President of the Swiss Confederation
The President of the Swiss Confederation known as the President of the Confederation or colloquially as the President of Switzerland, is the head of Switzerland's seven-member Federal Council, the country's executive branch. Elected by the Federal Assembly for one year, the president chairs the meetings of the Federal Council and undertakes special representational duties. First among equals, the president has no powers over and above the other six councillors and continues to head their department. Traditionally the duty rotates among the members in order of seniority and the previous year's vice-president becomes president; the president is not the Swiss head of state. The constitutional provisions relating to the organization of the Federal Government and Federal administration are set out in Section 1 Organisation and Procedure of Chapter 3 Federal Council and Federal Administration of the Title 3 Confederation and Communes of the Swiss Federal Constitution at articles 174 to 179. Article 176 relates to the Presidency.
The Swiss president is not – as are, for example, the Presidents in Austria or Germany – the head of state of the country: under the Swiss Federal Constitution, the Federal Council doubles as a collective head of state and head of government. When a tied vote occurs in the council, the president – as the chair of the council – casts the deciding vote. In addition to the control of his or her own department, the president carries out some of the representative duties that are carried out by a single head of state in other democracies. For example, since joining the United Nations, Swiss presidents have on occasion spoken at inaugural sessions of the General Assembly along with other visiting heads of state and government. However, because the Swiss have no single head of state, the country carries out no state visits; when traveling abroad, the president does so only in their capacity as head of their department. Visiting heads of state are received by the seven members of the Federal Council together, rather than by the President of the Confederation.
Treaties are signed on behalf of the full Council, with all Federal Council members signing letters of credence and other documents of the kind. The president is elected by the Federal Assembly from the Federal Council for a term of one year. In the nineteenth century, the election as federal president was an award for esteemed Federal Council members. However, a few influential members of the government were passed over. One such example was Wilhelm Matthias Naeff, who – although a member of the Federal Council for 27 years – was federal president only once, in 1853. Since the twentieth century, the election has not been disputed. There is an unwritten rule that the member of the Federal Council who has not been federal president the longest becomes President. Therefore, every Federal Council member gets a turn at least once every seven years; the only question in the elections that provides some tension is the question of how many votes the person, to be elected president receives. This is seen as a popularity test.
In the 1970s and 1980s, 200 votes was seen as an excellent result, but in the current era of growing party-political conflicts, 180 votes are a respectable outcome. Until 1920, it was customary for the serving federal president to lead the Department of Foreign Affairs. Therefore, every year there was a moving around of posts, as the retiring president returned to his former department and the new president took up the Foreign Affairs portfolio, it was traditional for the federal president not to leave Switzerland during their year in office. List of Presidents of the Swiss Confederation Chancellor of Switzerland Official website Leonhard Neidhart: President of the Confederation in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland, 2010-08-02
Ban Ki-moon is a South Korean politician and diplomat, the eighth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 2007 to December 2016 and succeded by Antonio Guterres. Before becoming Secretary-General, Ban was a career diplomat in South Korea's Ministry of Foreign Affairs and in the United Nations, he entered diplomatic service the year he graduated from university, accepting his first post in New Delhi, India. Ban was the foreign minister of South Korea from January 2004 to November 2006. In February 2006 he began to campaign for the office of Secretary-General. Ban was considered to be a long shot for the office; as foreign minister of South Korea, however, he was able to travel to all the countries on the United Nations Security Council, a maneuver that turned him into the campaign's front runner. On 13 October 2006, he was elected to be the eighth Secretary-General by the United Nations General Assembly. On 1 January 2007, he succeeded Kofi Annan; as Secretary-General, he was responsible for several major reforms on peacekeeping and UN employment practices.
Diplomatically, Ban has taken strong views on global warming, pressing the issue with U. S. President George W. Bush, on the Darfur conflict, where he helped persuade Sudanese president Omar al-Bashir to allow peacekeeping troops to enter Sudan. Ban was named the world's 32nd most powerful person by the Forbes list of The World's Most Powerful People in 2013, the highest among South Koreans. In 2014, he was named the third most powerful South Korean after Lee Jae-yong. In 2016, Foreign Policy named Ban one of the Top 100 Global Thinkers for his achievement of making the Paris Agreement a binding treaty less than a year after it was adopted. António Guterres was appointed by the General Assembly on 13 October 2016 to be the successor of Ban Ki-moon as he stepped down on 31 December 2016, he was considered to be a potential candidate for the 2017 South Korean presidential election, before announcing, on 1 February, that he would not be running. On 14 September 2017, Ban was elected chair of the International Olympic Committee's Ethics Commission.
In 2017, Ban co-founded the nonprofit Ban Ki-moon Centre for Global Citizens. He currently serves as Distinguished Chair Professor at Yonsei University's Institute for Global Engagement and Empowerment, he became the first major international diplomat to throw his weight behind the so-called Green New Deal, a nascent effort by members of the Democratic Party in the United States to zero out planet-warming emissions and end poverty over the next decade. Ban was born on 13 June 1944 in the small farming village of Haengchi, Wonnam Township, in Eumseong County, North Chungcheong Province in Korea, his family moved to the nearby town of Chungju, where he grew up. During Ban's childhood, his father had a warehouse business, but the warehouse went bankrupt and the family lost its middle-class standard of living; when Ban was six, his family fled to a remote mountainside for much of the Korean War. After the war ended, his family returned to Chungju. Ban has said. In secondary school, Ban became a star student in his studies of the English language.
In 1962, Ban won an essay contest sponsored by the Red Cross and earned a trip to the United States where he lived in San Francisco with a host family for several months. As part of the trip, Ban met U. S. President John F. Kennedy; when a journalist at the meeting asked Ban what he wanted to be when he grew up, he said, "I want to become a diplomat."He received a bachelor's degree in international relations from Seoul National University in 1970, earned a Master of Public Administration from the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University in 1985. At Harvard, he studied under Joseph Nye, who remarked that Ban had "a rare combination of analytic clarity and perseverance". Ban was awarded the degree of Doctor of Laws by the University of Malta on 22 April 2009, he further received an honorary degree of Doctor of Laws from the University of Washington in October 2009, an honorary degree of Doctor of Law from the University of Cambridge in February 2016, an Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters Degree from Loyola Marymount University in April 2016.
On 30 August 2016, he was conferred the Honorary Doctor of Letters by National University of Singapore for his lifetime of service to humanity. In addition to his native Korean, Ban speaks French. According to a retired UN official, "one of Ban's biggest handicaps was his lack of fluency in English, which made it difficult for him to win over audiences in the US and elsewhere." There have been questions, regarding the extent of his knowledge of French, one of the two working languages of the United Nations Secretariat. After graduating from university, Ban received the top score on Korea's foreign service exam, he joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in May 1970 and worked his way up the career ladder during the years of the Yusin Constitution. Ban's first overseas posting was to New Delhi, where he served as vice consul and impressed many of his superiors in the foreign ministry with his competence. Ban accepted a posting to India rather than the United States, because in India he would be able to save more money to send to his family.
In 1974 he received his first posting to the United Nations, as First Secretary of the South Permanent Observer Mission. After Park Chung-hee's 1979 assassination, Ban assumed the post of Director of the United Nations Division. In 1980 Ban became director of the
Kofi Atta Annan was a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006. Annan and the UN were the co-recipients of the 2001 Nobel Peace Prize, he was the founder and chairman of the Kofi Annan Foundation, as well as chairman of The Elders, an international organization founded by Nelson Mandela. Annan studied economics at Macalester College, international relations at the Graduate Institute Geneva, management at MIT. Annan joined the UN in 1962, he went on to work in several capacities at the UN Headquarters including serving as the Under-Secretary-General for peacekeeping between March 1992 and December 1996. He was appointed the Secretary-General on 13 December 1996 by the Security Council, confirmed by the General Assembly, making him the first office holder to be elected from the UN staff itself, he was re-elected for a second term in 2001, was succeeded as Secretary-General by Ban Ki-moon on 1 January 2007. As the Secretary-General, Annan reformed the UN bureaucracy.
He was criticized for not expanding the Security Council and faced calls for resignation after an investigation into the Oil-for-Food Programme, but was exonerated of personal corruption. After the end of his term as UN Secretary-General, he founded the Kofi Annan Foundation in 2007 to work on international development. In 2012, Annan was the UN–Arab League Joint Special Representative for Syria, to help find a resolution to the ongoing conflict there. Annan quit after becoming frustrated with the UN's lack of progress with regards to conflict resolution. In September 2016, Annan was appointed to lead a UN commission to investigate the Rohingya crisis. Kofi Annan was born in the Kofandros section of Kumasi in the Gold Coast on 8 April 1938, his twin sister Efua Atta, who died in 1991, shared the middle name Atta, which in the Akan language means'twin'. Annan and his sister were born into one of the country's Fante aristocratic families. In the Akan names tradition, some children are named according to the day of the week on which they were born, sometimes in relation to how many children precede them.
Kofi in Akan is the name. Annan said. From 1954 to 1957, Annan attended the elite Mfantsipim school, a Methodist boarding school in Cape Coast founded in the 1870s. Annan said that the school taught him that "suffering anywhere, concerns people everywhere". In 1957, the year Annan graduated from Mfantsipim, the Gold Coast gained independence from the UK and began using the name "Ghana". In 1958, Annan began studying economics at the Kumasi College of Science and Technology, now the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology of Ghana, he received a Ford Foundation grant, enabling him to complete his undergraduate studies in economics at Macalester College in St. Paul, United States, in 1961. Annan completed a diplôme d'études approfondies DEA degree in International Relations at The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva, from 1961–62. After some years of work experience, he studied at the MIT Sloan School of Management in the Sloan Fellows program and earned a master's degree in management.
Annan was fluent in English, French and some Kru languages as well as other African languages. In 1962, Kofi Annan started working as a budget officer for the World Health Organization, an agency of the United Nations. From 1974 to 1976, he worked as a manager of the state-owned Ghana Tourist Development Company in Accra. In 1980 he became the head of personnel for the office of the UN High Commission for Refugees in Geneva. In 1983 he became the director of administrative management services of the UN Secretariat in New York. In 1987, Annan was appointed as an Assistant Secretary-General for Human Resources Management and Security Coordinator for the UN system. In 1990, he became Assistant Secretary-General for Program Planning and Finance, Control; when Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali established the Department of Peacekeeping Operations in 1992, Annan was appointed to the new department as Deputy to Under-Secretary-General Marrack Goulding. Annan was subsequently appointed in March 1993 as Under-Secretary-General of that department.
On 29 August 1995, while Boutros-Ghali was unreachable on an airplane, Annan instructed United Nations officials to "relinquish for a limited period of time their authority to veto air strikes in Bosnia." This move allowed NATO forces to conduct Operation Deliberate Force and made him a favorite of the United States. According to Richard Holbrooke, Annan's "gutsy performance" convinced the United States that he would be a good replacement for Boutros-Ghali, he was appointed a Special Representative of the Secretary-General to the former Yugoslavia, serving from November 1995 to March 1996. In 2003, retired Canadian General Roméo Dallaire, force commander of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda, claimed that Annan was overly passive in his response to the imminent genocide. In his book Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda, Dallaire asserted that Annan held back UN troops from intervening to settle the conflict, from providing more logistical and material support.
Dallaire claimed that Annan failed to provide responses to his repeated faxes asking for access to a weapons depository. In 2004, ten years after the genocide in which
Adolf Ogi is a Swiss politician from the village of Kandersteg in the Swiss Alps. He was elected to the Swiss Federal Council on 9 December 1987, as member of the Swiss People's Party from the Canton of Berne, he handed over office on 31 December 2000. During his time in office, he was in charge of the following departments: Federal Department of Transport and Energy Federal Military Department named Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sports He was President of the Confederation twice in 1993 and 2000. From 2001 to 2008, Ogi was a Special Adviser on Sport for Development and Peace to the United Nations Secretary-General. Ogi is today an ambassador for Peace and Sport, a Monaco-based international organization, committed to serving peace in the world through sport. Ogi was awarded an honorary doctorate by the European University. Ogi released a biography entitled Dölf Ogi: Sportsman. Ogi received the Gold Olympic Order in the year 2000. UN Special Adviser on Sport for Development and Peace Profile of Adolf Ogi with election results on the website of the Swiss Federal Council.
Adolf Ogi in the German National Library catalogue Business activities of Adolf Ogi, Swiss Register of Corporations
The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter, it is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. UNESCO has 11 associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy and teacher-training programs, international science programs, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the world's cultural and natural heritage and to preserve human rights, attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide.
It is a member of the United Nations Development Group. UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture and information". Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication; the broad goals and objectives of the international community—as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals —underpin all UNESCO strategies and activities. UNESCO and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study feasibility; this new body, the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation was indeed created in 1922.
On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the onset of World War II interrupted the work of these predecessor organizations. After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education began meetings in London which continued from 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States and the USSR; this was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented.
The idea of UNESCO was developed by Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom, who had a great deal of influence in its development. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, a Preparatory Commission was established; the Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state. The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General; the Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity. This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the ICIC, in how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence.
As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, the dissolution of the USSR. Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists and other scientists in 1950 and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice. In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO saying that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems." South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela. UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, started in 1947; this project was followed by expert missions to other countries, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.
In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal. In 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, launched a global movement to provide basic education for a
United Nations Office at Geneva
The United Nations Office at Geneva is the second-largest of the four major office sites of the United Nations. It is located in the Palais des Nations building constructed for the League of Nations between 1929 and 1938 at Geneva in Switzerland, expanded in the early 1950s and late 1960s. Besides United Nations administration, it hosts the offices for a number of programmes and funds such as the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe; the United Nations and its specialized agencies and funds may have other offices or functions hosted outside the Palais des Nations in office spaces provided by the Swiss Government. UN specialized agencies and other UN entities with offices in Geneva hold bi-weekly briefings at the Palais des Nations, organized by the United Nations Information Service at Geneva. Headquartered at Geneva: Conference on Disarmament International Bureau of Education International Computing Centre International Labour Organization International Trade Centre International Telecommunication Union Joint Inspection Unit Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights United Nations Chief Executives Board for Coordination United Nations Compensation Commission United Nations Conference on Trade and Development United Nations Economic Commission for Europe United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees United Nations Human Rights Council United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research United Nations Institute for Training and Research United Nations Non-Governmental Liaison Service United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs United Nations Office on Sport for Development and Peace United Nations Research Institute For Social Development World Health Organization World Intellectual Property Organization World Meteorological OrganizationPresence at Geneva: International Atomic Energy Agency United Nations Environment Programme United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization United Nations Industrial Development Organization World Food Programme United Nations World Tourism Organization Wladimir Moderow, Poland, 1946–1951 Adriaan Pelt, Netherlands, 1952–1957 Pier Pasquale Spinelli, Italy, 1957–1968 Vittorio Winspeare-Guicciardi, Italy, 1968–1978 Luigi Cottafavi, Italy, 1978–1983 Eric Suy, Belgium, 1983–1987 Jan Mårtenson, Sweden, 1987–1992 Antoine Blanca, France, 1992–1993 Vladimir Petrovsky, Russia, 1993–2002 Sergei Ordzhonikidze, Russia, 2002–2011 Kassym-Jomart Tokayev, Kazakhstan, 2011–2013 Michael Møller, since 2013 United Nations Geneva Office, from beginning, Aug 1946 – Apr 1947, European Office of the UN, 11 Apr 1947 – 10 Aug 1948, United Nations Office at Geneva, 10 Aug 1948 – 9 Aug 1949, European Office of the UN, 9 Aug 1949 – 8 Dec 1957, United Nations Office at Geneva, 8 December 1957 – present, Headquarters of the United Nations United Nations Information Service at Geneva United Nations Office at Vienna United Nations Office at Nairobi Outline of the United Nations List of United Nations organizations by location List of international organizations based in Geneva Joëlle Kuntz and the Call of Internationalism: A History, Éditions Zoé, 2011, 96 pages.
Official website United Nations organisations in Geneva