Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Saxony
The Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Saxony is one of 22 member Churches of the Evangelical Church in Germany, covering most of the state of Saxony. Its headquarters are in Dresden, its bishop has his or her seat at Meissen Cathedral, its organisation became an example for other Protestant churches to be founded throughout Europe, the so-called "Saxon model" of a church as introduced by Martin Luther itself. It was tied to the state, whereby the Elector of Saxony protected the evangelical faith in his jurisdiction. Since the Reformation, the Lutheran orthodoxy prevailed among the general population in Saxony and was secured first by its Ernestine and Albertine Wettin rulers. Beginning in the 17th century, Pietism gained a significant following among the working class. 1922: 4,509,000 by parishioners by far the biggest Lutheran church in Germany 2012: 764,000 2013: 754,451 2015: 713,648 2017: 689,858 Ordination of women and blessing of same-sex unions were allowed. The Lutheran Church in Saxony - homepage
Johannes Ernst Richard Lilje was German Lutheran bishop and one of the pioneers of the ecumenical movement. Lilje was general secretary of the German Student Christian Movement 1924-34, he was involved in Confessing Church struggle in Nazi Germany from 1933 onwards. After World War II he became the bishop of the Evangelical Lutheran State Church of Hanover in 1947 until his retirement, he was the presiding bishop of the United Evangelical Lutheran Church of Germany 1955-69, president of the Lutheran World Federation and World Council of Churches. He was abbot of Loccum under title Johannes XI. Following WWII Lilje authored "The Valley of the Shadow" about his experiences during his imprisonment by the Nazis, he was at Dachau concentration camp before being transferred to Buchenwald where he was held in solitary confinement. He was tortured to extract a confession as well as reveal names of other clergy who were working to rid Germany of Hitler, his Bible was taken from him but he knew the scriptures well enough to find strength in various verses.
His favorite was Romans 14:8 "For whether we die unto the Lord. Dictionary of the Ecumenical Movement. ISBN 2-8254-1354-2 Historical Dictionary of Lutheranism. Günther Gassmann, Duane Howard Larson, Mark W. Oldenburg. Published by Scarecrow Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8108-3945-8 Roy, Rev. Ralph Lord. "Passover and Easter promise victory over defeat.", Record-Journal, March 24, 2018. Newspaper clippings about Hanns Lilje in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America is a mainline Protestant Lutheran Church headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. The ELCA came into existence on January 1, 1988, by the merging of three Lutheran church bodies; as of 2017, it has 3.5 million baptized members in 9,163 congregations. In 2015, Pew Research estimated that 1.4 percent of the U. S. population self-identifies with the ELCA. It is the seventh-largest Christian denomination by reported membership and the largest Lutheran denomination in the United States; the next two largest Lutheran denominations are the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod and the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod. There are many smaller Lutheran church bodies in the United States, some of which came into being composed of dissidents following the major 1988 merger; the ELCA belongs to the World Council of the Lutheran World Federation. The ELCA is in full communion with the Episcopal Church, Moravian Church, Presbyterian Church, Reformed Church in America, United Church of Christ, the United Methodist Church.
In 1970, a survey by Strommen et al. found that 79 percent of Lutheran Church in America clergy, 62 percent of American Lutheran Church clergy, 58 percent of Lutheran Church Missouri Synod clergy surveyed agreed that "a merger of all Lutheran groups in the United States into one organization is desirable". The ELCA formally came into existence on January 1, 1988, creating the largest Lutheran church body in the United States; the Church is a result of a merger among The American Lutheran Church with its headquarters in Minneapolis, the Lutheran Church in America and the Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches, all of which had formally agreed in 1982 to unite after several years of discussions. The ALC and LCA were themselves the product of previous mergers. In 1960, The American Lutheran Church was formed as a merger of the earlier ALC of 1930 from German heritage, the United Evangelical Lutheran Church of Danish background, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Norwegian background; the Lutheran Free Church joined three years in 1963.
The ALC brought 2.25 million members into the new ELCA. It was the most theologically conservative of the forming bodies, having a heritage of Old Lutheran theology, it had been in fellowship for a decade with the Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod and held to biblical inerrancy in its constitution, although it enforced that stance by means of heresy trials or other doctrinal discipline. Its geographic center was in the Upper Midwest Minnesota, with headquarters and publisher on South Fifth Street in Minneapolis and one of its several seminaries in neighboring St. Paul, its denominational magazine was The Lutheran Standard, published in Minneapolis. Some congregations in the ALC opted not to join the 1988 merger and instead formed the American Association of Lutheran Churches; the Lutheran Church in America had been created in 1962, when the United Lutheran Church in America, along with the Swedish background Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church, the Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church of America, the Danish immigrants in the American Evangelical Lutheran Church.
The LCA was the larger partner and brought 2.85 million members into the new ELCA. Their administrative offices were in the Church House, a former townhouse mansion on Madison Avenue in New York City, its publishing house, Fortress Press, was on Queen's Lane in northwest Philadelphia, produced the church magazine, The Lutheran. Its demographic focus was on the East Coast, centered on Pennsylvania), with large numbers in the Midwest and some presence in the Southern Atlantic states. There are notable exceptions, but LCA-background churches tend to be more liturgical than ALC-background churches, its theological orientation ranged from moderately liberal to neo-orthodox, with tendencies toward conservative Pietism in some rural and small-town congregations. Its theology originated in the Neo-Lutheran movement. In 1976, the Association of Evangelical Lutheran Churches was formed by 250 congregations that had left the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod in a schism precipitated by disputes over biblical inerrancy and ecumenism as part of the overall Fundamentalist–Modernist Controversy, roiling American Protestant churches for several decades.
The LCMS elected more conservative leadership in 1969 under President Jacob A. O. Preus, replacing moderate incumbent Oliver Harms; the new leadership opened an investigation at the synod's Concordia Seminary in St. Louis, about the faculty's commitment to inerrancy in Biblical interpretation; as a result, most of the faculty and student body walked out and established a separate institution named "Concordia Seminary-in-Exile". The AELC brought 100,000 members into the ELCA, its immigrant heritage came from Germany in the mid-19th century. The ELCA is headed by a Presiding Bishop, elected by the Churchwide Assembly for a term of six years. To date, four people have been elected to the position of Presiding Bishop of the ELCA. Herbert W. Chilstrom served as the first Presiding Bishop from 1987 to 1995, he was followed by H. George Anderson, who had previous
Hanover or Hannover is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony. Its 535,061 inhabitants make it the thirteenth-largest city of Germany, as well as the third-largest city of Northern Germany after Hamburg and Bremen; the city lies at the confluence of the River Leine and its tributary Ihme, in the south of the North German Plain, is the largest city of the Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region. It is the fifth-largest city in the Low German dialect area after Hamburg, Dortmund and Bremen. Before it became the capital of Lower Saxony in 1946, Hanover was the capital of the Principality of Calenberg, the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover, the Province of Hanover of the Kingdom of Prussia, the Province of Hanover of the Free State of Prussia, of the State of Hanover. From 1714 to 1837, Hanover was by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title of the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
The city is a major crossing point of railway lines and highways, connecting European main lines in both the east-west and north-south directions. Hannover Airport lies north of the city, in Langenhagen, is Germany's ninth-busiest airport; the city's most notable institutions of higher education are the Hannover Medical School with its university hospital, the University of Hanover. The Hanover fairground, due to numerous extensions for the Expo 2000, is the largest in the world. Hanover hosts annual commercial trade fairs such as the Hanover Fair and up to 2018 the CeBIT; the IAA Commercial Vehicles show takes place every two years. It is the world's leading trade show for transport and mobility; every year Hanover hosts the Schützenfest Hannover, the world's largest marksmen's festival, the Oktoberfest Hannover. "Hanover" is the traditional English spelling. The German spelling is becoming more popular in English; the English pronunciation, with stress on the first syllable, is applied to both the German and English spellings, different from German pronunciation, with stress on the second syllable and a long second vowel.
The traditional English spelling is still used in historical contexts when referring to the British House of Hanover. Hanover was founded in medieval times on the east bank of the River Leine, its original name Honovere may mean "high bank". Hanover was a small village of ferrymen and fishermen that became a comparatively large town in the 13th century, receiving town privileges in 1241, due to its position at a natural crossroads; as overland travel was difficult, its position on the upper navigable reaches of the river helped it to grow by increasing trade. It was connected to the Hanseatic League city of Bremen by the Leine, was situated near the southern edge of the wide North German Plain and north-west of the Harz mountains, so that east-west traffic such as mule trains passed through it. Hanover was thus a gateway to the Rhine and Saar river valleys, their industrial areas which grew up to the southwest and the plains regions to the east and north, for overland traffic skirting the Harz between the Low Countries and Saxony or Thuringia.
In the 14th century the main churches of Hanover were built, as well as a city wall with three city gates. The beginning of industrialization in Germany led to trade in iron and silver from the northern Harz Mountains, which increased the city's importance. In 1636 George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, ruler of the Brunswick-Lüneburg principality of Calenberg, moved his residence to Hanover; the Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg was elevated by the Holy Roman Emperor to the rank of Prince-Elector in 1692, this elevation was confirmed by the Imperial Diet in 1708. Thus the principality was upgraded to the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, colloquially known as the Electorate of Hanover after Calenberg's capital, its Electors become monarchs of Great Britain. The first of these was George I Louis, who acceded to the British throne in 1714; the last British monarch who reigned in Hanover was William IV. Semi-Salic law, which required succession by the male line if possible, forbade the accession of Queen Victoria in Hanover.
As a male-line descendant of George I, Queen Victoria was herself a member of the House of Hanover. Her descendants, bore her husband's titular name of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Three kings of Great Britain, or the United Kingdom, were concurrently Electoral Princes of Hanover. During the time of the personal union of the crowns of the United Kingdom and Hanover, the monarchs visited the city. In fact, during the reigns of the final three joint rulers, there was only one short visit, by George IV in 1821. From 1816 to 1837 Viceroy Adolphus represented the monarch in Hanover. During the Seven Years' War, the Battle of Hastenbeck was fought near the city on 26 July 1757; the French army defeated the Hanoverian Army of Observation, leading to the city's occupation as part of the Invasion of Hanover. It was recaptured by Anglo-German forces led by Ferdinand of Brunswick the following year. After Napoleon imposed the Conv
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Evangelical Church in Germany
The Evangelical Church in Germany is a federation of twenty Lutheran and United Protestant regional churches and denominations in Germany, which collectively encompasses the vast majority of Protestants in that country. In 2017, the EKD had 26.1 % of the German population. It constitutes one of the largest national Protestant bodies in the world. Church offices managing the federation are located in Lower Saxony. Many of its members consider; the first formal attempt to unify German Protestantism occurred during the Weimar Republic era in the form of the German Evangelical Church Confederation, which existed from 1922 until 1933. Earlier, there had been successful royal efforts at unity in various German states, beginning with Prussia and several minor German states in 1817; these unions resulted in the first united and uniting churches, a new development within Protestantism which spread to other parts of the world. When Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, his administration tried to reorganize the old confederation into a unified German Evangelical Church as Hitler wanted to use a single Protestant church to further his own ambitions.
This utterly failed, with the Confessing Church and the German Christians-led Reichskirche opposing each other. Other Protestant churches aligned themselves with one of these groups, or stayed neutral in this church strife; the postwar church council issued the Stuttgart Declaration of Guilt on October 19, 1945, confessing guilt and declaring remorse for indifference and inaction of German Protestants in the face of atrocities committed by Hitler's regime as means to address the German collective guilt. In 1948, the Evangelical Church in Germany was organized in the aftermath of World War II to function as a new umbrella organization for German Protestant churches; as a result of tensions between West and East Germany, the regional churches in East Germany broke away from the EKD in 1969. In 1991, following German reunification, the East German churches rejoined the EKD; the member churches, while being independent and having their own theological and formal organisation, share full pulpit and altar fellowship, are united in the EKD synod, are individual members of the World Council of Churches and the Community of Protestant Churches in Europe.
Boundaries of EKD churches within Germany resemble those of the states of the Holy Roman Empire and successor forms of German statehood, due to the close relationship between individual German states and churches. As for church governance, the Lutheran churches practise an episcopal polity, while the Reformed and the United ones a mixture of presbyterian and congregationalist polities. Most member churches are led by a bishop. Only one member church, the Evangelical Reformed Church, is not restricted to a certain territory. In some ways, the other member churches resemble dioceses of the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches, from an organisational point of view; the German term evangelisch here more corresponds to the broad English term Protestant rather than to the narrower evangelical, although the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada and the Evangelical Lutheran Church of England use the term in the same way as the German church. Evangelisch means "of the Gospel", denoting a Protestant Reformation emphasis on sola scriptura, "by scripture alone".
Dr. Martin Luther encouraged this term alongside Christian. From the Peace of Augsburg in 1555 to the end of the First World War and the collapse of the German Empire, some Protestant churches were state churches; each Landeskirche was the official church of one of the states of Germany, while the respective ruler was the church's formal head, similar to the British monarch's role as the Supreme Governor of the Church of England. This changed somewhat with growing religious freedom in the 19th century in the republican states of Bremen, Frankfurt, Lübeck, Hamburg; the greatest change came after the German Revolution, with the formation of the Weimar Republic and the abdication of the princes of the German states. The system of state churches disappeared with the Weimar Constitution, which brought about disestablishment by the separation of church and state, there was a desire for the Protestant churches to merge. In fact, a merger was permanently under discussion but never materialised due to strong regional self-confidence and traditions as well as the denominational fragmentation into Lutheran and United and uniting churches.
During the Revolution, when the old church governments lost power, the People's Church Union was formed and advocated unification without respect to theological tradition and increasing input from laymen. However, the People's Church Union split along territorial lines after the churches' relationship with the new governments improved, it was realised that one mainstream Protestant church for all of Germany was impossible and that any union would need a federal model. The churches met in Dresden in 1919 and created a plan for federation, this plan was adopted in 1921 at Stuttgart. In 1922 the 28 territorially defined Protestant churches founded the German Evangelical Church Confederation. At the time, the federation was the largest Protestant church feder
Johannes Friedrich (bishop)
Johannes Friedrich is German Lutheran theologian and was a German Lutheran bishop. Friedrich studied theology at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg and at the University of Tübingen, was reverend in Nuremberg, campus minister at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg and German Lutheran Provost at Redeemer Church in Jerusalem, he is a member of the EKD Council of the Protestant Church in Germany, since 1999 Landesbischof of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria and from 2005 leading bishop of the United Evangelical Lutheran Church of Germany. Friedrich worked on a Lutheran/Catholic Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification and supports the Christian–Islamic dialogue in order to cause the Christian–Islamic understanding. In 2011 Friedrich was succeeded as bishop of the ELCB by Heinrich Bedford-Strohm. Deloitte Germany, Member of the Advisory Board Anvertraute Talente. 2008 Verantwortung gemeindenah und in weltweitem Horizont. 2008 Das Leitungsamt der Kirche in unserer Zeit. 2008 Zeugen der Wahrheit Gottes.
2006 Den einmal begonnenen Weg im festen Blick auf das Ziel fortsetzen. 2005 Die Confessio Augustana und die Christenheit. 2005 In ökumenischer Gesinnung handeln. 2004 Die Zukunft gestalten. 2004 Zuversicht trotz Zwischentief. 2003 Vertrauen in die ökumenische Gemeinschaft stiften. 2002 Ökumene in Deutschland - Blick voraus. 2002 Zum gemeinsamen Zeugnis berufen. 2001 Unterwegs zur Gemeinschaft. 2000 Profil zeigen. 2000 Gott im Bruder?. 1977 Gott im Anderen? eine methodenkritische Untersuchung von Redaktion, Überlieferung und Tradition in Matthäus 25,31-46. 1976 Rechtfertigung. 1976 German National Library