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United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty, is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, which took place between 1973 and 1982. The Law of the Sea Convention defines the rights and responsibilities of nations with respect to their use of the world's oceans, establishing guidelines for businesses, the environment, the management of marine natural resources; the Convention, concluded in 1982, replaced the quad-treaty 1958 Convention on the High Seas. UNCLOS came into force in 1994, a year; as of June 2016, 167 countries and the European Union have joined in the Convention. It is uncertain as. While the Secretary-General of the United Nations receives instruments of ratification and accession and the UN provides support for meetings of states party to the Convention, the UN has no direct operational role in the implementation of the Convention. There is, however, a role played by organizations such as the International Maritime Organization, the International Whaling Commission, the International Seabed Authority.

UNCLOS replaces the older'freedom of the seas' concept, dating from the 17th century: national rights were limited to a specified belt of water extending from a nation's coastlines 3 nautical miles, according to the'cannon shot' rule developed by the Dutch jurist Cornelius van Bynkershoek. All waters beyond national boundaries were considered international waters: free to all nations, but belonging to none of them. In the early 20th century, some nations expressed their desire to extend national claims: to include mineral resources, to protect fish stocks, to provide the means to enforce pollution controls. Using the customary international law principle of a nation's right to protect its natural resources, President Harry S. Truman in 1945 extended United States control to all the natural resources of its continental shelf. Other nations were quick to follow suit. Between 1946 and 1950, Chile and Ecuador extended their rights to a distance of 200 nautical miles to cover their Humboldt Current fishing grounds.

Other nations extended their territorial seas to 12 nautical miles. By 1967, only 25 nations still used the old 3-mile limit, while 66 nations had set a 12-nautical-mile territorial limit and eight had set a 200-nautical-mile limit; as of 28 May 2008, only two countries still use the 3-mile limit: Palau. That limit is used in certain Australian islands, an area of Belize, some Japanese straits, certain areas of Papua New Guinea, a few British Overseas Territories, such as Anguilla. In 1956, the United Nations held its first Conference on the Law of the Sea at Switzerland. UNCLOS I resulted in four treaties concluded in 1958: Convention on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone, entry into force: 10 September 1964 Convention on the Continental Shelf, entry into force: 10 June 1964 Convention on the High Seas, entry into force: 30 September 1962 Convention on Fishing and Conservation of Living Resources of the High Seas, entry into force: 20 March 1966Although UNCLOS I was considered a success, it left open the important issue of breadth of territorial waters.

In 1960, the United Nations held the second Conference on the Law of the Sea. Speaking, developing nations and third world countries participated only as clients, allies, or dependents of the United States or the Soviet Union, with no significant voice of their own; the issue of varying claims of territorial waters was raised in the UN in 1967 by Arvid Pardo of Malta, in 1973 the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea was convened in New York. In an attempt to reduce the possibility of groups of nation-states dominating the negotiations, the conference used a consensus process rather than majority vote. With more than 160 nations participating, the conference lasted until 1982; the resulting convention came into force on 16 November 1994, one year after the 60th state, ratified the treaty. The convention introduced a number of provisions; the most significant issues covered were setting limits, archipelagic status and transit regimes, exclusive economic zones, continental shelf jurisdiction, deep seabed mining, the exploitation regime, protection of the marine environment, scientific research, settlement of disputes.

The convention set the limit of various areas, measured from a defined baseline. The areas are as follows: Internal waters Covers all water and waterways on the landward side of the baseline; the coastal state is free to set laws, regulate use, use any resource. Foreign vessels have no right of passage within internal waters. A vessel in the high seas assumes jurisdiction under the internal laws of its flag State. Pursuit of a ship by the Coastal State may only take place in the internal waters and is required to end when reaching the contiguous zone. Territorial waters Out to 12 nautical miles from the baseline, the coastal state is free to set laws, regulate use, use any resource. Vessels were given the right of i


Personics was the company that invented the music recording retail system with trade name "Personics System", introduced in record stores starting in 1987. The system allowed customers to enter a music store, use headphones to preview and select individual songs on a console specify a custom list of songs to be recorded to a Compact Cassette tape; the songs available were listed in magazine format available at the stores. The record stores had a machine from Personics that contained 120 custom Compact discs recorded in CD Digital Audio Redbook format with custom Dolby AC1 tracks which were pre-encoded with Dolby B Type Noise reduction prior to compression; these two drives each had jukebox disc changing systems and provided access to thousands of songs for fast in-shell cassette recording. Songs and other musical selections could be selected from a variety of artists, record labels, etc. and arranged in any order desired. The software calculated the total playing time of the selections, instructed the clerk to insert the appropriate length cassette, provided the option to shuffle selections in order to up the playing time on each side.

After operating a control on the console to commit to purchase the list of songs, followed by a short waiting period, the cassette recording would be finished, along with a custom printed label with personalized title and listing the song selections in the specified order. The customer would pay for and receive the recorded tape from a clerk at the store's register; the system saw some popularity around the time when the Sony Walkman and other portable cassette players had become popular. It allowed customers to purchase songs individually, rather than purchasing an entire LP or CD just to obtain one or two songs to record to tape. During this time, the 45 RPM single had started to lose popularity, limiting the ability of the public to purchase songs individually; the Personics system was successful and suffered due to lack of new catalog material. Customers lost interest in the systems; the Personics System Personics - iTunes In The Analog 80's Personics: The Ultimate Mixtape

Cherry River (Quebec)

The Cherry River or Rivière aux Cerises is a river in Magog, Quebec, part of the Lake Memphremagog watershed. This river flows through the cities Orford Magog, in the Memphremagog Regional County Municipality, in the administrative region of Eastern Townships, in Quebec, in Canada; the river was flooded by the creation of dams in the late 19th century, creating a permanent wetland around it. The main hydrographic slopes adjacent to the "Cherry River" are: North side: Key Creek; the "Cherry River" originates from "Etang aux Cerises", located south-east of Lake Stukely, south of Fraser Lake, northeast of Mount Orford, Northwest of the center of the village of Cherry River. L'Étang aux Cerises receives the waters from: the northwest slope of Mount Orford by the "Grand Crescent Creek" and the "Billot Creek". From the landfill of the "Etang des Cerises", the Cherry River runs for 11.9 km depending on the following segments: 2.0 km southeast in forest zone through Sayat-Nova Pond, to the confluence of Cuvette Creek.

The Cherry River flows to the bottom of a small bay on the Magog Bay on the north shore of Lake Memphremagog next to Cabana Point in the Deauville area. The route 112 crosses the "rivière aux Cerises" at its confluence with Lake Memphremagog. After crossing a small bay, towards the south, the current crosses under the railway bridge located on the north shore of Lake Memphremagog. Cherry is the fruit of the cherry tree. In this region, cherries are ripe in the middle of summer; the term "Cherry" is related to several place names in this area: the pond, the "Cherry River" hamlet, the marsh and the river. The toponym "rivière aux Cerises" was registered on December 5, 1968, at the Commission de toponymie du Québec. Lake Memphremagog, a water body Magog River, a river St. Francis River, a river Orford, a municipality Official website of the Cherry River Swamp park Birds observation Website - Site d'observation des oiseaux du Québec Cherry River on Canada Atlas - Natural Resources Canada