Military acquisition is the bureaucratic management and procurement process dealing with a nation's investments in the technologies and product support necessary to achieve its national security strategy and support its armed forces. Its objective is to acquire products that satisfy specified needs and provide measurable improvement to mission capability at a fair and reasonable price. Military acquisition has a long history spanning from ancient times to modern times. Modern military acquisition is a complex blend of science and engineering disciplines within the context of a nation's law and regulation framework to produce military material and technology; this complexity evolved from the increasing complexity of weapon systems starting in the 20th century. For example, the Manhattan Project involved more than 130,000 people at an estimated cost of nearly $24 billion in 2008 dollars. In the twenty-first century, the trend has been for countries to cooperate in military procurement, due to the rising cost-per-unit of digital age military hardware such as ships and jets.
For example, NORDEFCO, a grouping of Nordic countries that cooperate in defence spending, the Defence and Security Co-operation Treaty, signed between the United Kingdom and France in 2010, Joint Strike Fighter program, which selected the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II in 2001, included the United States, the United Kingdom, Italy, the Netherlands, Denmark, Turkey and Japan. Major activities related to military acquisition are: Project management/program management Risk management Earned value management Product management Product life cycle management Contract management Systems engineering Software engineering Computer engineering Human factors Modeling and simulation Security Procurement EU member states' procurement of arms, war material and related works and services acquired for defence purposes and procurement of sensitive supplies and services required for security purposes are subject to EU Directive 2009/81/EC on Defence and Sensitive Security Procurement; the purpose of the directive is to balance the need for transparency and openness in defence markets within the European Single Market with the need to protect individual countries’ security interests.
The US Department of Defense has three principal decision-making support systems associated with military acquisition: Planning, Programming and Execution Process – Process for strategic planning, program development, resource determination. Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System – The systematic method established by the Joint Chiefs of Staff for assessing gaps in military joint warfighting capabilities and recommending solutions to resolve these gaps. Defense Acquisition System – The management process used to acquire weapon systems and automated information system; because of the size and scope of such a bureaucracy, the US Department of Defense instituted an extensive training program, known as the Defense Acquisition University. Analysis of Alternatives Defence Equipment and Support Defence Materiel Organisation Defense Acquisition University Integrated Logistics Support Joint Capabilities Integration Development System Logistics Support Analysis Procurement Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Logistics Government procurement - includes details of relevant procurement law affecting defence procurement in a number of other states Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Acquisition Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research, Development & Acquisition Defense Acquisition History Project Defense Procurement News United States Assistant Secretary of the Army for Acquisition and Technology Defense Acquisition University ACC Practice Center
Mark Thomas Esper is an American politician and corporate executive serving as the 23rd and current United States Secretary of the Army since 2017. Prior to his current position, he served as vice president of government relations at Raytheon. Esper graduated from Laurel Highlands High School in 1982, he received his Bachelor of Science in engineering from the United States Military Academy in 1986. Esper was a Dean's List student at West Point and recipient of the Douglas MacArthur Award for Leadership, he received a master's degree in public administration from the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard in 1995 and a Doctor of Philosophy from George Washington University in 2008. Esper served as an Infantry Officer with the 101st Airborne Division and deployed with the "Screaming Eagles" for the 1990-91 Gulf War, his battalion was part of the famous "left hook". For his actions, Esper was awarded a Bronze Star, the Combat Infantryman's Badge, various service medals, he led an Airborne Rifle Company in Europe and served as an Army Fellow at the Pentagon.
Esper was on active duty for over ten years before transitioning to the District of Columbia Army National Guard and the Army Reserve, rising to the rank of lieutenant colonel. Esper was chief of staff at the Heritage Foundation, a conservative think tank, from 1996-1998. From 1998 to 2002, Esper served as a senior professional staffer for the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee, he was a senior policy advisor and legislative director for U. S. Senator Chuck Hagel, he was policy director for the House Armed Services Committee from 2001 to 2002. From 2002 to 2004, Esper served in the George W. Bush administration as Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Negotiations Policy, where he was responsible for a broad range of nonproliferation, arms control, international security issues, he was Director for National Security Affairs for the U. S. Senate under Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist from 2004 to 2006. Esper was executive vice president at the Aerospace Industries Association in 2006 and 2007.
From September 2007 to February 2008, Esper served as national policy director to Senator Fred Thompson in his 2008 presidential campaign. From 2008 to 2010, Esper served as executive vice president of the Global Intellectual Property Center and vice president for Europe and Eurasia at the U. S. Chamber of Commerce, he was hired as vice president of government relations at defense contractor Raytheon in July 2010. Esper was recognized as a top corporate lobbyist by The Hill in 2015 and 2016. President Trump announced his intention to nominate Esper as United States Secretary of the Army on July 19, 2017, he was Trump's third nominee for the position, following the withdrawals of Vincent Viola and Mark E. Green, he was confirmed to this post by an 89–6 vote of the U. S. Senate on November 15, 2017 and sworn in on November 20, 2017. Official biography
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
U.S. Army Regimental System
The United States Army Regimental System was established in 1981 to replace the Combat Arms Regimental System, to provide each soldier with continuous identification with a single regiment, to increase a soldier's probability of serving recurring assignments with his or her regiment. The USARS was intended to enhance combat effectiveness by providing the opportunity for a regimental affiliation, thus obtaining some of the benefits of the traditional regimental system. USARS was developed to include the reserve components, it was developed to offer the opportunity for long-term identification with a regiment or corps, provide the potential for recurring assignments within a regiment or corps, provide the opportunity to further emphasize the history and traditions of the regiment or corps, provide regiments that are structured as one or more continental United States units of like type linked with one or more units of like type outside the continental United States, or one or more units of like type located in either CONUS or OCONUS, including one or more training battalions or tactical armored cavalry or ranger regiments.
USARS is designed to provide for CS, CSS, special branches to operate on a “whole branch” concept as a corps or special branch, carrying on the activities and traditions of a regiment, offer regimental affiliation to allow soldiers the opportunity for continuous identification with a combat arms regiment, a corps, or special branch throughout their careers. USARS provides different opportunities for soldiers, depending upon which combat arms regiment they choose to be affiliated with or whether they affiliate with a CS or CSS corps or special branch. In addition, the regimental affiliation process allows combat arms soldiers to select the regiment of choice. Combat arms is a rescinded doctrinal term, though colloquially it includes air defense artillery, aviation, field artillery and special forces regiments. Combat arms soldiers may affiliate with any of the combat arms regiments consistent with their primary military occupational specialty, specialty code, special qualification identifiers, or additional skill identifiers.
It should be noted that soldiers will have greater opportunities to serve recurring assignments in their regiments if regiments are chosen that have battalions in both CONUS and OCONUS locations. Since there is no ceiling on the number of soldiers who can affiliate with a particular regiment, the potential for recurring assignments to regiments is diminished where the number of affiliated soldiers exceeds the requirements. Quoting from Chapter 3–2, page 7 of Army Regulation 600-82, U. S. Army Regimental System: a. USARS regiments offered to active Army and USAR soldiers for affiliation are listed. All active Army soldiers are required to affiliate with a regiment. Although affiliation is mandatory, the choice of regiment is left up to the individual. Officers who are single-tracked in a Functional Area will affiliate with a regiment associated with their basic combat arms branch. Functional Area officers who have no basic branch will submit request for regimental affiliation using procedures outlined below.
Regimental affiliation is based on the Army branch associated with specialty. AR 670–1 contains a listing of all PMOS and corresponding branches for each. Army recruiters who have been assigned the SQI“4” will affiliate with a regiment associated with their PMOS. Recruiters or retention noncommissioned officers will be affiliated with The Adjutant General Corps. Regimental affiliation may be changed at any time. All combat arms officers and soldiers will affiliate with a regiment upon arrival at their first unit of assignment; these Soldiers will be affiliated with their regiment of assignment unless they voluntarily select another. Combat arms officers and soldiers whose initial Army assignment is not to a regimental unit may defer selection until they are so assigned. Enlisted soldiers may elect the Regiment of Choice Reenlistment Option under AR 601–280. Soldiers who deliberately terminate airborne status after affiliating with an airborne regiment will change their affiliation to a non-airborne regiment at the time of their termination.
Those who are terminated for medical reasons may retain their regimental affiliation with an airborne regiment if they desire. Regimental affiliation will be a primary assignment consideration for officers and enlisted soldiers. To the maximum extent possible, soldiers who are regimentally affiliated will be assigned to their regimental units. No assignment guarantees will be made, as Army requirements and soldier professional development needs must be met.
Virtual reality is an interactive computer-generated experience taking place within a simulated environment. It incorporates auditory and visual feedback, but may allow other types of sensory feedback; this immersive environment can be similar to the real world or it can be fantastical. Current VR technology most uses virtual reality headsets or multi-projected environments, sometimes in combination with physical environments or props, to generate realistic images and other sensations that simulate a user's physical presence in a virtual or imaginary environment. A person using virtual reality equipment is able to "look around" the artificial world, move around in it, interact with virtual features or items; the effect is created by VR headsets consisting of a head-mounted display with a small screen in front of the eyes, but can be created through specially designed rooms with multiple large screens. Other forms of VR include augmented reality and mixed reality systems. VR systems that include transmission of vibrations and other sensations to the user through a controller or other devices are known as haptic systems.
This tactile information is known as force feedback in medical, video gaming, military training applications. "Virtual" has had the meaning of "being something in essence or effect, though not or in fact" since the mid-1400s. The term "virtual" has been used in the computer sense of "not physically existing but made to appear by software" since 1959. In 1938, French avant-garde playwright Antonin Artaud described the illusory nature of characters and objects in the theatre as "la réalité virtuelle" in a collection of essays, Le Théâtre et son double; the English translation of this book, published in 1958 as The Theater and its Double, is the earliest published use of the term "virtual reality". The term "artificial reality", coined by Myron Krueger, has been in use since the 1970s; the term "virtual reality" was first used in a science fiction context in The Judas Mandala, a 1982 novel by Damien Broderick. One method by which virtual reality can be realized is simulation-based virtual reality.
Driving simulators, for example, give the driver on board the impression of driving an actual vehicle by predicting vehicular motion caused by driver input and feeding back corresponding visual and audio cues to the driver. With avatar image-based virtual reality, people can join the virtual environment in the form of real video as well as an avatar. One can participate in the 3D distributed virtual environment as form of either a conventional avatar or a real video. A user can select own type of participation based on the system capability. In projector-based virtual reality, modeling of the real environment plays a vital role in various virtual reality applications, such as robot navigation, construction modeling, airplane simulation. Image-based virtual reality system has been gaining popularity in computer graphics and computer vision communities. In generating realistic models, it is essential to register acquired 3D data. Desktop-based virtual reality involves displaying a 3D virtual world on a regular desktop display without use of any specialized positional tracking equipment.
Many modern first-person video games can be used as an example, using various triggers, responsive characters, other such interactive devices to make the user feel as though they are in a virtual world. A common criticism of this form of immersion is that there is no sense of peripheral vision, limiting the user's ability to know what is happening around them. A head-mounted display more immerses the user in a virtual world. A virtual reality headset includes two small high resolution OLED or LCD monitors which provide separate images for each eye for stereoscopic graphics rendering a 3D virtual world, a binaural audio system and rotational real-time head tracking for six degrees of movement, optionally motion controls with haptic feedback for physically interacting within the virtual world in a intuitive way with little to no abstraction. Augmented reality is a type of virtual reality technology that blends what the user sees in their real surroundings with digital content generated by computer software.
The additional software-generated images with the virtual scene enhance how the real surroundings look in some way. AR systems layer virtual information over a camera live feed into a headset or smartglasses or through a mobile device giving the user the ability to view three-dimensional images. Mixed reality is the merging of the real world and virtual worlds to produce new environments and visualizations where physical and digital objects co-exist and interact in real time. A cyberspace is a networked virtual reality. Simulated reality is a hypothetical virtual reality as immersive as the actual reality, it is most to be produced using a brain–computer interface and quantum computing. The exact origins of virtual reality are disputed because of how difficult it has been to formulate a definition for the concept of an alternative existence; the development of perspective in Renaissance Europe created convincing depictions of spaces that did not exist, in what has been referred to as the "multiplying of artificial worlds".
Other elements of virtual reality appeared as early as the 1860s. Antonin Artaud took the view that illusion was not distinct from reality, advocating that spectators at a play should suspend disbelief and regard the drama on stage as reality; the first references to the more modern concept of virtual reality came from science fiction. Morton Heilig wrote in the 1950s of an "Experience Theatre" that could encompass all the sen
Defense Acquisition University
The Defense Acquisition University is a corporate university of the United States Department of Defense offering "acquisition and logistics" training to military and Federal civilian staff and Federal contractors. DAU is headquartered in Fort Belvoir, is accredited by the American Council on Education, International Association for Continuing Education and Training and the Council on Occupational Education; the University Charter was created in October 1991 by Department of Defense Directive 5000.57. A loose consortium of existing training commands, DAU worked to standardize the training courses and establish mechanisms that allowed for centralized management of training funds for the DoD workforce. In the late 1990s, the consortium arrangement was replaced by a centralized structure, more like that of a corporate university. By 2014, DAU had grown to the point of graduating 181,970 students. DAU was headed by a Commandant until the year 2000 when it became a civilian institution, since the chief executive position has the title "President."
DAU's Commandants and Presidents have included William L. Vincent, Claude M. Bolton, Richard A. Black, Leonard Vincent, Frank J. Anderson, Katrina McFarland, James P. Woolsey. DAU is headquartered at Fort Belvoir and serves 150,000 members of the defense acquisition workforce in all. DAU has several other locations across the United States as well an online presence; the Capital and Northeast Region campus is located at Fort Belvoir and provides access and services to The Pentagon and Washington Department of Defense agencies. It is the biggest facility. Other facilities include DAU Mid-Atlantic, located in California, Maryland, DAU South, in Huntsville, Alabama, DAU Midwest, located in Kettering, DAU West in San Diego. Various satellite locations are located to provide classes for major military commands. Applicants must have a current affiliation with the United States government in order to attend training courses offered by DAU; the United States Military Services and the DoD have internal registration and quotas for DAU class, while the Federal Acquisition Institute accepts applications and registers most non-DoD students.
U. S. Federal employees and defense contractors may attend DAU courses at no cost when space is available. DAU charges tuition only to certain foreign students; the Defense Acquisition Workforce Improvement Act requires Defense Acquisition Workforce members to be certified for the positions they hold. DAU offers training courses for all Defense Acquisition Workforce members in 14 career fields and at three certification levels. Certifications available: The American Council on Education assigns ACE credits to various DAU courses. DAU coursework can apply toward college and university degrees and certificates at some partner institutions. DAU instructors are available to consult and assist acquisition organizations in the design and review of processes and internal training when they are not teaching. On July 2011 a hacking incident occurred affecting DAU’s Web-based training site; this incident occurred on a vendor’s network that provided the learning management system's underlying source code and inhibited access to online courses for two months.
While DAU was not hacked, U. S. Cyber Command evaluated the risk level to DAU’s system based on the incident that occurred on the vendor’s network, temporarily suspended online training courses to secure the system and protect students' personal information. Military acquisition Joint Capabilities Integration Development System
United States Army Futures Command
United States Army Futures Command is a United States Army command aimed at modernizing the Army. It focuses on six priorities: long-range precision fires, next-generation combat vehicle, future vertical lift platforms, a mobile & expeditionary Army network, air & missile defense capabilities, soldier lethality. AFC's cross-functional teams are Futures Command's vehicle for sustainable reform of the acquisition process for the future. Futures Command was established in 2018 as a peer of FORSCOM, TRADOC, Army Materiel Command, the other Army commands; the other Army commands focus on their readiness to "Fight tonight". In contrast, AFC is focused on future readiness for future combat with near-peer competitors who have updated their capabilities, while the United States military has been fighting insurgents since 2001. Full operational capability for AFC is projected to be a one-year period; the FY2020 budget allocated $30 billion for the top six modernization priorities over the next five years.
The $30 billion came from $22 billion in terminations. We're moving out and there's no turning back. We've shown the will to act over the last year, now we have to show the will to follow through. In the view of Under Secretary McCarthy, there will be three elements in Futures Command: Futures and Concepts: assess needs and opportunities, given a threat. Concepts for realizable future systems will flow into TRADOC doctrine and training programs. Combat Development: stabilized concepts. Balance the current state of technology and the cash-flow requirements of the defense contractors providing the technology, that they become deliverable experiments and prototypes, in an iterative process of acquisition. Combat Systems: experiments and prototypes. Transition to the acquisition and sustainment programs of AMC. Secretary Esper emphasized that the 2018 administrative infrastructure for the Futures and Concepts Center and CCDC remains in place at their existing locations. What has changed or will change is the layers of command needed to make a decision.
You've got to remain open to change, you've got to remain flexible. That is the purpose of this command. Under Secretary McCarthy characterized a Cross-functional team as a team of teams, led by a requirements leader, program manager, tester; each CFT must strike a balance for itself amid constraints: the realms of requirements, acquisition and technology, resourcing and sustainment. A balance is needed in order for a CFT in order to produce a realizable concept before a competitor achieves it. Modernization reform is the priority for AFC. For example, the Aviation CoE at Fort Rucker, in coordination with the Aviation program executive office contains the Vertical Lift CFT and the Aviation capability development integration directorate; the CFTs will be involved in all three of AFC's elements: Futures and concepts, Combat development, Combat systems. "We were never above a total of eight people" — BG Wally Rugen, Aviation CFT. Four of the eight CFT leads have now shifted from dual-hat jobs to full-time status.
Each CFT lead is mentored by a 4-star general. Although AFC and the CFTs are a top priority of the Department of the Army, as AFC and the CFTs are expected to unify control of the $30 billion-dollar modernization budget, "The new command will not tolerate a zero-defects mentality.'But if you fail, we'd like you to fail early and fail cheap,' because progress and success builds on failure." —Ryan McCarthy: Holland notes that prototyping applies to the conceptual realm as much as prototyping applies to the hardware realm. A 2019 GAO report cautions; the Secretaries of the Army, Air Force, Navy meet to take advantage of overlap in their programs: Hypersonics — The US Army has no tested countermeasure for intercepting maneuverable hypersonic weapons platforms, in this case the problem is being addressed in a joint program of the entire Department of Defense. The Army is participating in a joint program with the Navy and Air Force, to develop a hypersonic glide body; the Long range precision fires CFT is supporting Space and Missile Defense Command's pursuit of hypersonics.
Joint programs in hypersonics are informed by Army work, however at the strategic level, the bulk of the hypersonics work remains at the Joint level. Long range precision fires is an Army priority, a DoD joint effort. By adding rocket propulsion to a shell or glide body, the joint effort shaved five years off the fielding time for hypersonic weapon systems. Multi-Domain Operations — Joint planning and operations are part of the impending DoD emphasis on multi-domain operations. Multi-domain battalions, first stood up in 2019, comprise a single unit for air, land and cyber domain