A U. S. state is a constituent political entity of the United States of America. There are 50 states, which are together in a union with each other. Each state holds administrative jurisdiction over a geographic territory. Due to the shared sovereignty between each state and the government, Americans are citizens of both the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons covered by certain types of court orders. States range in population from just under 600,000 to over 39 million, four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names. States are divided into counties or county-equivalents, which may be assigned some local authority but are not sovereign. County or county-equivalent structure varies widely by state, State governments are allocated power by the people through their individual constitutions. All are grounded in principles, and each provides for a government.
States possess a number of powers and rights under the United States Constitution, Constitution has been amended, and the interpretation and application of its provisions have changed. The general tendency has been toward centralization and incorporation, with the government playing a much larger role than it once did. There is a debate over states rights, which concerns the extent and nature of the states powers and sovereignty in relation to the federal government. States and their residents are represented in the federal Congress, a legislature consisting of the Senate. Each state is represented in the Senate by two senators, and is guaranteed at least one Representative in the House, members of the House are elected from single-member districts. Representatives are distributed among the states in proportion to the most recent constitutionally mandated decennial census, the Constitution grants to Congress the authority to admit new states into the Union. Since the establishment of the United States in 1776, the number of states has expanded from the original 13 to 50, alaska and Hawaii are the most recent states admitted, both in 1959.
The Constitution is silent on the question of states have the power to secede from the Union. Shortly after the Civil War, the U. S. Supreme Court, in Texas v. White, as a result, while the governments of the various states share many similar features, they often vary greatly with regard to form and substance
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
United Belgian States
It existed from January to December 1790 as part of the unsuccessful revolt against the Habsburg Emperor, Joseph II. The Emperors edict of tolerance of 1781 established religious freedom, another edict in 1784 removed from the Catholic clergy responsibility for the civil registry, and civil marriage was introduced. Seigneurial jurisdictions and rights, including the corvée, were abolished, as in Hungary, Joseph II attempted to introduce German as the language of administration for the sake of efficiency. The Sovereign Congress was seated in Brussels and consisted of representatives of each of the eight provinces, the uprising started in Brabant, which in January 1789 declared that it no longer recognized the emperors rule. The leader of the Statisten faction, Hendrik Van der Noot, crossed the border into the Dutch Republic and raised an army in Breda in Staats-Brabant. In October, he invaded Brabant and captured Turnhout, defeating the Austrians in the Battle of Turnhout on 27 October, ghent was taken on 13 November, and on 17 November the governors Albert Casimir and Maria Christina fled Brussels.
The remains of the forces withdrew behind the citadel walls of Luxembourg. Van der Noot now declared Brabant independent, and all the provinces of the Austrian Netherlands soon followed suit. On 11 January 1790 they signed a pact, establishing a confederation under the name Verenigde Nederlandse Staten / États-Belgiques-Unis, shortly afterwards, the Articles of Confederation served as a model for the Treaty of the United Belgian States of 11 January 1790. Independently, in 1789, a revolution had broken out in Liège, the revolutionaries established a republic which joined the United Belgian States in a semblance of an alliance. Realizing the fragility of the new state, Van der Noot approached foreign states for support and suggested a unification with the Dutch Republic, the Statist and Vonckist factions were in constant conflict, bordering on civil war. On 27 February 1790 Joseph II died and his brother Leopold II succeeded him as emperor, Leopold II quickly moved to recapture the Austrian Netherlands.
On 24 October 1790 imperial troops took the city of Namur, two days later, the province of West Flanders followed suit, and by December the entire territory was again in imperial hands. The Austrian restoration and hegemony was short-lived, however, as the region was overrun by French armies in 1794 during the French Revolutionary Wars, though short-lived, the United Belgian States had long-lasting repercussions. It had given the Southern Netherlands their first taste of independence, and had sparked a new political idea, in 1830, the inhabitants of the Southern Netherlands successfully revolted against the Netherlands during the Belgian Revolution, creating the modern state of Belgium. Republic of Liège Brabant Revolution Text of the Treaty of Union Text of the Treaty of Union
James P. Hogan (writer)
James Patrick Hogan was a British science fiction author. Hogan was born in London, England and he was raised in the Portobello Road area on the west side of London. He first married at the age of twenty and he married three more times and fathered six children. Hogan worked as an engineer for several companies and eventually moved into sales in the 1960s. In the 1970s he joined the Digital Equipment Corporations Laboratory Data Processing Group and in 1977 moved to Boston and he published his first novel, Inherit the Stars, in the same year to win an office bet. He quit DEC in 1979 and began writing full-time, moving to Orlando and they moved to Sonora, California. Hogan died of an attack at his home in Ireland on Monday,12 July 2010. Most of Hogans fiction is science fiction. Hogans fiction reflects anti-authoritarian social views and as such part of anarchist science fiction. Many of his novels have strong anarchist or libertarian themes, often promoting the idea that new technological advances render certain social conventions obsolete.
For example, the effectively limitless availability of energy that would result from the development of controlled nuclear fusion would make it unnecessary to limit access to energy resources, in essence, energy would become free. The story features concepts of civil disobedience, post scarcity and gift economy, in his years, Hogans contrarian and anti-authoritarian views favored those widely considered fringe. He was a proponent of Immanuel Velikovskys version of catastrophism, and he criticized gradualism in evolution, though he did not propose theistic creationism as an alternative. Hogan was skeptical of the theories on climate change and ozone depletion, Hogan at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database James P. Hogan, entry at the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, 3rd edition Bibliography on SciFan Truesdale, Dave. Interview originally appeared in Tangent No,1, July/August 1993, and is reprinted here for the first time. Image of young James P. Hogan on Facebook
United States Live
United States Live was the third album release by avant-garde singer-songwriter Laurie Anderson. Released as a 5-record boxed set, the album was recorded at the Brooklyn Academy of Music in New York City in February 1983, United States was Andersons magnum opus performance-art piece featuring musical numbers, spoken word pieces, and animated vignettes about life in the United States. Segments ranged from humorous, such as Yankee See, which gently chided Andersons record label, for signing her in the first place, to the apocalyptic anthem O Superman, which had been an unexpected Top 10 hit for Anderson on the UK music charts in 1981. Originally, United States was presented over the course of two nights, running some eight hours, the United States Live box set is a truncated rendering of the performance, omitting many segments that were solely of a visual nature. Among the songs performed on the album was Language is a Virus, Anderson performed a modified arrangement of the song in her 1986 concert film Home of the Brave.
All tracks written by Laurie Anderson except as indicated. –1,19 Running Dogs –0,38 Four, Two, One –1,15 The Big Top –2,52 It Was Up in the Mountains –2,14 Odd Objects For light-in-mouth –4,03 Dr
United States of Africa
The United States of Africa is a proposed concept for a federation of some or all of the 55 sovereign states on the African continent. The concept takes its origin from Marcus Garveys 1924 poem, Hail, a number of senior AU members support the proposed federation, believing that it could bring peace to a new Africa. Alpha Oumar Konaré, former President of Mali and former Chairperson of the African Union Commission, spoke in favor of the concept at the commemoration of Africa Day, on May 25,2006. During the late 19th and early 20th century the majority of African land was controlled by various European empires, the term United States of Africa was mentioned first by Marcus Garvey in his poem Hail, United States of Africa in 1924. Garveys ideas deeply influenced the birth of the Pan-Africanist movement which culminated in 1945 with the Fifth Pan-African Congress in Manchester, United Kingdom, du Bois, Patrice Lumumba, George Padmore, Jomo Kenyatta, Dudley Thompson, and Kwame Nkrumah. Later and Haile Selassie took the idea forward to form the 37 nation Organisation of African Unity, the BBC reported that Gaddafi had proposed a single African military force, a single currency and a single passport for Africans to move freely around the continent.
Other African leaders stated they would study the implications. The focus for developing the United States of Africa so far has been on building subdivisions of Africa - the proposed East African Federation can be seen as an example of this. Former President of Senegal, Abdoulaye Wade, had indicated that the United States of Africa could exist from as early as 2017, the African Union, by contrast, has set itself the task of building a united and integrated Africa by 2025. Gaddafi received criticism for his involvement in the movement, Gaddafi was ultimately killed during the Battle of Sirte in October 2011. While some regard the project to have died with him, Robert Mugabe has expressed interest in reviving the project, African integration generally has had a higher level of support among poorer, less developed, and smaller African countries versus richer, more developed, and larger African countries. The nations of Eritrea, Ghana and Zimbabwe, have supported an African federation, others such as South Africa and Nigeria have been more skeptic, feeling that the continent is not ready for integration.
Support appears to be proportional to a nations power and influence. Doubts have been raised whether the goal of a unified Africa can ever be achieved while ongoing problems of conflict. Cape Verde was formerly in favour of an African federation, however as of 2014 and it is now focusing on European integration, as all other countries in the Macaronesian region are in the EU. Furthermore, the majority of the people of Cape Verde do not consider themselves African, and have many cultural and genetic links to Portugal, in addition, Cape Verde was part of Portugal for 515 years. Over 70% of people in Cape Verde are mixed, in addition, the vast majority of economic investment and tourism comes from Europe. The people of Cape Verde speak Portuguese, a European language, the leaders of Cape Verde have proposed withdrawing from ECOWAS, a West African integration organization
Federal Republic of Central America
It existed from September 1821 to 1841, and was a republican democracy. It is incorrectly referred to in English as the United States of Central America. The republic consisted of the states of Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua. Maps and borders hardly existed at the time so locations are only approximate, from 1838 to 1840 the federation descended into civil war, with conservatives fighting against liberals and separatists fighting to secede. From the 16th century through 1821, Central America, apart from Panama and that date is still marked as independence day by most Central American nations. Independence proved short-lived, as local law-and-order broke down, driven by regional rivalries, many localities refused to accept the newly formed federal powers in Guatemala—San Salvador, Comayagua, León, and Cartago were in open revolt. The ensuing anarchy prompted the land-owning wealthy and conservative class to advocate union with Mexico, on 25 January 1822 the Junta consultiva in Guatemala City voted for annexation.
A few weeks General Vicente Filísola, the envoy of Emperor Agustín de Iturbide of the First Mexican Empire arrived in Guatemala as the new ruler. The annexation was controversial, with some seeing the Mexican constitution with its abolition of slavery, Central American liberals in San Salvador objected to this and refused to accept Filísolas authority. The army was ordered to quell dissent, after Iturbide abdicated, Mexico became a republic and offered to the previously annexed Central American provinces the right to determine their own destiny. Filísola turned over his power to the hastily formed National Constituent Assembly, on July 1,1823 the Congress of Central America declared absolute independence from Spain and any other foreign nation, and established a republican system of government. The liberal-dominated Assembly elected Manuel José Arce as president but he turned against his own faction. San Salvador rose in revolt against federal authority and Nicaragua joined the rebellion and Arce was deposed in 1829.
The victors led by the Honduran Francisco Morazán took power and Morazán was proclaimed president in 1830, to appease liberal supporters, the capital was relocated from Guatemala City to San Salvador in 1831 but Morazáns hold on power was waning as conservatives regained control in the provinces. The Assembly in 1838 adjourned with the declaration that the provinces were free to rule themselves as the Federal Republic dissolved, in 1839 Morazán was exiled as rebels from Guatemala and Nicaragua entered San Salvador, evicting the governing institutions that held the region together. In practice, the federation faced insurmountable problems, and the union slid into war between 1838 and 1840. Its disintegration began when Nicaragua separated from the federation on November 5,1838, followed by Honduras, in reality, this merely legally acknowledged the process of disintegration that had already begun. The union effectively ended in 1840, by which four of its five states had declared independence
Code Geass first ran in Japan on MBS from October 5,2006, to July 28,2007. Its sequel series, Code Geass, Lelouch of the Rebellion R2, the series has been adapted into various manga and light novels with the former showing various alternate scenarios from the TV series. Bandai Entertainment licensed most parts from the franchise for English release in December 2007, most manga and light novels have been published in North America by Bandai. The new anime, titled Code Geass, Lelouch of the Resurrection, the director Gorō Taniguchi commented that the upcoming project would star an alive Lelouch and not as an alternate setting. Released to critical acclaim, the TV anime series has been received in Japan, selling over a million DVD. Both seasons have won awards at the Tokyo International Anime Fair, Animage Anime Grand Prix. Critics have praised the series for its audience appeal as well as the cross conflicts shown among the main characters. The story is set in a timeline where the world has become split into three superpowers, the Holy Britannian Empire, the Chinese Federation, and the European Union.
The story takes place after the Holy Britannian Empires conquest of Japan on August 10,2010 a. t. b. by means of Britannias newest weapon, the Autonomous Armored Knight, or Knightmare Frame. In turn, Britannia effectively strips Japan and its citizens of all rights and freedoms, Nunnally witnessed the murder of her mother Marianne, which caused her to lose both her sight and ability to walk. This makes it difficult for Lelouch because he must take care of her while on the run in Japan during the war, after the war in the ruins of a Japanese city he vows to his Japanese friend Suzaku Kururugi that he will one day obliterate Britannia. Lelouch decides to put his Geass to use and find the person who killed his mother, destroy the Britannian Empire, this does not come without a cost. Code Geass began as a concept developed at Sunrise by Ichirō Ōkouchi and Gorō Taniguchi, Kawaguchi had previously approached Okouchi and Taniguchi during the production of Planetes. During these initial planning stages, Kawaguchi contacted the noted manga artist group Clamp and this was the first time Clamp had ever been requested to design the characters of an anime series.
Clamp signed onto the project early during development stages and provided numerous ideas. While developing the designs for Lelouch, the protagonist of the series. Ageha Ohkawa, head writer at Clamp, said she had visualized him as being a character to which everyone could relate to as being cool, literally, a beauty. During these planning stages and the Sunrise staff had discussed a number of inspirations for the characters, including KinKi Kids
United States of Europe
At present, while the European Union is not officially a federation, various academic observers regard it as having the characteristics of a federal system. Various versions of the concept have developed over the centuries, many of which are mutually incompatible, george Washington allegedly voiced support for a United States of Europe, although the authenticity of this statement has been questioned. The project consisted of 77 articles, the envisioned United States of Europe was to be an international organisation rather than a superstate. Giuseppe Mazzini was an advocate of a United States of Europe. He created the Young Europe movement, the term United States of Europe was used by Victor Hugo, including during a speech at the International Peace Congress held in Paris in 1849. A day will come when we shall see, the United States of America and the United States of Europe face to face, reaching out for each other across the seas. Hugo planted a tree in the grounds of his residence on the Island of Guernsey and he was noted in saying that when this tree matured the United States of Europe would have come into being.
This tree to this day is still growing in the gardens of Maison de Hauteville, St. Peter Port, Victor Hugos residence during his exile from France. The Italian philosopher Carlo Cattaneo wrote, The ocean is rough and whirling, in 1867 Giuseppe Garibaldi and John Stuart Mill joined Victor Hugo at a congress of the League for Peace and Freedom in Geneva. The French National Assembly called for a United States of Europe on 1 March 1871, following the catastrophe of the First World War, some thinkers and visionaries again began to float the idea of a politically unified Europe. In 1923, the Austrian Count Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi founded the Pan-Europa Movement and hosted the First Paneuropean Congress, the aim was for a Europe based on the principles of liberalism and social responsibility. Before the Communist revolution in Russia, Trotsky foresaw a Federated Republic of Europe — the United States of Europe, many eminent economists, among them John Maynard Keynes, supported this view. At the Leagues request Briand presented a Memorandum on the organisation of a system of European Federal Union in 1930, in 1931, French politician Édouard Herriot and British civil servant Arthur Salter both penned books titled The United States of Europe.
During the World War II victories of Nazi Germany in 1940 and we are becoming the United States of Europe under German leadership, a united European Continent. In 1941, the Italian anti-fascists Altiero Spinelli and Ernesto Rossi finished writing the Ventotene Manifesto, the term United States of Europe was used by Winston Churchill in his speech delivered on 19 September 1946 at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. In this speech given after the end of the Second World War, Churchill concluded that, in this way only will hundreds of millions of toilers be able to regain the simple joys and hopes which make life worth living. Before the Second World War, Churchill favoured an isolationist attitude towards continental Europe, but we have our own dream and our own task. We are with Europe, but not of it and we are linked but not compromised
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia