International Force East Timor
The International Force East Timor was a multinational non-United Nations peacemaking taskforce and led by Australia in accordance with United Nations resolutions to address the humanitarian and security crisis that took place in East Timor from 1999–2000 until the arrival of UN peacekeepers. INTERFET was commanded by an Major General Peter Cosgrove. Indonesia annexed the former Portuguese colony; the annexation was resisted by many East Timorese. Cold War security concerns were emphasised, while foreign powers placed high importance on good relations with Indonesia and were reluctant to assist a push for independence as a result. However, following the fall of long-serving Indonesian President Suharto, the new president, B. J. Habibie, was prepared to grant East Timor special autonomy. In late 1998, the Australian prime minister, John Howard, with his foreign minister, Alexander Downer, drafted a letter to Habibie supporting the idea of autonomy but incorporating a suggestion that the long-term issue of East Timorese self-determination could best be defused by providing the East Timorese with an opportunity for a plebiscite after a substantial period of autonomy.
The explicit comparison was with the Matignon Accords involving New Caledonia. The letter upset Habibie, who saw it as implying Indonesia was a "colonial power", he decided in response to announce a snap referendum to be conducted within six months. News of the proposal provoked a violent reaction from pro-Indonesian militia in East Timor; the Indonesian army did not intervene to restore order. At a summit in Bali, Howard told Habibie that a United Nations peacekeeping force should oversee the process. Habibie rejected the proposal; the United Nations Mission in East Timor was established to organise and conduct a referendum on the question of independence. It was composed of observers rather than military personnel; the UN-sponsored referendum held on 30 August 1999 showed overwhelming approval for East Timorese independence from Indonesia. After the result was announced on 4 September, violent clashes, instigated by a suspected anti-independence militia, sparked a humanitarian and security crisis in the region, with Xanana Gusmão calling for a UN peacekeeping force the same day.
Many East Timorese were killed, with as many as 500,000 displaced and around half fleeing the territory. On 6 September, Operation Spitfire commenced with Royal Australian Air Force C-130 Hercules aircraft evacuating UNAMET staff, foreign nationals and refugees, including Bishop Belo, to Darwin from Dili and Baucau airfields with protection provided by unarmed Special Air Service Regiment soldiers; the violence was met with widespread public anger in Australia and elsewhere, activists in Portugal, the United States and other nations pressured their governments to take action. Australia's Opposition Spokesman on Foreign Affairs, Laurie Brereton, was vocal in highlighting evidence of the Indonesian military's involvement in pro-integrationist violence and advocated United Nations peacekeeping to support the East Timor's ballot; the Catholic Church in Australia urged the Australian Government to send an armed peacekeeping force to East Timor to end the violence. Protests occurred outside the Indonesia Consulate in the Indonesian Embassy in Canberra.
The Australian prime minister, John Howard, gained the support of United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan and U. S. President Bill Clinton for an Australian-led international peacekeeping force to enter East Timor to end the violence. On 12 September, Clinton announced: he Indonesian military has aided and abetted militia violence in East Timor, in violation of the commitment of its leaders to the international community; this has allowed the militias to murder innocent people, to send thousands fleeing for their lives, to attack the United Nations compound. The United States has suspended all military cooperation and sales to Indonesia... The Indonesian Government and military must not only reverse course, they must halt the violence not just throughout the nation. They must permit humanitarian assistance and let the U. N. mission do its job... We are ready to support an effort led by Australia to mobilize a multinational force to help to bring security to East Timor under U. N. auspice... the eyes of the world are on that tiny place and on those poor innocent, suffering people.
Indonesia, in dire economic straits, relented. Under international pressure to allow an international peacekeeping force, President B. J. Habibie announced on 12 September, he told a press conference: A couple of minutes ago I called the United Nations Secretary General, Mr Kofi Annan, to inform about our readiness to accept international peacekeeping forces through the United Nations, from friendly nations, to restore peace and security in East Timor. On 15 September 1999, the United Nations Security Council expressed concern at the deteriorating situation in East Timor and issued its Resolution 1264 calling for a multinational force to restore peace and security to East Timor, to protect and support the United Nations mission there, to facilitate humanitarian assistance operations until such time as a United Nations peacekeeping force could be approved and deployed in the area; the resolution welcomed Australia's letter to accept the leadership of a proposed multinational force in East Timor and to make a substantial contribution to the force itself.
The lead-up to the operation remained politically and militarily tense. The Royal Australian Air Force (RA
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
History of East Timor
East Timor is a country in Southeast Asia known as Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste. The country comprises the eastern half of the island of Timor and the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco; the first inhabitants are thought to be descendant of Melanesian peoples. The Portuguese began to trade with Timor by the early 16th century and colonised it throughout the mid-century. Skirmishing with the Dutch in the region resulted in an 1859 treaty for which Portugal ceded the western half of the island. Imperial Japan occupied East Timor during World War II, but Portugal resumed colonial authority after the Japanese surrender. East Timor declared itself independent from Portugal on 28 November 1975, but was invaded by neighbouring Indonesia nine days later; the country was incorporated as a province of Indonesia afterwards. During the subsequent two-decade occupation, a campaign of pacification ensued. Although Indonesia did make substantial investment in infrastructures during its occupation in East Timor, dissatisfaction remained widespread.
Between 1975 and 1999, there were an estimated about 102,800 conflict-related deaths, the majority of which occurred during the Indonesian occupation. On 30 August 1999, in a UN-sponsored referendum, an overwhelming majority of East Timorese voted for independence from Indonesia. Following the referendum, anti-independence Timorese militias – organised and supported by the Indonesian military – commenced a punitive scorched-earth campaign; the militias killed 1,400 Timorese and forcibly pushed 300,000 people into West Timor as refugees. The majority of the country's infrastructure was destroyed during this punitive attack. On 20 September 1999, the International Force for East Timor was deployed to the country and brought the violence to an end. Following a United Nations-administered transition period, East Timor was internationally recognised as an independent nation on 20 May 2002; the island of Timor was populated as part of the human migrations that have shaped Australasia more generally.
In 2011 evidence was uncovered of humans in East Timor at 42,000 years ago, at the Jerimalai cave site. These early settlers had high-level maritime skills at this time, by implication the technology needed to make ocean crossings to reach Australia and other islands, as they were catching and consuming large numbers of big deep sea fish such as tuna. One of the oldest fish hooks in the world, dated between 16,000 and 23,000 years old, was excavated at Jerimalai, it is believed. The first is described by anthropologists as people of the Veddo-Australoid type. Around 3000 BC, a second migration brought Melanesians; the earlier Veddo-Australoid peoples withdrew at this time to the mountainous interior. Proto-Malays arrived from south China and north Indochina. Timorese origin myths tell of ancestors that sailed around the eastern end of Timor arriving on land in the south; some stories recount Timorese ancestors journeying from Malay Peninsula or the Minangkabau Highlands of Sumatra. The Timorese were not seafarers, rather they were land focussed peoples who did not make contact with other islands and peoples by sea.
Timor was part of a region of small islands with small populations of land-focussed peoples that now make up eastern Indonesia. Contact with the outside world was via networks of foreign seafaring traders from as far as China and India that served the archipelago; the earliest historical record about Timor island is 14th century Nagarakretagama, Canto 14, that identify Timur as an island within Majapahit's realm. Outside products brought to the region included metal goods, fine textiles, coins exchanged for local spices, deer horn, bees' wax, slaves. Early European explorers report that the island had a number of small chiefdoms or princedoms in the early 16th century. One of the most significant is the Wehali kingdom in central Timor, to which the Tetum and Kemak ethnic groups were aligned; the first Europeans to arrive in the area were the Portuguese, who landed near modern Pante Macassar. These Portuguese were traders that arrived between 1509 and 1511. However, only in 1556 did a group of Dominican friars establish their missionary work in the area.
By the seventeenth century the village of Lifau - today part of the Oecussi enclave - became the centre of Portuguese activities. At this time, the Portuguese began to convert the Timorese to Catholicism. Starting in 1642, a military expedition led by the Portuguese Francisco Fernandes took place; the aim of this expedition was to weaken the power of the Timor kings and as this expedition was made by the Topasses, the'Black Portuguese', it succeeded to extend the Portuguese influence into the interior of the country. In 1702 the territory became a Portuguese colony, known as Portuguese Timor, when Lisbon sent its first governor, with Lifau as its capital. Portuguese control over the territory was tenuous in the mountainous interior. Dominican friars, the occasional Dutch raid, the Timorese themselves provided opposition to the Portuguese; the control of colonial administrators restricted to Dili, had to rely on traditional tribal chieftains for control and influence. For the Portuguese, East Timor remained little more than a neglected trading post until the late nineteenth century.
Investment in infrastructure and education was minimal. The island was seen as a way to exile those who the government in Lisbon saw as "problems" - these included political prisoners as well as ordinary criminals. Portuguese ruled through a traditional system of liurai
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1599
United Nations Security Council resolution 1599, adopted unanimously on 28 April 2005, after reaffirming previous resolutions on East Timor resolutions 1543 and 1573, the Council established the United Nations Office in Timor-Leste to follow on from the United Nations Mission of Support to East Timor as a special political mission for one year until 20 May 2006. The resolution authorised a peacebuilding, rather than peacekeeping mandate for UNOTIL. In the preamble of the resolution, the Council commended the people and government for the peace and stability achieved in East Timor. UNMISET was praised for its work in the country; the Council noted the Secretary-General Kofi Annan's recommendation that the United Nations should remain in East Timor at a reduced level, that institutions were in the process of consolidation. The resolution established UNOTIL for one year to support the development of state institutions and police, training regarding democratic governance and human rights through the provision of relevant officers.
UNOTIL was to be headed by a Special Representative of the Secretary-General and place emphasis on the transfer of skills and knowledge to deliver better services and build the capacity of institutions. Meanwhile, the Council urged United Nations agencies and financial institutions to continue to contribute towards the development of East Timor and emphasised the need for accountability for serious human rights violations committed in 1999. 1999 East Timorese crisis East Timor Special Autonomy Referendum Indonesian occupation of East Timor List of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1501 to 1600 United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor Text of the Resolution at undocs.org
2006 East Timorese crisis
The 2006 East Timorese crisis began as a conflict between elements of the military of East Timor over discrimination within the military, expanded to a coup attempt and general violence throughout the country, centred in the capital Dili. The crisis prompted a military intervention by several other countries and led to the resignation of the Prime Minister Mari Alkatiri. A pretext for the crisis came from the management of a dispute within the military of East Timor, when soldiers from the western part of the country claimed that they were being discriminated against, in favour of soldiers from the eastern part of the country; the Lorosae formed the largest part of Falintil, the guerrilla resistance movement which had resisted Indonesian authority, which in turn, after final independence in 2002, formed the largest part of F-FDTL. In contrast the Loromonu were less prominent in the resistance, less favoured in the military structure. There had been tension between the military and the police force, composed of more westerners and some former members of the Indonesian military.
404 soldiers, out of the regular strength of about 1500, deserted their barracks on 8 February 2006, joined by 177 more on 25 February. The soldiers were ordered to return in March, but refused, were relieved of duty; the soldiers were joined by some members of the police force, were led by Lt. Gastão Salsinha; the Foreign Minister, José Ramos-Horta, announced early in April that a panel would be established to hear the complaints of the former soldiers, but added that "They are not going to be brought back into the army, except on a case-by-case basis when we establish the responsibilities of each individual in this whole incident". There were political motivations behind the attacks on the government; those initiating the violence and killings declared loyalty to the President Xanana Gusmao, who wanted to replace Prime Minister and Fretilin leader Mari Alkatiri. On 24 April, the former soldiers and their civilian supporters unemployed youths, marched through the streets of the capital Dili in protest.
The peaceful march turned violent when the soldiers attacked a market run by people from the east of the country. The protests continued over the next several days, until on 28 April the former soldiers clashed with FDTL forces, who fired on the crowd. In the resultant violence, five people were killed, more than 100 buildings were destroyed and an estimated 21,000 Dili residents fled the city. On 4 May, Major Alfredo Reinado, along with 20 military police from a platoon under his command and four other riot police defected and joined the rebel soldiers, taking with them two trucks full of weapons and ammunition. After joining the soldiers, Reinado made his base in the town of Aileu in the hills south-west of Dili. There he and the military police guarded the road leading into the mountains. On the evening of 5 May, the former soldiers under Salsinha's leadership drafted a declaration calling for President Xanana Gusmão to sack the Prime Minister Mari Alkatiri and abolish the FDTL within 48 hours.
When Gusmão contacted Salsinha earlier that day in an attempt to prevent the issuing of the declaration, Salsinha told him that it was "too late". The rebel soldiers remained in the hills above the capital, where they engaged in sporadic combat with FDTL forces over the next several weeks. Violent gangs roamed the streets of Dili, burning down houses and torching cars; the civilians who fled Dili camped in tent cities nearby or in churches on the outskirts of the capital. One Catholic convent alone was providing Red Cross assistance to up to 7000 people. On 8 May a police officer was killed as a crowd of 1000 surrounded a government complex, the office of a regional state secretary, in a town outside Dili. On 9 May, Prime Minister Mari Alkatiri described the violence since 28 April as a coup, with "the aim of blocking the democratic institutions, preventing them to function in a way that the only solution would be for national parliament to be dissolved by the President... which would provoke the fall of the Government."
However on 10 May Alkatiri announced that government officials had held negotiations with the rebel soldiers, in which it was agreed that the rebel soldiers would be paid a subsidy equal to their former military wage to assist their families. The United Nations peacekeeping forces left East Timor on 20 May 2005, the remaining administrative staff and police at the United Nations Office in Timor Leste were scheduled to leave on 20 May 2006, but on 11 May their deadline was extended at least until June; the decision came alongside Foreign Minister Ramos-Horta's request to the UN's High Commissioner for Human Rights to investigate allegations of human rights violations by the East Timorese police forces, as alleged by Human Rights Watch and the United States Department of State. On 12 May, Prime Minister of Australia John Howard announced that although there had not been any formal requests for assistance from the Government of East Timor, Australian forces were standing by in readiness to provide assistance, with the amphibious transport ships HMAS Kanimbla and HMAS Manoora moving to northern waters in preparation.
The violence escalated late in May, as one FDTL soldier was killed and five wounded in a skirmish on 23 May. Foreign Minister Ramos-Horta sent out an official request for military assistance on 24 May, to the governments of Australia, New Zealand and Portugal. On 25 May, as the first international forces were arriving, some renegade soldiers were moving into Dili and engaging in combat with FDTL and police forces, with up to twenty people believed to have been killed. Operation Astute is the name of the international military respons
The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization, tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi and The Hague; the organization is financed by voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law; the UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; the UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.
On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, adopted on 25 June 1945 in the San Francisco Opera House, signed on 26 June 1945 in the Herbst Theatre auditorium in the Veterans War Memorial Building. This charter took effect on 24 October 1945; the UN's mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades during the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. Its missions have consisted of unarmed military observers and armed troops with monitoring and confidence-building roles; the organization's membership grew following widespread decolonization which started in the 1960s. Since 80 former colonies had gained independence, including 11 trust territories, which were monitored by the Trusteeship Council. By the 1970s its budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking a wide variety of complex tasks.
The UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly. The UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, UNICEF; the UN's most prominent officer is the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese politician and diplomat António Guterres since 1 January 2017. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN's work; the organization, its officers and its agencies have won many Nobel Peace Prizes. Other evaluations of the UN's effectiveness have been mixed; some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, biased, or corrupt. In the century prior to the UN's creation, several international treaty organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross was formed to ensure protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and strife.
In 1914, a political assassination in Sarajevo set off a chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I. As more and more young men were sent down into the trenches, influential voices in the United States and Britain began calling for the establishment of a permanent international body to maintain peace in the postwar world. President Woodrow Wilson became a vocal advocate of this concept, in 1918 he included a sketch of the international body in his 14-point proposal to end the war. In November 1918, the Central Powers agreed to an armistice to halt the killing in World War I. Two months the Allies met with Germany and Austria-Hungary at Versailles to hammer out formal peace terms. President Wilson wanted peace, but the United Kingdom and France disagreed, forcing harsh war reparations on their former enemies; the League of Nations was approved, in the summer of 1919 Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the League of Nations to the US Senate for ratification.
On January 10, 1920, the League of Nations formally comes into being when the Covenant of the League of Nations, ratified by 42 nations in 1919, takes effect. However, at some point the League became ineffective when it failed to act against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria as in February 1933, 40 nations voted for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria but Japan voted against it and walked out of the League instead of withdrawing from Manchuria, it failed against the Second Italo-Ethiopian War despite trying to talk to Benito Mussolini as he used the time to send an army to Africa, so the League had a plan for Mussolini to just take a part of Ethiopia, but he ignored the League and invaded Ethiopia, the League tried putting sanctions on Italy, but Italy had conquered Ethiopia and the League had failed. After Italy conquered Ethiopia and other nations left the league, but all of them realised that they began to re-arm as fast as possible. During 1938, Britain and France tried negotiating directly with Hitler but this failed in 1939 when Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia.
When war broke out in 1939, the League closed down and its headquarters in Geneva remained empty throughout the war. The earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the U. S. State Department in 1939; the text of the "Declaration by United Nations" was drafted at the White House on December 29, 1941, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Roosevelt aide Harry Hopkins
2008 East Timorese assassination attempts
Rebel East Timorese soldiers invaded the homes of the President and Prime Minister of East Timor on 11 February 2008, leading to the shooting and serious wounding of President José Ramos-Horta, the shooting up of the car of Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão, the fatal shooting of rebel leader Alfredo Reinado. The attacks have been variously interpreted as attempted assassinations, attempted kidnappings and an attempted coup d'état; the rebels' intentions remain unknown. After being hospitalised in Darwin, Northern Territory, for more than a month, Ramos-Horta was discharged from hospital on 19 March but remained in Darwin until April for continued treatment. Events began before dawn when rebel soldiers led by Alfredo Reinado entered the residential compound of President José Ramos-Horta in the capital Dili, they entered the compound. Ramos-Horta was not there; the second security team, arriving to relieve the night team, saw Renaido in the house and opened fire, killing him with a shot to the head.
Another rebel, Leopoldino Mendonça Exposto, was killed. Ramos-Horta walked back up the hill to his home. Reinado's men opened fire on him. One of Ramos-Horta's guards pushed in front of him as a human shield; the guard was taken to a hospital in serious condition. The surviving rebels fled the scene. Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão was alerted to the attack on the presidential home and left his home by car for Dili. A group of rebel soldiers under the command of Lieutenant Gastão Salsinha invaded Gusmão's home, finding Gusmão's wife Kirsty and children but not Gusmão. Another party of rebels shot out the tires of Gusmão's car on its way to Dili, but the car continued for some distance before Gusmão, abandoned it and ran into the bush to call for help. Gusmão declared a 48-hour state of emergency, including a curfew and a ban on conducting meetings or rallies, described the events as an attempted coup. Ramos-Horta was evacuated to Darwin, for emergency surgery. Ramos-Horta had met Reinado several times in the months before the attacks, trying to persuade him to surrender.
Their most recent meeting, on the preceding Sunday, was reported to have ended acrimoniously. 11 February: 6h05 and after: A group of hooded, armed men in two cars with government license plates, led by Alfredo Reinado, proceeded to the Díli residence of President José Ramos-Horta. According to the UN preliminary investigation, the group consisted of 12 or 13 men in military uniform. About three of them stood at the entrance after having restrained the F-FDTL soldier that guarded the main entrance, about seven, led by Reinado, went into the residence searching for Ramos-Horta. According to Associated Press, they "jumped from two cars, firing machine guns as they stormed the compound" shouting, "Traitor! Traitor!" They search the residence for Ramos-Horta, not there. 6h30-6h40: A series of continuous gunfire is heard by a neighbour of the President's residence, Fernando Encarnação, according to statements he made to the Portuguese official news agency, LUSA. 6h40-6h45: Encarnação phones the UN security and tells them what he has heard.
He is told the UN security forces know of what is happening. 6h45-6h50: Encarnação hears a second series of continuous gunfire. 6h50-6h59: Reinado is shot dead by the F-FDTL inside the President's residence. One of his men, Leopoldino Mendonça Exposto, is killed. According to the UN preliminary investigation, this happened after the F-DTL guard had been woken by a civilian employee warning him that there was a group of hooded men searching the residence for Ramos-Horta. According to Associated Press, the guard who killed Reinado stated: "I shouted Alfredo's name and opened fire at his head with my machine gun because he was wearing a bulletproof vest," and "I fired many times, I don't know how many times". A 17-year-old niece of Ramos-Horta calls him on his cell phone while he is jogging, warning him that his home was attacked by a group of men; this warning is repeated by a foreign diplomat. 6h59 and after: Ramos-Horta, "making his way inland", "refused a ride from a passing vehicle and walked up the public road to the house escorted by two bodyguards with pistols", according to Associated Press.
Returning to his home, at about 20 m from the main gate in Boulevard John Kennedy, Ramos-Horta is fired upon "by men laying in wait across from the main entrance to the residence". He receives one in the stomach. According to Associated Press, "during the shooting, an East Timor soldier arrived by car and drove into the line of fire to protect Ramos-Horta, crashing into a signpost and a wooden fence before he too was critically injured"; the attackers flee in Ramos-Horta staggers into his house. According to the UN preliminary findings, the fleeing attackers go into the mountains where they join the group that will attack Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão. A phone call is made to the National Operations Center warning about the situation. Two units, one of the East Timorese National Police and another from the UN policy contingent, are sent to the President's house from Becorá, in the outskirts of Díli. 7h00: Group Bravo of the Portuguese National Republican Guard is called to the scene. 7h00-7h05: According to neighbour Fernando Encarnação, a car of the UN policy contingent arrives at the scene and blocks access to the President's residence.
According to Ramos-Horta's brother, Arsénio Ramos-Horta, with him at the time, the UN police did not help his wounded brother and prevented access to the residence. 7h10: The first ambulance is called to th