De Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter
The de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter marketed as the Viking Air DHC-6 Twin Otter, is a Canadian 19-passenger STOL utility aircraft developed by de Havilland Canada and produced by Viking Air. The aircraft's fixed tricycle undercarriage, STOL capabilities, twin turboprop engines and high rate of climb have made it a successful commuter passenger airliner as well as a cargo and medical evacuation aircraft. In addition, the Twin Otter has been popular with commercial skydiving operations, is used by the United States Army Parachute Team and the United States Air Force's 98th Flying Training Squadron. Development of the aircraft began in 1964, with the first flight on May 20, 1965. A twin-engine replacement for the single-engine DHC-3 Otter retaining DHC's renowned STOL qualities, its design features included double-slotted trailing-edge flaps and ailerons that work in unison with the flaps to boost STOL performance; the availability of the 550 shp Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-20 turboprop in the early 1960s made the concept of a twin more feasible.
To bush operators, the improved reliability of turboprop power and the improved performance of a twin-engine configuration made it an popular alternative to the piston-powered Otter, flying since 1951. The first six aircraft produced were designated Series 1, indicating that they were prototype aircraft; the initial production run consisted of Series 100 aircraft, serial numbers seven to 115 inclusive. In 1968, Series 200 production began with serial number 116. Changes made at the beginning of Series 200 production included improving the STOL performance, adding a longer nose, equipped with a larger baggage compartment, fitting a larger door to the rear baggage compartment. All Series 1, 100, 200 aircraft and their variants were fitted with the 550-shaft-horsepower PT6A-20 engines. In 1969, the Series 300 was introduced, beginning with serial number 231. Both aircraft performance and payload were improved by fitting more powerful PT6A-27 engines; this was a 680 hp engine, flat-rated to 620 hp for use in the Series 300 Twin Otter.
The Series 300 proved to be the most successful variant by far, with 614 Series 300 aircraft and their subvariants sold before production in Toronto by de Havilland Canada ended in 1988. In 1976, a new -300 would have cost $700,000 and is still worth more than $2.5 million in 2018 despite the -400 introduction, many years after the -300 production ceased. After Series 300 production ended, the remaining tooling was purchased by Viking Air of Victoria, British Columbia, which manufactures replacement parts for all of the out-of-production de Havilland Canada aircraft. On February 24, 2006, Viking purchased the type certificates from Bombardier Aerospace for all the out-of-production de Havilland Canada aircraft; the ownership of the certificates gives Viking the exclusive right to manufacture new aircraft. On July 17, 2006, at the Farnborough Air Show, Viking Air announced its intention to offer a Series 400 Twin Otter. On April 2, 2007, Viking announced that with 27 orders and options in hand, it was restarting production of the Twin Otter, equipped with more powerful Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-34 engines.
As of November 2007, 40 firm orders and 10 options had been taken and a new final assembly plant was established in Calgary, Alberta. Zimex Aviation of Switzerland received the first new production aircraft, serial number 845, in July 2010. By mid-2014, Viking had built 55 new aircraft at its Calgary facility; the production rate as of summer 2014 was about 24 aircraft per year. In April 2015, Viking announced a reduction of the production rate to 18 aircraft per year. On June 17, 2015, Viking further announced a partnership with a Chinese firm, Reignwood Aviation Group; the group will purchase 50 aircraft and become the exclusive representatives for new Series 400 Twin Otters in China. Major changes introduced with the Series 400 include Honeywell Primus Apex integrated avionics, deletion of the AC electrical system, deletion of the beta backup system, modernization of the electrical and lighting systems, use of composites for nonload-bearing structures such as doors; the 100th Series 400 Twin Otter was displayed at the July 2017 EAA AirVenture Oshkosh.
38% are operated as regional airliners, 31% in military aviation or special missions, 26% in industrial support and 5% in private air charter. Additionally, 70 are on regular landing gear wheels, 18 are configured as straight or amphibious floatplanes, 10 have tundra tires and 2 have wheel skis. Twin Otters could be delivered directly from the factory with floats, skis, or tricycle landing gear fittings, making them adaptable bush planes for remote and northern areas. Areas including Canada and the United States, had much of the demand. Many Twin Otters still serve in the far north, but they can be found in Africa, Asia and other regions where bush planes are the optimum means of travel, their versatility and maneuverability have made them popular in areas with difficult flying environments such as Papua New Guinea. In Norway, the Twin Otter paved the way for the network of short-field airports, connecting rural areas with larger towns; the Twin Otter showed outstanding reliability, remained in service until 2000 on certain routes.
Widerøe of Norway was, at one time, the world's largest operator of Twin Otters. During one period of its tenure in Norway, the Twin Otter fleet achieved over 96,000 cycles per year. A number of commuter airlines in
Hubert R. Harmon
Lieutenant General Hubert Reilly Harmon, after a distinguished combat career in World War II, was instrumental in developing plans for the establishment of the United States Air Force Academy. He was the first superintendent of the academy and was one of the persons most influential in establishing it as a successful educational institution. Hubert R. Harmon was born in 1892 at Pennsylvania, he was from a military family. One brother, Millard F. Harmon, Jr. was a lieutenant general and another, Kenneth B. Harmon, a colonel. Harmon attended the Polytechnic Preparatory School in Brooklyn, New York for two years before entering the United States Military Academy, he graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1915, as a member of "The class the stars fell on", named so due to the number of graduates who became generals. Harmon's first assignment was at Fort Monroe, until December 1915, when he was transferred to Fort Andrews, Massachusetts. In 1917, he was assigned to Kelly Field, where he organized and served as commandant of the Ground Officer's Training School, as aeronautical officer for the Southern Department and engineer officer for Kelly Field.
In March 1918, he was appointed executive officer at Taliaferra Field, a month was placed in charge of Barron Field, Texas. In 1918, Harmon completed advanced training in pursuit aviation at Issoudun and became chief of staff of the Air Service Command of the Third Army at Coblenz, Germany. On July 1, 1920, he transferred to the Air Service. In October 1920, Harmon was assigned as assistant executive in the Office of the Chief of the Air Service at Washington, D. C. and served as an aide at the White House. In July 1924, he was transferred to Bolling Field, to McCook Field, where he entered the Air Service Engineering School, from which he graduated in August 1925, he returned to the Office of the Chief of the Air Service in 1926 as chief of the Information Division and again served as an aide at the White House. From 1927 to 1929, Harmon served as military attache for aviation in London, he was assigned as an instructor at the United States Military Academy. In 1933, he graduated from the Air Corps Tactical School at Maxwell Field, in 1935, he graduated from the Command and General Staff School at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.
In 1936, he was made commander of the 19th Bombardment Group. Harmon graduated from the Army War College in 1938, was assigned to the War Department General Staff as chief of the Operations Branch, Personnel Division. In 1940, Harmon assumed command of the Advanced Flying School at Kelly Field and one year he was named commanding general of the Gulf Coast Air Corps Training Center at Randolph Field, Texas. In 1942, General Harmon was appointed commanding general of the Sixth Air Force and a month was promoted to Major General, he was promoted to Lieutenant General on February 19, 1943. In 1943, he was appointed deputy commander for the air forces of the South Pacific Area and in January 1944 he assumed command of the 13th Air Force. In March–June, Harmon was commander of AirSols, all Allied air units in the Solomon Islands campaign. In June 1944, he was appointed commander of the Sixth Air Force, in the Caribbean. In 1947, General Harmon was appointed senior Air Force member of the Military and Naval Staff Committee of the United Nations in New York City.
The next year, he was given the additional duty of United States delegate to the Inter-American Defense Board, in 1949 was made special assistant for air academy matters at Air Force headquarters in Washington, D. C.. General Harmon retired from active duty February 27, 1953, but was recalled to active duty the following day with the same duties, he reverted to retired status June 30, 1953, but was again called back to active duty as a lieutenant general November 8, 1953, at the request of the President of the United States, to become special assistant to the chief of staff for air academy matters. On August 14, 1954, General Harmon became the first superintendent of the United States Air Force Academy at its temporary home in Lowry Air Force Base, Colorado. General Harmon reverted to retired status July 31, 1956, died February 22, 1957 at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas. General Harmon's decorations and awards include the Distinguished Service Medal with two oak leaf clusters, the Legion of Merit, the Distinguished Flying Cross, the Air Medal, the Commendation Ribbon, the World War I Victory Medal, the Army of Occupation of Germany Medal, the American Defense Service Medal, the American Campaign Medal.
The main administration building at the United States Air Force Academy, Harmon Hall, is named in his honor. In 2004, Dr. James G. Roche, the Secretary of the Air Force formally proclaimed Harmon "Father of the Air Force Academy". Harmon is interred at the United States Air Force Academy Cemetery in Colorado. Official Air Force Bio at Archive.today
A cemetery or graveyard is a place where the remains of dead people are buried or otherwise interred. The word cemetery implies that the land is designated as a burial ground and applied to the Roman catacombs; the term graveyard is used interchangeably with cemetery, but a graveyard refers to a burial ground within a churchyard. The intact or cremated remains of people may be interred in a grave referred to as burial, or in a tomb, an "above-ground grave", a mausoleum, niche, or other edifice. In Western cultures, funeral ceremonies are observed in cemeteries; these ceremonies or rites of passage differ according to religious beliefs. Modern cemeteries include crematoria, some grounds used for both, continue as crematoria as a principal use long after the interment areas have been filled. Taforalt cave in Morocco is the oldest known cemetery in the world, it was the resting place of at least 34 Iberomaurusian individuals, the bulk of which have been dated to 15,100 to 14,000 years ago. Neolithic cemeteries are sometimes referred to by the term "grave field".
They are one of the chief sources of information on ancient and prehistoric cultures, numerous archaeological cultures are defined by their burial customs, such as the Urnfield culture of the European Bronze Age. From about the 7th century, in Europe a burial was under the control of the Church and could only take place on consecrated church ground. Practices varied, but in continental Europe, bodies were buried in a mass grave until they had decomposed; the bones were exhumed and stored in ossuaries, either along the arcaded bounding walls of the cemetery or within the church under floor slabs and behind walls. In most cultures those who were vastly rich, had important professions, were part of the nobility or were of any other high social status were buried in individual crypts inside or beneath the relevant place of worship with an indication of their name, date of death and other biographical data. In Europe, this was accompanied by a depiction of their coat of arms. Most others were buried in graveyards again divided by social status.
Mourners who could afford the work of a stonemason had a headstone engraved with a name, dates of birth and death and sometimes other biographical data, set up over the place of burial. The more writing and symbols carved on the headstone, the more expensive it was; as with most other human property such as houses and means of transport, richer families used to compete for the artistic value of their family headstone in comparison to others around it, sometimes adding a statue on the top of the grave. Those who could not pay for a headstone at all had some religious symbol made from wood on the place of burial such as a Christian cross; some families hired a blacksmith and had large crosses made from various metals put on the place of burial. Starting in the early 19th century, the burial of the dead in graveyards began to be discontinued, due to rapid population growth in the early stages of the Industrial Revolution, continued outbreaks of infectious disease near graveyards and the limited space in graveyards for new interment.
In many European states, burial in graveyards was outlawed altogether through government legislation. Instead of graveyards new places of burial were established away from populated areas and outside of old towns and city centers. Many new cemeteries became municipally owned or were run by their own corporations, thus independent from churches and their churchyards. In some cases, skeletons were moved into ossuaries or catacombs. A large action of this type occurred in 18th century Paris when human remains were transferred from graveyards all over the city to the Catacombs of Paris; the bones of an estimated 6 million people are to be found there. An early example of a landscape-style cemetery is Père Lachaise in Paris; this embodied the idea of state- rather than church-controlled burial, a concept that spread through the continent of Europe with the Napoleonic invasions. This could include the opening of cemeteries by joint stock companies; the shift to municipal cemeteries or those established by private companies was accompanied by the establishing of landscaped burial grounds outside the city.
In Britain the movement was driven by public health concerns. The Rosary Cemetery in Norwich was opened in 1819 as a burial ground for all religious backgrounds. Similar private non-denominational cemeteries were established near industrialising towns with growing populations, such as Manchester and Liverpool; each cemetery required a separate Act of Parliament for authorisation, although the capital was raised through the formation of joint-stock companies. In the first 50 years of the 19th century the population of London more than doubled from 1 million to 2.3 million. The small parish churchyards were becoming dangerously overcrowded, decaying matter infiltrating the water supply was causing epidemics; the issue became acute after the cholera epidemic of 1831, which killed 52,000 people in Britain alone, putting unprecedented pressure on the country's burial capacity. Concerns were raised about the potential public health hazard arising from the inhalation of gases generated from human putrefaction under the prevailing miasma theory of disease.
Legislative action was slow in coming, but in 1832 Parliament acknowledged the need for the establishment of large municipal cemeter
Carl Andrew Spaatz, nicknamed "Tooey", was an American World War II general. As commander of Strategic Air Forces in Europe in 1944, he pressed for the bombing of the enemy's oil production facilities as a priority over other targets, he became Chief of Staff of the newly formed United States Air Force in 1947. He added the second "a" to his surname in 1937 at the request of his wife and three daughters to clarify the pronunciation of the name, as many pronounced it "spats." The second "a" was added, as it was in the European branch of his family, to draw out the sound like an "ah", similar to the "a" in "father." The result was intended to suggest a Dutch rather than a German origin. However, he was of German ancestry. Spaatz received his nickname "Tooey" at West Point because of his resemblance to another red-headed cadet named F. J. Toohey, he graduated as a second lieutenant of Infantry 12 June 1914, ranked 97th out of a class of 107. He served with the 25th Infantry at Schofield Barracks, until his assignment to the Signal Corps Aviation School at San Diego, between 13 October 1915 and 15 May 1916, for pilot training.
He was detailed to the Aviation Section, U. S. Signal Corps in Mexico on 8 June 1916 after earning his Junior Military Aviator rating. Spaatz served in the First Aero Squadron, attached to General John J. Pershing during the Punitive Expedition. Spaatz was promoted to first lieutenant on 1 July 1916 and to captain on 15 May 1917. Following America's entry into World War I, Spaatz was sent with the American Expeditionary Forces in command of the 31st Aero Squadron. Spaatz was appointed Officer in Charge, American Aviation School at Issoudun, France but after receiving orders to return to the United States, he saw three weeks of action during the final months of the war with the 13th Aero Squadron as a supernumerary pilot. In this brief period, Spaatz shot down three enemy planes and was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross. In early 1919, Spaatz was appointed to lead one of the three "troupes" of the U. S. Army Air Service Victory Loan Flying Circus, his group fifty enlisted men. His airplanes included on the tour included five JN6 Jennies, five Fokker D VIIs, four RAE SE-5s and five Spad VIIs.
The team gave promotional rides and flew aerial demonstrations across the Western and Southwestern United States from early April through mid-May 1919 to raise money to retire the World War I debt. Spaatz served in California and Texas and became assistant department air service officer for the Western Department in July 1919. Spaatz experienced the chaotic ups and downs in rank common to Regular officers in 1920, when the National Defense Act of 1920 reorganized the military, he first reverted to his permanent rank of captain of Infantry on 27 February 1920. On 1 July, when the Air Service became a combatant arm of the line, he transferred to the Air Service as a captain was promoted to major on the same date by virtue of a provision in the National Defense Act that allowed officers who earned their rank in service with the AEF to retain it; this made him senior to a number of officers, including Henry H. Arnold, with greater longevity of service. On 18 December 1922, Spaatz was discharged when Congress set a new ceiling on the number of majors authorized the Air Service, reappointed as a captain promoted again to major on 1 February 1923.
As a major, Spaatz commanded Kelly Field, from October 5, 1920 to February 1921, served at Fort Sam Houston as air officer of the Eighth Corps Area until November 1921, was commanding officer of the 1st Pursuit Group, first at Ellington Field, at Selfridge Field, until September 24, 1924. He graduated from the Air Corps Tactical School, Langley Field, Virginia, in June 1925, served in the Office of the Chief of Air Corps at Washington, D. C; that year he testified for the defence at the court-martial of Colonel Billy Mitchell. From January 1 to January 7, 1929, Spaatz along with fellow Air Corps officers, Captain Ira Eaker and Lieutenant Elwood Quesada, both of whom would become senior United States Army Air Forces generals, established an aviation record by keeping the airplane Question Mark in the air over the Los Angeles vicinity for over 150 hours. From May 8, 1929, to October 29, 1931, Spaatz commanded the 7th Bombardment Group at Rockwell Field and the 1st Bombardment Wing at March Field, until June 10, 1933.
He served in the Office of the Chief of Air Corps and became chief of the Training and Operations Division. In August 1935, he enrolled in the Command and General Staff School at Fort Leavenworth and while there was promoted to lieutenant colonel on 16 September, he graduated in June 1936, served at Langley Field on the staff of Major General Frank M. Andrews, commander of General Headquarters Air Force, until January 1939, when he returned to the Office of the Chief of Air Corps at Washington as assistant executive officer. On 7 November 1939, Spaatz received a temporary promotion to colonel, during the Battle of Britain in 1940, spent several weeks in England as a special military observer. In August, he was assigned in the Office of the Chief of Air Corps, two months was appointed assistant to the chief of Air Corps, General Arnold, with the temporary rank of brigadier general, he became chief of the Plans Division of the Air Corps in November 1940, the following July was named chief of the air staff at Army Air Forces Headquarters.
Army Chief of Staff
Strategic Air Command
For the current active command, see Air Force Global Strike Command Strategic Air Command was both a United States Department of Defense Specified Command and a United States Air Force Major Command, responsible for Cold War command and control of two of the three components of the U. S. military's strategic nuclear strike forces, the so-called "nuclear triad," with SAC having control of land-based strategic bomber aircraft and intercontinental ballistic missiles or ICBMs. SAC operated all strategic reconnaissance aircraft, all strategic airborne command post aircraft, all USAF aerial refueling aircraft, to include those in the Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard. However, SAC did not operate the KB-50, WB-50 and WB-47 weather reconnaissance aircraft operated through the mid and late 1960s by the Air Weather Service, nor did SAC operate the HC-130 or MC-130 operations aircraft capable of aerial refueling helicopters that were assigned to Tactical Air Command Military Airlift Command, from 1990 onward, those MC-130 aircraft operated by the Air Force Special Operations Command, or any AFRES or ANG tactical aerial refueling aircraft operationally gained by TAC, MAC or AFSOC.
SAC consisted of the Second Air Force, Eighth Air Force and the Fifteenth Air Force, while SAC headquarters included Directorates for Operations & Plans, Command & Control, Training and Personnel. At a lower echelon, SAC headquarters divisions included Aircraft Engineering, Missile Concept, Strategic Communications. In 1992, as part of an overall post-Cold War reorganization of the U. S. Air Force, SAC was disestablished as both a Specified Command and as a MAJCOM, its personnel and equipment redistributed among the Air Combat Command, Air Mobility Command, Pacific Air Forces, United States Air Forces in Europe, Air Education and Training Command, while SAC's central headquarters complex at Offutt AFB, Nebraska was concurrently transferred to the newly created United States Strategic Command, established as a joint Unified Combatant Command to replace SAC's Specified Command role. In 2009, SAC's previous USAF MAJCOM role was reactivated and redesignated as the Air Force Global Strike Command, with AFGSC acquiring claimancy and control of all USAF bomber aircraft and the USAF strategic ICBM force.
The Strategic Air Forces of the United States during World War II included General Carl Spaatz's European command, United States Strategic Air Forces in Europe, consisting of the 8AF and 15AF, the United States Strategic Air Forces in the Pacific and its Twentieth Air Force. The U. S. Army Air Forces' first mission in the Strategic Bombing Campaign in the European Theater during World War II included the VIII Bomber Command, which conducted the first European "heavy bomber" attack by the USAAF on 17 August 1942; the Operation Overlord air plan for the strategic bombing of both Germany and German military forces in continental Europe prior to the 1944 invasion of France used several Air Forces those of the USAAF and those of the Royal Air Force, with command of air operations transferring to the Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force on 14 April 1944. Planning to reorganize for a separate and independent postwar U. S. Air Force had begun by the fall of 1945, with the Simpson Board tasked to plan, "...the reorganization of the Army and the Air Force...".
In January 1946, Generals Eisenhower and Spaatz agreed on an Air Force organization composed of the Strategic Air Command, the Air Defense Command, the Tactical Air Command, the Air Transport Command and the supporting Air Technical Service Command, Air Training Command, the Air University, the Air Force Center. Strategic Air Command was established in the U. S. Army Air Forces on 21 March 1946, acquiring part of the personnel and facilities of the Continental Air Forces, the World War II command tasked with the air defense of the continental United States. At the time, CAF headquarters was located at Bolling Field in the District of Columbia and SAC assumed occupancy of its headquarters facilities until relocating SAC headquarters to nearby Andrews Field, Maryland as a tenant activity until assuming control of Andrews Field in October 1946. SAC totaled 37,000 USAAF personnel. In addition to Bolling Field and, seven months Andrews Field, SAC assumed responsibility for: Roswell AAF, New Mexico home of the USAAF's sole nuclear-capable bomb wing, Smoky Hill AAF, Kansas SAC had seven additional CAF bases transferred on 21 March 1946 which remained in SAC through the 1947 establishment of the U.
S. Air Force as an independent service; those installations included: Castle Field, California Clovis AAF, New Mexico Fort Worth AAF, Texas Davis-Monthan Field, Arizona Rapid City AAF, South Dakota MacDill Field, Florida Mountain Home AAF, Idaho On 31 March 1946, t
United States Air Force Academy Cadet Chapel
The United States Air Force Academy Cadet Chapel, completed in 1962, is the distinguishing feature of the Cadet Area at the United States Air Force Academy north of Colorado Springs. It was designed by Walter Netsch of Skidmore and Merrill of Chicago. Construction was accomplished by Inc. of Santa Fe, New Mexico. Controversial in its design, the Cadet Chapel has become a classic and regarded example of modernist architecture; the Cadet Chapel was awarded the American Institute of Architects' National Twenty-five Year Award in 1996 and, as part of the Cadet Area, was named a U. S. National Historic Landmark in 2004; the most striking aspect of the Chapel is its row of seventeen spires. The original design called for twenty-one spires; the structure is a tubular steel frame of 100 identical tetrahedrons, each 75 feet long, weighing five tons, enclosed with aluminum panels. The panels were shipped by rail to the site; the tetrahedrons are spaced a foot apart, creating gaps in the framework that are filled with 1-inch-thick colored glass.
The tetrahedrons comprising the spires are filled by triangular aluminum panels, while the tetrahedrons between the spires are filled with a mosaic of colored glass in aluminum frame. The Cadet Chapel itself is 150 feet high, 280 feet long, 84 feet wide; the front façade, on the south, has a wide granite stairway with steel railings capped by aluminum handrails leading up one story to a landing. At the landing is a band of gold anodized aluminum doors, gold anodized aluminum sheets covering original windows; the shell of the chapel and surrounding grounds cost $3.5 million to build. Various furnishings, pipe organs, liturgical fittings and adornments of the chapel were presented as gifts from various individuals and organizations. In 1959, a designated Easter offering was taken at Air Force bases around the world to help complete the interior; the Cadet Chapel was designed to house three distinct worship areas under a single roof. Inspired by chapels at Sainte-Chapelle in France and the Basilica of San Francesco d'Assisi in Italy, architect Walter Netsch stacked the spaces on two main levels.
The Protestant nave is located on the upper level, while the Catholic and Jewish chapels and a Buddhist room are located beneath it. Beneath this level is a larger room used for Islamic services and two meeting rooms; each chapel has its own entrance, services may be held without interfering with one another. The Protestant Chapel is located on the main floor, is designed to seat 1,200 individuals; the nave measures 64 by 168 feet. The center aisle terminates at the chancel; the building's tetrahedrons form the pinnacled ceiling of the Protestant Chapel. Stained glass windows provide ribbons of color between the tetrahedrons, progress from darker to lighter as they reach the altar; the chancel is set off by a crescent-shaped, varicolored reredos with semi-precious stones from Colorado and pietra santa marble from Italy covering its 1,260-square-foot area. The focal point of the chancel is a 46-foot high aluminum cross suspended above it; the pews are made of American walnut and African mahogany, the ends being sculpted to resemble World War I airplane propellers.
The backs of the pews are capped by a strip of aluminum similar to the trailing edge of a fighter aircraft wing. Above the narthex, in the rear, is a choir balcony and organ, designed by Walter Holtkamp of the Holtkamp Organ Company, built by M. P. Moller of Hagerstown, Maryland; the organ has 67 stops controlling 4,334 pipes. Harold E. Wagoner designed the liturgical furnishings for both the Catholic chapels; the Catholic Chapel is located below the Protestant Chapel, seats 500 people. The nave is 113 feet long and 19 feet high; the focal point of the Catholic Chapel is the reredos, an abstract glass mosaic mural designed by Lumen Martin Winter and composed of varying shades of blue, turquoise and gray tessera to form a portrayal of the firmament. Superimposed on the mural and depicting the Annunciation are two 10-foot tall marble figures, the Virgin Mary on the left, the Archangel Gabriel on the right. Above and between these two figures is a marble. In front of the reredos is the altar, a gift from Cardinal Francis Spellman, who dedicated the Catholic Chapel on September 22, 1963.
The altar is Italian white marble mounted on a marble cone-shaped pedestal above, a six-foot sculptured nickel-silver crucifix. Along the side walls of the chapel are the 14 Stations of the Cross designed by Lumen Martin Winter, carved from four-inch thick slabs of marble; the figures are done from the same quarries where Michelangelo drew his stone. The classical pipe organ, in the 100-seat choir loft, was designed by Walter Holtkamp and built by M. P. Moller Co, it features 29 stops controlling its 1,950 pipes. The Jewish Chapel is on the lower level. Seating 100, it is circular, with a height of 19 feet, it is enclosed by a vertical grill with inserts of clear glass opening to the foyer. The circular form and transparent walls were used to suggest a tent-like structure; the floor is paved with Jerusalem brownstone, donated by the Israeli Defense Forces. The walls of the foyer are purple stained glass panels alternating with green and blue stained accent windows; the circular walls of the synagogue are panels of translucent glass separated by stanchions of Israeli cypress.
The paintings, done by Shlomo Katz in
FalconSAT is the United States Air Force Academy's small satellite engineering program. Satellites are designed, built and operated by Academy cadets; the project is administered by the USAFA Space Systems Research Center under the direction of the Department of Astronautics. Most of the cadets who work on the project are pursuing a bachelor of science degree in astronautical engineering, although students from other disciplines join the project. Compared to most commercial satellite projects, FalconSat is lower budget, follows a accelerated development cycle; because of the near total personnel turnover every year it forces the cadet engineers to quickly learn and become familiar with the satellite systems to which they are assigned. FalconSAT used to have a sister project, FalconLaunch, to design and develop sounding rocket class vehicles. FalconGOLD – launched in 1997 on an Atlas rocket. Tested and proved the feasibility of using GPS to determine orbit position when outside the extent of the GPS constellation.
Various web pages document FalconGOLD telemetry, a USAF Academy award, an AIAA award. The design and launch team is documented on the AIAA award plaque. GPSWorld.com's October 1999 article declared "The results of this low-cost, off-the-shelf experiment were quite encouraging for the use of GPS at high altitudes." This work accelerated enthusiasm for GPS side lobe exploitation. FalconSAT-1 – launched in January 2000 on a converted Minuteman II missile, it carried. The satellite was placed into orbit but was lost about a month due to an electrical power system failure. No useful science data was returned, despite repeated recovery attempts; the mission was declared a loss after about a month in orbit. A USAF press statement of June 2002 said: "While FalconSat-1 was a technical failure, it was a resounding academic success." FalconSAT-2 – Significantly damaged when Falcon 1 launch vehicle failed seconds after launch. Despite the loss of the launch vehicle, the satellite landed intact in a support building for the launch vehicle.
It was scheduled for launch on STS-114 with the Space Shuttle Atlantis in January 2003. Its payload was the MESA instrument, which would have been used to sample plasma in the upper atmosphere; the data would have been used to correlate the effect of ionospheric plasma on trans-ionospheric radio communications. FalconSAT-3 – contains 5 experiments, including a gravity gradient boom, launch adapter shock ring, several AFRL sponsored payloads, including MPACS, FLAPS, PLANE; the launch, aboard an Atlas V 401 from SLC-41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, was scheduled to occur on 8 December 2006, however as this was on the same day as the scheduled launch of STS-116, a 48-hour turnaround was required, it was delayed. Launch took place on 8 March 2007 alongside MidSTAR-1. While the FalconSAT-3 software architecture at launch limited access to all ADCS sensors, all scientific mission objectives were achieved. Bus software updates are ongoing, enabling enhanced visibility into satellite bus operations and payload performance.
In addition to providing both a ground and space based training platform, FalconSAT-3 was used as a trainer for cadets at West Point, student officers at the Air Force Institute of Technology, a ground station is in work at Vandenberg AFB, CA to support the Air Force's Space 100 course. In late September 2017, the Air Force transferred control of FalconSAT-3 to AMSAT for use by the amateur radio service for the 5–6 years of expected life remaining. Non-amateur radio frequencies were disabled; the satellite can be used as a digipeater. FalconSAT-5 – was launched on 19 November 2010 on board a Minotaur IV. Though the $12,000,000 mission is listed on a NASA website here, data are not being made available to the public through that portal. Instead, all satellite information and data are maintained internally at USAFA, with no public information being released regarding the status of this mission. FalconSAT-6 – was launched on 3 December 2018 on board a Falcon 9; the satellite will measure the local plasma.
FalconSAT-7 – launch planned for 2019 via a Falcon 9. Primary objective is to demonstrate solar space telescope technology utilizing a membrane photon sieve. Program summary and FalconSAT-2 launch video FalconSAT-2 press release FalconSAT-3 on Gunter's Space Page