a "prelude to the restoration of the Soviet Union."In the 1999 parliamentary election the party's programme included: Armenia's transformation into a parliamentary republic rejection of Western-style market reforms socialism that embraced a mixed economy, including private property close ties with Russia Nagorno-Karabakh's recognition as a subject of international law Armenia's accession to the Union State The party remained a significant political force in the 1990s under its charismatic leader Sergey Badalyan, who died in 1999.
In a 2004 For Official Use Only telegram on Armenian political parties, US Ambassador in Armenia John Ordway wrote that the party has "fewer than 50,000 members country-wide" and that it "is no longer influential."It has contested in every parliamentary election, but has failed to pass the 5% threshold since 2003. In 2003 the party accused the government in "mass falsifications." Communist Party of Artsakh brother party in Artsakh
Free Democrats (Armenia)
Free Democrats is an Armenian liberal, Pro-European party. It was founded in 2011 by Khachatur Kokobelyan. In 2017 Armenian parliamentary election it failed to meet the threshold of 5%. Khachatur Kokobelyan was the first on party list, Hrant Bagratyan was the second and Prime minister candidate of party. Programs of political parties in Armenia Official website
Serzh Sargsyan is an Armenian politician who served twice as the Prime Minister of Armenia and was the third President of Armenia, from 2008 to 2018. He won the February 2008 presidential election with the backing of the ruling Republican Party of Armenia, a party in which he serves as chairman, took office in April 2008. On 18 February 2013, he served the entire term. Despite pledging in 2014 not to become Prime Minister again while supporting an amendment of the constitution in 2015 that would allow it, Sargsyan was again elected Prime Minister of Armenia in April 2018, in what opposition figures described as a "power grab". Six days after taking office, Sargsyan resigned after large-scale protests. Sargsyan is the leader of the Republican Party, which from 1995 to 2018 held a majority in Armenia's National Assembly. Serzh Sargsyan was born on 30 June 1954 in Stepanakert in the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast, then-part of the Azerbaijan SSR, he entered Yerevan State University in 1971, served in the Soviet Armed Forces during 1971–72, graduated from the Philological Department of Yerevan State University in 1979.
In 1983, he married his wife, with whom he has two daughters and Satenik. They have two granddaughters and Rita, two grandsons and Serzh. Sargsyan is the chairman of the Armenian Chess Federation. In addition to his native Armenian, he is fluent in Russian, he is not related to the former Prime Minister of Armenia, Tigran Sargsyan, or current President of Armenia, Armen Sarkissian. Sargsyan's career began in 1975 at the Electrical Devices Factory in Yerevan. In 1979 when he became head of the Stepanakert City Communist Party Youth Association Committee, he served as the Second Secretary, the First Secretary, the Stepanakert City Committee Propaganda Division Head, the Nagorno-Karabakh Regional Committee Communist Organizations' Unit Instructor, as the assistant to Genrikh Poghosyan, the First Secretary of the Nagorno-Karabakh Regional Committee. As tensions rose over Nagorno-Karabakh between Armenians and Azerbaijanis, Sargsyan became the Chairman of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Self-Defense Forces Committee and was subsequently elected to the Supreme Council of Armenia in 1990.
From 1993 to 1995 he served the Minister of Defense. From 1999 to 2000 he served as the Chief of Staff for the President Robert Kocharyan, till 2007 he served as the Defence Minister, he was the Secretary of the National Security Council led by President Kocharyan from 1999 to 2007. On 4 April 2007 Sargsyan was appointed as the Prime Minister, following the sudden death of Andranik Margaryan. Sargsyan, with President Kocharyan's backing, was viewed as the strongest contender for the post of the President of Armenia in the February 2008 presidential election. Full provisional results showed him winning about 53% of the vote, a first round majority, well ahead of second place candidate Levon Ter-Petrossian; the 2008 Presidential election was hailed as democratic by OSCE, the European Union and Western monitors. Ter-Petrossian's supporters, disputing the official results, held large protests in Yerevan for over a week following the election, until they were violently broken up on 1 March. Serzh Sargsyan was sworn in as President at the Yerevan Opera House on 9 April.
Referring to the "painful events" that followed the election, he "urge everybody to look forward, together, to seek and find the way for reconciliation and future of Armenia." He appointed Tigran Sargsyan, the Chairman of the Central Bank and is not a member of a political party, as Prime Minister. According to the Freedom House report "In 2011, the government took concrete steps to fulfill longstanding and repeated promises to confront corruption. E-government services reduced opportunities for bribery, while new regulations and stricter enforcement led to higher numbers of corruption lawsuits and fines against senior officials and large companies. Owing to a more consolidated government effort to eradicate corruption, Armenia's corruption rating improve from 5.50 to 5.25."During Sargsyan's presidency the record of the freedom of speech and the freedom of press in general improved in Armenia. Internet penetration rose – from 6.2 percent in 2008 to 37 percent in 2011, providing greater access to online media, which grew in number, including blogosphere – with over 10,000 bloggers in 2011.
After the elections Sargsyan authorized opposition rallies to take place in Yerevan and pledged to comply with the Council of Europe's demands for an end to the government's crackdown on the opposition. The vibrancy of the civil society has grown during the last years with the number of non-governmental organizations growing at a higher rate and with civic activists succeeding in raising public awareness and holding important campaigns in the sphere of human rights, environmental protection and social justice. However, public advocacy still has limited impact on public policy; the start of Sargsyan's presidency coincided with the Great Recession. In 2009, Armenia's GDP contracted over 14%, which according to the World Bank was the fifth worst in the world that year after the three Baltic states and Ukraine. GDP growth subsequently stabilized at around 3% by 2013; as of 2014, Armenia's GDP is below the pre-crisis levels. During his first term of presidency, the official poverty rate doubled and reached 32.4% in 2012.
According to offici
Armenian Revolutionary Federation
The Armenian Revolutionary Federation known as Dashnaktsutyun, is an Armenian nationalist and socialist political party founded in 1890 in Tiflis, Russian Empire by Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, Simon Zavarian. Today the party operates in Armenia, Artsakh and in countries where the Armenian diaspora is present. Nowadays it constitutes a minor party, as of December 2018 was represented in two national parliaments with 7 seats in the National Assembly of Artsakh and three seats in the Parliament of Lebanon as part of the March 8 alliance; the ARF has traditionally advocated democratic socialism and is a full member of the Socialist International since 2003, which it had joined in 1907. It has the largest membership of the political parties present in the Armenian diaspora, having established affiliates in more than 20 countries. Compared to other Armenian parties which tend to focus on educational or humanitarian projects, the ARF is the most politically oriented of the organizations and traditionally has been one of the staunchest supporters of Armenian nationalism.
The party campaigns for the recognition of the Armenian Genocide and the right to reparations. It advocates the establishment of United Armenia based on the Treaty of Sèvres of 1920; the ARF became active within the Ottoman Empire in the early 1890s with the aim of unifying the various small groups in the empire that were advocating for reform and defending Armenian villages from massacres that were widespread in some of the Armenian-populated areas of the empire. ARF members formed fedayi groups; the Dashnaks worked for the wider goal of creating a "free and unified" Armenia, although they sometimes set aside this goal in favor of a more realistic approach, such as advocating autonomy. In 1918, the party was instrumental in the creation of the First Republic of Armenia, which fell to the Soviet communists in 1920. After its leadership was exiled by the communists, the ARF established itself within Armenian diaspora communities, where it helped Armenians preserve their cultural identity. After the fall of the USSR, it returned to Armenia, where it now again has a presence as a minor party in Armenia's parliament.
Prior to Serzh Sargsyan's election as president of Armenia and for a short time thereafter, the ARF was a member of the governing coalition though it nominated its own candidate in the presidential elections. ARF reentered Sargsyan's cabinet in February 2016 in what was defined as a "long-term political cooperation" agreement with the Republican Party by means of which the ARF would share responsibility for all government policies; the ARF approved of Sargsyan's nomination as Prime Minister, from which he resigned six days amid large-scale protests. By the evening of 25 April 2018, ARF-Dashnaktsutyun had withdrawn from the coalition; the party lost political representation after 2018 Armenian parliamentary election after receiving only 3.89% of the votes, lower than the 5% minimum threshold required for representation in the parliament. In the late 19th century, Eastern Europe and Russia became the hub of small groups advocating reform in Armenian-populated areas in the Ottoman Empire. In 1890, recognizing the need to unify these groups in order to be more efficient, Christapor Mikaelian, Simon Zavarian and Stepan Zorian created a new political party called the "Federation of Armenian Revolutionaries", which would be called the "Armenian Revolutionary Federation" or "Dashnaktsutiun" in 1890.
The Social Democrat Hunchakian Party at one point had agreed to join as well, seeing that the ARF's political ideology was socialism. However, the Hunchakians withdrew from the union; the original aim of the ARF was to gain autonomy for the Armenian-populated areas in the Ottoman Empire. The party began to organize itself in the Ottoman Empire in the early 1890s and held its first major meeting in Tiflis, Russian Empire, in 1892. At that meeting, the party adopted a decentralized modus operandi according to which the chapters in different countries were allowed to plan and implement policies in tune with their local political atmosphere; the party set its goal of a society based on the democratic principles of freedom of assembly, freedom of speech, freedom of religion and agrarian reform. The ARF acquired significant strength and sympathy among Russian Armenians; because of the ARF's stance towards the Ottoman Empire, the party enjoyed the support of the central Russian administration, as tsarist and ARF foreign policy had the same alignment until 1903.
On June 12, 1903, the tsarist authorities passed an edict to bring all Armenian Church property under imperial control. This was faced by strong ARF opposition, because the ARF perceived the tsarist edict as a threat to the Armenian national existence; as a result, the ARF leadership decided to defend Armenian churches by dispatching militiamen who acted as guards and by holding mass demonstrations. In 1905–06, the Armenian-Tatar massacres broke out during which the ARF became involved in armed activities; some sources claim that the Russian government incited the massacres in order to reinforce its authority during the revolutionary turmoil of 1905. The first outbreak of violence occurred in Baku, in February 1905; the ARF held the Russian authorities responsible for inaction and instigation of massacres that were part of a larger anti-Armenian policy. On May 11, 1905, Dashnak revolutionary Drastamat Kanayan assassinated Russian governor general Nakashidze, who
Civil Contract (Armenia)
Civil Contract is a political party in Armenia, established on July 24, 2013 as an NGO. Its governing board was formed on December 9, 2013. On May 30, 2015, it became a political party. Civil Contract participated in the 2017 Armenian parliamentary election and the 2017 Yerevan City Council election as part of the Way Out Alliance. After the 2018 Armenian Velvet Revolution led by Nikol Pashinyan, the Yelk political alliance rose to power and Civil Contract became part of the ruling coalition in the National Assembly. Civil Contract was known for the first time on January 23, 2013, when MP Nikol Pashinyan from the opposition bloc publicized a project to establish a new political process in the newspaper Haykakan Zhamanak. For several months afterwards, the text of the contract was discussed in Armenian political forums. An updated version of the contract was published and Civil Contract, a new political union, was announced on July 24 of that year; the union announced that before its first conference, the text of the contract would be amended and clarified and a detailed road map created.
Civil Contract's governing board was introduced at a December 9, 2013 Ani Plaza Hotel press conference. The board, which makes decisions by consensus, has no director, it was formed to organize the first party conference, at which a new governing board would be elected and organizational and legal decisions made. The governing board was: Arsen Kharatyan, specialist in Arabic studies Arayik Harutyunyan, specialist in Arabic studies with a PhD in history and a Yerevan State University lecturer Marine Manucharyan, theologian, NGO director Sasun Mikayelyan, commander of the Sasun detachment, member of Yerkrapah and a former MP Lena Nazaryan, journalist Alen Simonyan, editor-in-chief of the Ararat Media Group Nikol Pashinyan, former journalist, former MP, prime minister The Civil Contract Return Fund was established to ensure that the party's funding complies with Armenian law and its activities are democratically organized. Funds donated to Civil Contract will be stored in the fund's vault. Accounting will be conducted under the supervision of the board of trustees, independent of the governing board and controls the fund's expenditures.
According to the party's contract, "Citizens who have donated money or property to the Contract shall have the right to request information on spending, their demands are to be satisfied within three days' time." The Civil Contract board of trustees was announced on February 22, 2014. Haykak Arshamyan was elected chairman, Hakob Simidyan was appointed director of the fund. Members are: Lara Aharonian, Women's Resource Center co-founder, director Haykak Arshamyan, PhD in history Levon Bagramyan, political scientist, Washington, D. C. Arthur Ispiryan, musician Levon Hovsepyan, economist Ara Shirinyan, director Maro Matossian, Women's Support Center director Edgar Manukyan, PhD in economics, Canada Sargis Kloyan, businessperson The Civil Contract governing board published "Financing Politics and Civil Contract", an article touching on the issues of fiscal transparency and financing public and political life in Armenia, on April 26, 2014: Financing politics is one of the essential entangled knots of the history of the Third Republic.
How is the public-political activity financed in Armenia? It's a question the proper answer of, not known. One can guess, put forward hypotheses, but the society does not have a reliable and verifiable answer to the question... The most popular answer is that "we are funded by thousands of our supporters"; this is an answer, which generates new questions: whom and how do the supporters give the money? Who takes it and under what conditions? How do others learn whether their retainer has donated that much, more or less money...? From the first stage of the debates over establishing “civil contract” public–political union the issues about funding the activities of the contract have been the subject of heated debate. How is the contract going to be financed? Who will be financing it? The answers to these questions were principal for us, and if we have serious ambition to achieve fundamental changes in public–political relations, we need to try to work ourselves out of the Armenian traditional funding mechanisms of political activity.
We have formulated the problem the following way: if we need 1000 AMD, we need to find not a single person that will give us that money, but we need to find 1000 people each of whom will donate 1 AMD. On March 31, 2018, Civil Contract leader Nikol Pashinyan and his supporters began a 200-kilometre march from Gyumri to the capital, Yerevan, to dissuade Prime Minister Serzh Sargsyan from retaining power beyond his term limit. On April 17, Nikol Pashinyan announced the start of a national, nonviolent "velvet revolution" to thousands of supporters gathered near the National Assembly. On April 22, several hours after a brief meeting with Sargsyan, Pashinyan was arrested with about 250 other protesters. After mass strikes and blocked streets by over 300,000 protesters, Sargsyan resigned on April 23, he said, "Nikol Pashinyan was right. I was wrong; the movement of the street is against my office. I'm fulfilling your demands." According to al Jazeera's Robin Forestier-Walker, "Thousands of people are on the streets and hugging each other, jumping up and down and honking their horns... things happened so I don't think the crowd was expecting this, but it is what they wanted".
Official website Official personal website of Nikol Pashinyan Payqar of