World Tourism Organization
The World Tourism Organization is the United Nations specialized agency responsible for the promotion of responsible and universally accessible tourism. It is the leading international organization in the field of tourism, which promotes tourism as a driver of economic growth, inclusive development and environmental sustainability and offers leadership and support to the sector in advancing knowledge and tourism policies worldwide, it serves as a practical source of tourism knowledge. It encourages the implementation of the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism to maximize the contribution of tourism to socio-economic development, while minimizing its possible negative impacts, is committed to promoting tourism as an instrument in achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, geared towards eliminating poverty and fostering sustainable development and peace worldwide. UNWTO generates market knowledge, promotes competitive and sustainable tourism policies and instruments, fosters tourism education and training, works to make tourism an effective tool for development through technical assistance projects in over 100 countries around the world.
UNWTO’s membership includes 158 countries, 6 territories and over 500 affiliate members representing the private sector, educational institutions, tourism associations and local tourism authorities. Its headquarters are located in Madrid; the objectives of the UNWTO are to promote and develop sustainable tourism to contribute to economic development, international understanding, peace and universal respect for, observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, without distinction as to race, language or religion. In pursuing these aims, UNWTO pays particular attention to the interests of developing countries in the field of tourism; the origin of UNWTO stems back to 1920 when the International Congress of Official Tourist Traffic Associations was formed at The Hague. Some articles from early volumes of the Annals of Tourism Research, claim that the UNWTO originated from the International Union of Official Tourist Publicity Organizations, although the UNWTO states that the ICOTT became the International Union of Official Tourist Publicity Organizations first in 1934.
Following the end of the Second World War and with international travel numbers increasing, the IUOTPO restructured itself into the International Union of Official Travel Organizations. A technical, non-governmental organization, the IUOTO was made up of a combination of national tourist organizations and consumer groups; the goals and objectives of the IUOTO were to not only promote tourism in general but to extract the best out of tourism as an international trade component and as an economic development strategy for developing nations. Towards the end of the 1960s, the IUOTO realized the need for further transformation to enhance its role on an international level; the 20th IUOTO general assembly in Tokyo, 1967, declared the need for the creation of an intergovernmental body with the necessary abilities to function on an international level in cooperation with other international agencies, in particular the United Nations. Throughout the existence of the IUOTO, close ties had been established between the organization and the United Nations and initial suggestions had the IUOTO becoming part of the UN.
However, following the circulation of a draft convention, consensus held that any resultant intergovernmental organization should be linked to the UN but preserve its "complete administrative and financial autonomy". It was on the recommendations of the UN that the formation of the new intergovernmental tourism organization was based. Resolution 2529 of the XXIVth UN general assembly stated: In 1970, the IUOTO general assembly voted in favor of forming the World Tourism Organization. Based on statutes of the IUOTO, after ratification by the prescribed 51 states, the WTO came into operation on November 1, 1974. Most at the fifteenth general assembly in 2003, the WTO general council and the UN agreed to establish the WTO as a specialized agency of the UN; the significance of this collaboration, WTO Secretary-General Mr. Francesco Frangialli claimed, would lie in "the increased visibility it gives the WTO, the recognition that will be accorded to. Tourism will be considered on an equal footing with other major activities of human society".
In 2004, UNWTO established the World Committee on Tourism Ethics, the implementation body for the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism. The Committee, whose members are elected due to their professional capacities rather than their nationalities or country affiliations and disseminates the Code and evaluates and monitors the implementation of its principles; the Committee was permanently headquartered in Rome in 2008. Taleb Rifai of Jordan became UNWTO Secretary-General in 2010. Under his mandate the Organization introduced Hotel Energy Solutions, a web-based tool to help hotels reduce their carbon footprint whilst increasing profits, worked with Members on research on benefits of easing visa facilitation, forecast that in 2030 the number of international tourists would reach 1.8 billion. It reached 1 billion in 2012. Taleb Rifai's mandate has seen focus placed on the people involved in the tourism experience. Two publications under the title "Tourism Stories" were released compiling research and interviews with individuals working in tourism from around the world.
In 2014 the 69th session of the United Nations General Assembly adopted by consensus the resolution entitled'Promotion of sustainable tourism, including ecotourism, for poverty eradication and environment protection'. This was followed in 2015 by the adoption of
International Telecommunication Union
The International Telecommunication Union the International Telegraph Union, is a specialized agency of the United Nations, responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies. It is the oldest among all the 15 specialised agencies of UN; the ITU coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum, promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world, assists in the development and coordination of worldwide technical standards. The ITU is active in areas including broadband Internet, latest-generation wireless technologies and maritime navigation, radio astronomy, satellite-based meteorology, convergence in fixed-mobile phone, Internet access, voice, TV broadcasting, next-generation networks; the agency organizes worldwide and regional exhibitions and forums, such as ITU Telecom World, bringing together representatives of government and the telecommunications and ICT industry to exchange ideas and technology.
ITU, based in Geneva, Switzerland, is a member of the United Nations Development Group, has 12 regional and area offices in the world. ITU has been an intergovernmental public–private partnership organization since its inception, its membership includes 193 Member States and around 800 public and private sector companies, academic institutions as well as international and regional telecommunication entities, known as Sector Members and Associates, which undertake most of the work of each Sector. ITU was formed in Paris, at the International Telegraph Convention; the International Radiotelegraph Union was unofficially established at first International Radiotelegraph Convention in 1906. Both were merged into the International Telecommunication Union in 1932. ITU became a United Nations specialized agency in 1947; the ITU comprises three sectors, each managing a different aspect of the matters handled by the Union, as well as ITU Telecom. The sectors were created during the restructuring of ITU at its 1992 Plenipotentiary Conference.
Radio communication Established in 1927 as the International Radio Consultative Committee or CCIR, this sector manages the international radio-frequency spectrum and satellite orbit resources. In 1992, the CCIR became the ITU-R. Standardisation Standardisation was the original purpose of ITU since its inception. Established in 1956 as the International Telephone and Telegraph Consultative Committee or CCITT, this sector standardizes global telecommunications. In 1993, the CCITT became the ITU-T. Development Established in 1992, this sector helps spread equitable and affordable access to information and communication technologies. ITU Telecom ITU Telecom organizes major events for the world's ICT community. A permanent General Secretariat, headed by the Secretary General, manages the day-to-day work of the Union and its sectors; the basic texts of the ITU are adopted by the ITU Plenipotentiary Conference. The founding document of the ITU was the 1865 International Telegraph Convention, which has since been amended several times and is now entitled the "Constitution and Convention of the International Telecommunication Union".
In addition to the Constitution and Convention, the consolidated basic texts include the Optional Protocol on the settlement of disputes, the Decisions and Recommendations in force, as well as the General Rules of Conferences and Meetings of the Union. The ITU is headed by a Secretary-General, a Deputy Secretary General and the three directors of the Bureaux, who are elected to a four-year terms by the member states at the ITU Plenipotentiary Conference. On 23 October 2014 Houlin Zhao was elected 19th Secretary-General of the ITU at the Plenipotentiary Conference in Busan, Republic of Korea, his four-year mandate started on 1 January 2015, he was formally inaugurated on 15 January 2015. Houlin Zhao was reelected at the 2018 Plenipotentiary Conference in Dubai. Membership of ITU is open to only Member States of the United Nations, which may join the Union as Member States, as well as to private organizations like carriers, equipment manufacturers, funding bodies and development organizations and international and regional telecommunication organizations, which may join ITU as non-voting Sector Members.
There are 193 Member States of the ITU, including all UN member states except the Republic of Palau, plus the Vatican City. The most recent member state to join the ITU is South Sudan, which became a member on 14 July 2011; the Republic of China was blocked from membership by the People's Republic of China, but received a country code, being listed as "Taiwan, China". Palestine was admitted as an observer in 2010. Six Regional Offices and seven Area Offices guarantee a regional presence of ITU: Regional Office for CSI Africa Regional Office in Addis Ababa, with Area Offices in Dakar and Yaoundé Arab States Regional Office in Cairo Asia-Pacific Regional Office in Bangkok, with Area Office in Jakarta America Regional Office in Brasilia, with Area Offices in Bridgetown and Tegucigalpa; the sixth is a Coordination office for Europe Region Europe at ITU Headquarters. Other Regional organizations, connected to ITU, are: Asia-Pacific Telecommunity Arab Spectrum Management Group African Telecommunications Union European Conference of Posta
Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS
The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS is the main advocate for accelerated and coordinated global action on the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The mission of UNAIDS is to lead and support an expanded response to HIV and AIDS that includes preventing transmission of HIV, providing care and support to those living with the virus, reducing the vulnerability of individuals and communities to HIV and alleviating the impact of the epidemic. UNAIDS seeks to prevent the HIV/AIDS epidemic from becoming a severe pandemic. UNAIDS has five goals: advocacy for effective action on the pandemic. UNAIDS is headquartered in Geneva, where it shares some site facilities with the World Health Organization, it is a member of the United Nations Development Group. Its first executive director was Peter Piot; the agency promotes the GIPA principle formulated in 1994, endorsed by the United Nations in 2001 and 2006. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees United Nations Children's Fund World Food Programme United Nations Development Programme United Nations Population Fund United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime International Labour Organization United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization World Health Organization World Bank UN WomenThe cosponsors and the UNAIDS Secretariat comprise the Committee of Cosponsoring Organizations, which meets twice each year.
The aim of UNAIDS is to help mount and support an expanded response to HIV/AIDS, one that engages the efforts of many sectors and partners from government and civil society. Established by ECOSOC resolution 1994/24 on 26 July 1994, UNAIDS launched in January 1996; the organizations is guided by a Programme Coordinating Board with representatives of 22 governments from all geographic regions, the UNAIDS Cosponsors, five representatives of nongovernmental organizations, including associations of people living with HIV/AIDS. Peter Piot was the first executive director of UNAIDS, he served from its inception in 1995 until 2008, when he departed to lead the Institute for Global Health at Imperial College London. On 1 January 2009, Michel Sidibé became the new executive director of UNAIDS. Sidibé, offered his resignation on 13 December 2018 from his post following an expert report on sexual harassment in the agency that criticized his "defective leadership" and fostering a work environment that tolerated bullying, sexual harassment and a culture of fear among the staff.
Gunilla Carlsson is the Deputy Executive Director of Management and Governance, Shannon Hader is the Deputy Executive Director of Programme. UNAIDS has eleven global Goodwill Ambassadors who help strengthen awareness of the organisation's work, they are: Myung-Bo Hong, Michael Ballack, Toumani Diabaté, Crown Princess Mette-Marit of Norway, Princess Stephanie of Monaco, Annie Lennox, Naomi Watts, Aishwarya Rai Bachchan, David Luiz, Vera Brezhneva, Victoria Beckham and Pia Wurtzbach. The United Nations Declaration Commitment on HIV/AIDS provides the guiding framework for UNAIDS action. Promoting partnerships among various stakeholders is reflected within the leadership section of the Declaration of Commitment. In particular, it calls for complementation of government efforts by the full and active participation of civil society, the business community and the private sector through: Establishing and strengthening mechanisms that involve civil society including faith-based organizations, the private sector, people living with HIV/AIDS at all levels Encouraging and supporting local and national organizations to expand and strengthen regional partnerships and networks Full participation of people living with HIV/AIDS, those in vulnerable groups and people at risk young people Addressing issue of stigma and discrimination.
UNAIDS works to promote partnerships among and between this diverse and broad range of non-state entities. This calls for increases in both the number of new actors, as well as in innovative ways of working, to facilitate increased capacity of non-state entities to respond to the epidemic at all levels. With the momentum generated by the UN Special Session on HIV/AIDS, the main challenges are to: Sustain and deepen involvement of those contributing and critical to the response such as PLWHA organizations Move beyond the organizations involved and reach out to optimally engage a broad range of sectors/actors. UNAIDS has collaborated with the Roman Catholic Church Caritas Internationalis, in the fight against AIDS, something which materialized in a December 2005 message by Pope Benedict XVI. However, it indicated in a 2009 communiqué that it did not agree with the Pope's statement that condoms were unhelpful in AIDS prevention, instead calling them "essential". In engaging non-state entities in an expanded response to the epidemic, the UNAIDS Secretariat: Fosters and supports global and country level partnerships which include linkages between and among civil society, private sector, philanthropy and with particular attention to organizations of pe
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body. UNCTAD is the part of the United Nations Secretariat dealing with trade and development issues; the organization's goals are to: "maximize the trade and development opportunities of developing countries and assist them in their efforts to integrate into the world economy on an equitable basis". UNCTAD was established by the United Nations General Assembly in 1964 and it reports to the UN General Assembly and United Nations Economic and Social Council; the primary objective of UNCTAD is to formulate policies relating to all aspects of development including trade, transport and technology. The conference ordinarily meets once in four years. One of the principal achievements of UNCTAD has been to conceive and implement the Generalised System of Preferences, it was argued in UNCTAD that to promote exports of manufactured goods from developing countries, it would be necessary to offer special tariff concessions to such exports.
Accepting this argument, the developed countries formulated the GSP scheme under which manufacturers' exports and import of some agricultural goods from the developing countries enter duty-free or at reduced rates in the developed countries. Since imports of such items from other developed countries are subject to the normal rates of duties, imports of the same items from developing countries would enjoy a competitive advantage; the creation of UNCTAD in 1964 was based on concerns of developing countries over the international market, multi-national corporations, great disparity between developed nations and developing nations. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development was established to provide a forum where the developing countries could discuss the problems relating to their economic development; the organisation grew from the view that existing institutions like GATT, the International Monetary Fund, World Bank were not properly organized to handle the particular problems of developing countries.
In the 1970s and 1980s, UNCTAD was associated with the idea of a New International Economic Order. The first UNCTAD conference took place in Geneva in 1964, the second in New Delhi in 1968, the third in Santiago in 1972, fourth in Nairobi in 1976, the fifth in Manila in 1979, the sixth in Belgrade in 1983, the seventh in Geneva in 1987, the eighth in Cartagena in 1992, the ninth at Johannesburg in 1996, the tenth in Bangkok in 2000, the eleventh in São Paulo in 2004, the twelfth in Accra in 2008, the thirteenth in Doha in 2012 and the fourteenth in Nairobi in 2016. UNCTAD has 195 member states and is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. UNCTAD has 400 staff members and a bi-annual regular budget of $138 million in core expenditures and $72 million in extra-budgetary technical assistance funds, it is a member of the United Nations Development Group. There are non-governmental organizations participating in the activities of UNCTAD; as of May 2018, 195 states are UNCTAD members: all UN members plus UN observer states Palestine and the Holy See.
UNCTAD members are divided into four lists, the division being based on United Nations Regional Groups with six members unassigned: Armenia, Nauru, South Sudan, Tuvalu. List A consists of countries in the African and Asia-Pacific Groups of the UN. List B consists of countries of the Western European and Others Group. List C consists of countries of the Group of Latin Caribbean States. List D consists of countries of the Eastern European Group; the lists defined in 19th General Assembly resolution 1995 serve to balance geographical distribution of member states' representation on the Trade Development Board and other UNCTAD structures. The lists are similar to those of an UN specialized agency; the most recent member are the PalestiniansThe full lists are as follows: List A: Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Herzegovina, Brunei Darussalam, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, China, Comoros, Côte d'Ivoire, Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eswatini, Fiji, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Liberia, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mongolia, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, North Korea, Pakistan, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, South Korea, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Syria, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Vanuatu, Viet Nam, Zambia, Zimbabwe.
List B: Andorra, Austria, Canada, Denmark, France, Greece, Holy See, Ireland, Japan, Luxembourg, Monaco, New Zealand, Portugal, San Marino, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States. List C: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Jamaica, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint V
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
United Nations Department of Political Affairs
The United Nations Department of Political and Peacebuilding Affairs is a department of the Secretariat of the United Nations with responsibility for monitoring and assessing global political developments and advising and assisting the UN Secretary General and his envoys in the peaceful prevention and resolution of conflict around the world. The department manages field-based political missions in Africa, Central Asia, the Middle East, has in recent years been increasing its professional capacities in conflict mediation and preventive diplomacy. DPA oversees UN electoral assistance to Member States of the organization. Established in 1992, the department's responsibilities include providing secretariat support to the UN Security Council and two standing committees created by the General Assembly concerning the Rights of the Palestinian People and Decolonization. Rosemary DiCarlo – Under-Secretary-General for Political and Peacebuilding Affairs Oscar Fernandez-Taranco – Assistant Secretary-General for Peacebuilding Support Bintou Keita – Assistant Secretary-General for Africa Miroslav Jenča – Assistant Secretary-General for Europe, Central Asia and Americas Vacant – Assistant Secretary-General for Middle East and the PacificOn 28 March 2018, UN Secretary-General António Guterres announced the appointment of Rosemary DiCarlo of the United States, President of the National Committee on American Foreign Policy and Senior Fellow at the Jackson Institute for Global Affairs, Yale University, as Under-Secretary-General for Political Affairs.
Ms. DiCarlo succeeded Jeffrey D. Feltman of the United States, who completes his assignment on 31 March 2018. Jeffrey D. Feltman – 2012–2018 B. Lynn Pascoe – 2007–2012 Ibrahim Gambari – 2005–2007 Kieran Prendergast – 1998–2005 Marrack Goulding – 1993–1997 James O. C. Jonah – 1992–1994 Vladimir F. Petrovsky – 1992 Vasilly S. Safronchuk – 1987–1992 Viacheslav A. Ustinov – 1981–1986 Mikhail D. Sytenko – 1978–1981 Arkady N. Shevchenko – 1973–1978 Leonid N. Kutakov – 1968–1973 Alexei E. Nesterenko – 1965–1968 V. P. Suslov – 1963–1965 E. D. Kiselyv – 1962–1963 Georgy Arkadev – 1960–1962 Dragoslav Protich – 1954–1957 Ilya Tchernychev – 1953–1954 Konstantin Zinchenko – 1949–1953 Arkady Sobolev – 1946–1949 As of December 2016, the DPA manages the following political missions and peace-building support offices engaged in conflict prevention and post-conflict peacebuilding in Africa, Central Asia and the Middle East: In Africa: UNIOGBIS, United Nations Integrated Peace-building Support Office in Guinea-Bissau UNOCA, United Nations Office for Central Africa UNOWAS, United Nations Office for West Africa and the Sahel UNSMIL, United Nations Support Mission in Libya UNSOM, United Nations Assistance Mission in SomaliaIn Asia: UNAMA, United Nations Mission in Afghanistan UNRCCA, United Nations Regional Centre for Preventive Diplomacy in Central AsiaIn the Middle East: UNAMI, United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq UNSCO, Office of the United Nations Special Coordinator for the Middle East Peace Process UNSCOL, Office of the United Nations Special Coordinator for LebanonIn South America: The United Nations Mission in ColombiaThese DPA-led field operations are headed by senior representatives of the Secretary-General and provide a forward platform for preventive diplomacy and other activities across a range of disciplines, to help prevent and resolve conflict or to build lasting peace in nations emerging from civil wars.
The peace-building offices active in Burundi, Guinea-Bissau, the Central African Republic and Sierra Leone aim to help nations consolidate peace through comprehensive peace-building strategies developed and carried out in coordination with national actors and U. N. development and humanitarian entities on the ground. Political missions are part of a continuum of UN peace operations working in different stages of the conflict cycle. In some instances, following the signing of peace agreements, political missions overseen by the Department of Political Affairs during the stage of peace negotiations have been replaced by peacekeeping missions. In other instances, U. N. peacekeeping operations have given way to special political missions overseeing longer term peace-building activities. Good Offices missions In addition to the field-based missions under its supervision, DPA provides guidance and support to traveling envoys and special advisers of the Secretary-General bringing to bear his “good offices” for the resolution of conflicts or the implementation of other UN mandates.
These include UN envoys or special advisers for Cyprus, Syria, Western Sahara, the Macedonian-Greek naming dispute. Investigative Mandates and Fact-Finding Missions DPA has assisted in establishing and providing support to various UN investigative and fact-finding bodies; these have included: the International Commission Against Impunity in Guatemala. E-Newsletter of the United Nations Department of Political Affairs Print Newsletter of the United Nations Department of Political Affairs UN Department of Political Affairs Map: UN Political and Peacebuilding Missions UN Department of Political Affairs: Senior Officials UN Peacemaker website for peacemaking professionals
Food and Agriculture Organization
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger. Serving both developed and developing countries, FAO acts as a neutral forum where all nations meet as equals to negotiate arguments and debate policy. FAO is a source of knowledge and information, helps developing countries in transition modernize and improve agriculture and fisheries practices, ensuring good nutrition and food security for all, its Latin motto, fiat panis, translates as "let there be bread". As of August 2018, The FAO has 197 member states, including the European Union and The Cook Islands, the Faroe Islands and Tokelau, which are associate members; the idea of an international organization for food and agriculture emerged in the late 19th and early 20th century advanced by the US agriculturalist and activist David Lubin. In May–June 1905, an international conference was held in Rome, which led to the creation of the International Institute of Agriculture by the King of Italy Victor Emmanuel III.
In 1943, the United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt called a United Nations Conference on Food and Agriculture. Representatives from forty-four governments gathered at The Homestead Resort in Hot Springs, Virginia, US, from 18 May to 3 June, they committed themselves to founding a permanent organization for food and agriculture, which happened in Quebec City, Canada, on 16 October 1945 with the conclusion of the Constitution of the Food and Agriculture Organization. The First Session of the FAO Conference was held in the Château Frontenac in Quebec City from 16 October to 1 November 1945. World War II ended the International Agricultural Institute, though it was only dissolved by resolution of its Permanent Committee on 27 February 1948, its functions were transferred to the established FAO. From the late 1940s on, FAO attempted to make its mark within the emerging UN system, focusing on supporting agricultural and nutrition research and providing technical assistance to member countries to boost production in agriculture and forestry.
During the 1950s and 1960s, FAO partnered with many different international organizations in development projects. In 1951, FAO's headquarters were moved from DC, United States, to Rome, Italy; the agency is directed by the Conference of Member Nations, which meets every two years to review the work carried out by the organization and to Work and Budget for the next two-year period. The Conference elects a council of 49 member states that acts as an interim governing body, the Director-General, that heads the agency. FAO is composed of eight departments: Agriculture and Consumer Protection, Biodiversity and Water Department and Social Development and Aquaculture, Corporate Services and Technical Cooperation and Programme Management. Beginning in 1994, FAO underwent the most significant restructuring since its founding, to decentralize operations, streamline procedures and reduce costs; as a result, savings of about US$50 million, €35 million a year were realized. FAO's Regular Programme budget is funded by its members, through contributions set at the FAO Conference.
This budget covers core technical work and partnerships including the Technical Cooperation Programme, knowledge exchange and advocacy, direction and administration and security. The total FAO Budget planned for 2016–2017 is USD 2.6 billion. The voluntary contributions provided by members and other partners support mechanical and emergency assistance to governments for defined purposes linked to the results framework, as well as direct support to FAO's core work; the voluntary contributions are expected to reach US$1.6 billion in 2016–2017. This overall budget covers core technical work and partnerships, leading to Food and Agriculture Outcomes at 71 per cent; the world headquarters are located in Rome, in the former seat of the Department of Italian East Africa. One of the most notable features of the building was the Axum Obelisk which stood in front of the agency seat, although just outside the territory allocated to FAO by the Italian Government, it was taken from Ethiopia by Benito Mussolini's troops in 1937 as a war chest, returned on 18 April 2005.
Regional Office for Africa, in Accra, Ghana Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, in Bangkok, Thailand Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia, in Budapest, Hungary Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, in Santiago, Chile Regional Office for the Near East, in Cairo, Egypt Sub-regional Office for Central Africa, in Libreville, Gabon Sub-regional Office for Central Asia, in Ankara, Turkey Sub-regional Office for Eastern Africa, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Sub-regional Office for Mesoamerica, in Panama City, Panama Sub-regional Office for North Africa, in Tunis, Tunisia Sub-regional Office for Southern Africa and East Africa, in Harare, Zimbabwe Sub-regional Office for the Caribbean, in Bridgetown, Barbados Sub-regional Office for the Gulf Cooperation Council States and Yemen, Abu Dhabi Sub-regional Office for the Pacific Islands, in Apia, Samoa Liaison Office for North America, in Washington, DC Liaison Office with J