The Watervliet Arsenal is an arsenal of the United States Army located in Watervliet, New York, on the west bank of the Hudson River. It is the oldest continuously active arsenal in the United States, today produces much of the artillery for the army, as well as gun tubes for cannons and tanks, it has been a National Historic Landmark since 1966. The arsenal was founded in 1813 to support the War of 1812, was designated as the Watervliet Arsenal in 1817, it occupies 142 acres of land 8 miles north of Albany, New York. The location is adjacent to the Hudson River; the site contains administrative offices and storage areas. It houses the Army's Benét Laboratories, which does product development, improvement and testing; the Arsenal has the historic Iron Building, which served as the home of the Watervliet Arsenal Museum. However, the museum was closed on October 2013 for security reasons. Recruiting Station Albany, the headquarters of a United States Marine Corps recruiting station, is located on the Arsenal.
On 17 February 2009, the headquarters of the United States Army Recruiting Battalion Albany relocated to Watervliet Arsenal from its old location on Wolf Road. The arsenal was chosen to be built at the edge of the village of Gibbonsville, directly opposite Troy, New York, it was chosen to be built there due to its key location on the Hudson River, only 60 miles from Lake Champlain, 140 miles from New York City, a short distance via the Mohawk River to Lake Ontario. During the early stages of the War of 1812, attacks could be expected from many key ports and other locations. At the time, the Colonel of Ordnance was Decius Wadsworth; the original plot of land acquired by the Department of Ordnance was 12 acres. Construction began in the summer of 1813 on fourteen buildings: south and north gun houses, a brick arsenal, two stables, a guard house, commanding officer's quarters, a woodshed, two enlisted men's quarters, a hospital and one office; the cost for the land was US$2,585. Nearly 70 years after the arsenal produced its first products it was thrust into national prominence when in the late 1880s the arsenal became the Army's first large caliber cannon manufacturer.
During this period, production moved from the manufacturing of saddles and gun carriages to cannons. Remnants of this period are still in operation today as evidenced by the continued use of historic Building 110, "The Big Gun Shop," for manufacturing missions; this gun shop once produced 16-inch guns and many other weapons for the United States Army Coast Artillery Corps. List of National Historic Landmarks in New York National Register of Historic Places listings in Albany County, New York Official website
Major general (United States)
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, United States Air Force, major general is a two-star general-officer rank, with the pay grade of O-8. Major general ranks below lieutenant general. A major general commands division-sized units of 10,000 to 15,000 soldiers. Major general is equivalent to the two-star rank of rear admiral in the United States Navy and United States Coast Guard, is the highest-permanent rank during peacetime in the uniformed-services. Higher ranks are technically-temporary ranks linked to specific positions, although all officers promoted to those ranks are approved to retire at their highest earned rank; the United States Code explicitly limits the total number of general officers that may be on active duty at any given time. The total number of active duty general officers is capped at 231 for the Army, 62 for the Marine Corps, 198 for the Air Force; some of these slots are finitely set by statute. For example, the Deputy Judge Advocate General of the Army is a major general in the Army.
The United States Code limits the total number of general officers that may be on the Reserve Active Status List in the Reserve Component, defined in the case of general officers as the Army National Guard, Army Reserve, Marine Corps Reserve, Air National Guard, Air Force Reserve. To be promoted to the permanent grade of major general, officers who are eligible for promotion to this rank are screened by an in-service promotion board comprising other general officers from their branch of service; this promotion board generates a list of officers it recommends for promotion to general rank. This list is sent to the service secretary and the Joint Chiefs of Staff for review before it can be sent to the President, through the Secretary of Defense for consideration; the President nominates officers to be promoted from this list with the advice of the Secretary of Defense, the service secretary, if applicable, the service's chief of staff or commandant. The President may nominate any eligible officer, not on the recommended list if it serves in the interest of the nation, but this is uncommon.
The Senate must confirm the nominee by a majority vote before the officer can be promoted. Once confirmed, the nominee is promoted to that rank on assuming a position of office that requires an officer to hold the rank. For positions of office that are reserved by statute, the President nominates an officer for appointment to fill that position. For all three of the applicable uniformed services, because the grade of major general is a permanent rank, the nominee may still be screened by an in-service promotion board to add their input on the nominee before the nomination can be sent to the Senate for approval. Since the grade of major general is permanent, the rank does not expire when the officer vacates a two-star position. Tour length varies depending on the position, by statute, and/or when the officer receives a new assignment or a promotion, but the average tour length per two-star billet is two to four years. In the Army, Major Generals serve as division commanders, training center commanders, joint task force commanders, deputy commanding generals to 3-star generals, chief of staff in 4-star commands, senior directors on Army and joint staffs, and, in the case of the Army National Guard, as The Adjutant General for their state, commonwealth or territory.
In the Marine Corps, Major Generals serve as commanding generals or deputy commanding generals of Marine Expeditionary Forces, Marine Divisions, Marine Aircraft Wings, Joint Task Force Commanders, or senior directors on Marine Corps and joint staffs. In the Air Force, Major Generals serve as Numbered Air Force commanders, vice commanders of 3-star commands, joint task force commanders, warfare center, training center, weapons center, or logistics center commanders, or senior directors on Air Force and joint staffs. In the case of the Air National Guard, they may serve as The Adjutant General for their state, commonwealth or territory. Other than voluntary retirement, statute sets a number of mandates for retirement of general officers. All major generals must retire after five years in grade or 35 years of service, whichever is unless appointed for promotion or reappointed to grade to serve longer. Otherwise, all general officers must retire the month after their 64th birthday; the Continental Army was established on June 15, 1775 when the Continental Congress commissioned George Washington as a general and placed him in command of the Army of Observation besieging Boston.
The rank of major general was first established two days on June 17, 1775 when two major generals were commissioned by Congress soon followed by two more major generals being appointed on June 19. Following the disbanding of the Continental Army at the end of 1783 only one major general, Henry Knox, remained in service until his resignation in June 1784; the rank was revived on March 4, 1791 when Arthur St. Clair was appointed as major general in command of the U. S. Army. St. Clair was succeeded by Major General Anthony Wayne who commanded the Army until his death on December 15, 1796; the rank was revived on July 19, 1798 when Alexander Hamilton and Charles C. Pinckney were commissioned as major generals during the Quasi War with France; the expanded Army was demobilized on June 15, 1800 when it was reduced to
Anniston Army Depot
Anniston Army Depot is a major United States Army facility for the production and repair of ground combat vehicles, overhaul of Small Arms Weapon Systems and the storage of chemical weapons, a.k.a. the Anniston Chemical Activity. The depot is located in Alabama; the Department of the Army established the site in 1940, buying 10,640 acres in Calhoun County, where Anniston is the county seat. The site was a munitions storage facility, a disposal facility. ANAD was placed on the Superfund National Priorities List in 1990 because of soil and groundwater contamination with antimony, lead and trichloroethylene; the depot is located in Alabama, 10 miles west of Anniston. It covers 25 square miles of land, or 15,200-acres, its northern side is the Pelham Range portion of Fort McClellan. The central and northern portions of the Depot span over 13,000-acres and serve as an ammunition storage area; the southern side of the Depot is the Southeastern Industrial Area, a 600-acre industrial operations area with more than 50 buildings and a vehicle test track.
As of 2014, the Depot employs 3,400 civilian workers. Tanks and other equipment are repaired and tested, but Anniston's main role since World War II has been as a major munitions storage site. Anniston is one of seven depots in the United States; the stockpile has included rockets, bombs and land mines armed with Sarin, VX nerve agent, or mustard gas. The last chemical munitions were destroyed in September 2011. ANAD is the only depot capable of performing maintenance on heavy-tracked combat vehicles and their components and houses a state of the art 250,000 sq.ft. Small Arms Overhaul facility; the depot is designated as the Center of Technical Excellence for the M1 Abrams Tank and is the designated candidate depot for the repair of the M60 Patton tank, AVLB, M728, M88 Recovery Vehicle and M551 combat vehicles. During the Iraq War, over 1,000 M1 tanks and other armored vehicles were stored awaiting re-engineering. ANAD is the Army's primary site for final assembly and overhaul for the Stryker family of wheeled fighting vehicles.
All ten of the Stryker vehicle variants are assembled in the Nichols Industrial Park area by contractor General Dynamics − Land Systems. Stryker battle damage repair and reset is accomplished through a work sharing arrangement between the Depot and contractor, including a Stryker Exchange Program that converts the original flat bottomed Stryker vehicle to the IED-resistant Double V Hull configuration developed for combat operations in Afghanistan; the Depot houses and operates a facility for the repair, and/or upgrade of infantry weapons such as the Beretta M9 pistol, M16 rifle, M2 machine gun. Any firearm deemed unusable or obsolete is destroyed on the premises, the materials are reduced to unusable pieces and sold for scrap to be melted down. ANAD is under command of the US Army TACOM Life Cycle Management Command, although other operators on the facility include the Defense Logistics Agency, Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office, United States Army Center of Military History, Health Services Command and Biological Chemical Command, the Civilian Marksmanship Program.
In 1989, the EPA placed part of the Depot on the National Priorities List, one year the EPA and the Army agreed to address the entire Depot under the Superfund for antimony, lead and trichloroethylene in ground water and soils. Since contaminated ground water has been pumped and treated, contaminated soil has either been dug up or capped, land use controls have been put in place. Contaminated fractured bedrock needs to be addressed; the Depot has a Restoration Advisory Board composed of community members and representatives from the Depot and other agencies. Official US Army's Anniston Army Depot Website Brief at Global Security
Warren is a city in Macomb County in the U. S. state of Michigan. The 2010 census places the city's population at 134,056, making Warren the largest city in Macomb County, the third largest city in Michigan, Metro Detroit's largest suburb; the city is home to a wide variety of businesses, including General Motors Technical Center, the United States Army Detroit Arsenal, home of the United States Army TACOM Life Cycle Management Command and the Tank Automotive Research and Engineering Center, the headquarters of Big Boy Restaurants International, Asset Acceptance. The current mayor is James R. Fouts, elected to his first mayoral term in November 2007. Beebe's Corners, the original settlement in what would become the city of Warren, was founded in 1830 at the corner of Mound Road and Chicago Road. Beebe's Corners was a carriage stop between Detroit and Utica, included a distillery, mill and trading post, it was not until 1837 that the now-defunct Warren Township was organized around the settlement, first under the name Hickory renamed Aba in April 1838, renamed Warren shortly thereafter.
It was named for War of 1812 veteran, frontier cleric, Rev. Abel Warren. However, when it was organized the township was named for Rev. Warren, a Methodist Episcopal preacher who left his native New York in 1824 for Shelby Township, he went throughout the present-day Macomb, Oakland, St. Clair Counties, baptizing and burying pioneers of the area, as well as establishing congregations and preaching extensively, he was the first licensed preacher in the State of Michigan. Another version of the source of the city's name claims it was "named for General Joseph Warren, who fell at the Battle of Bunker Hill; the settlement was formally incorporated as the Village of Warren from Warren Township on April 28, 1893 out of one square mile bound by 14 Mile Road and 13 Mile Road to the north and south, in half-a-mile east and west of Mound Road. The small village grew and had a population of 582 in 1940 and 727 in 1950, while the larger surrounding township grew at a much quicker pace; the Red Run and Bear Creek, just small creeks back in the 1800s, has blossomed into an open major inter-county stormdrain flowing through Warren, into the Clinton River, onwards to Lake St. Clair.
The Village of Warren and most of the surrounding Township of Warren, together with Van Dyke, incorporated as a city in 1957, less the city of Center Line, which had incorporated as a village from Warren Township in 1925 and as a city in 1936. Between 1950 and 1960, Warren's population soared from 42,653 to 89,426; this population explosion was fueled by the post-WWII Baby Boom and by white flight from its southern neighbor of Detroit in that decade. This change in population continued into the next decade when the city's population doubled again reaching a high of 179,000 in 1970; the subsequent decades have seen Warren's population decline. Combined with collapsing housing prices, down -53% between 2011 and 2016, this has led Warren to a number 7 ranking in Forbes' Most Miserable Cities to Live in the US; the following is a list of the previous mayors of the city. The current mayor is James Fouts. Mayoral elections are non-partisan. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 34.46 square miles, of which 34.38 square miles is land and 0.08 square miles is water.
The city covers a six-mile-by-six mile square in the southwest corner of Macomb County in suburban Detroit. Other cities bordering on Warren are Detroit, Hazel Park, Madison Heights, Sterling Heights, Fraser and Eastpointe. I‑696 cuts west through the middle of Warren. M-53, Van Dyke Avenue, leads into Van Dyke Freeway runs north and south and bisects the city. M-97 known as Groesbeck Highway named for former Governor Alex Groesbeck is near the eastern edge of Warren, it comes north from Detroit, is a fast and wide diagonal connector to northern Macomb County. M-102 more known as 8 Mile Road or more esoterically as Base Line Road is the city's south border. Mound Road is an important north-south artery in the city. East-west travel is on the mile roads. Most notable are 8 Mile Road, on the southern border of Warren with Detroit; the remaining figures are from the 2000 census except. The top six reported ancestries in Warren in 2000 were Polish, Irish, Italian and French. There were 55,551 households out of which 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.7% were married couples living together, 11.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.9% were non-families.
28.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.05. The city's age distribution was 22.9% under 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 30.8% from 25 to 44, 21.4% from 45 to 64, 17.3% who were 65 or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.1 males. The median i
Detroit Arsenal (Warren, Michigan)
Detroit Arsenal Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant was the first manufacturing plant built for the mass production of tanks in the United States. Established in 1940 under Chrysler, this plant was owned and managed by the U. S. government until 1952 when management of the facility was turned over to the Chrysler Corporation. This plant was owned by the U. S. government until 1996. It was designed by architect Albert Kahn; the building was designed as a "dual production facility, so that it could make armaments and be turned into peaceful production at war's end. Notwithstanding its name, the 113-acre site was located in Warren, Detroit's largest suburb. Chrysler's construction effort at the plant in 1941 was one of the fastest on record; the first tanks rumbled out of the plant before its complete construction. During World War II, the Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant built a quarter of the 89,568 tanks produced in the U. S. overall. The Korean War boosted production for the first time. In May 1952, Chrysler resumed control from the army, unable to ramp up production.
As a Government-Owned, Contractor Operated facility, Chrysler retained operational control of the production facility until March 1982, when Chrysler sold its Chrysler Defense division to General Dynamics Land Systems. General Dynamics produced the M1 Abrams tank at the facility until 1996, when the plant was closed and tank assembly and maintenance operations were consolidated at the Lima plant; the plant and some of the adjoining property were transferred to the City of Warren in 2001. The site of the original tank plant is now dedicated to civilian uses; this important production site of the Arsenal of Democracy is memorialized by a Michigan Historical Marker. The structure of the plant was designed to survive bombardment by the weapons of the day, it included 3-foot-thick concrete walls in some areas and a reinforced roof with slats to direct bombs away from vulnerable windows and exhaust fans. The portion of the property not sold to the city remains an active Army facility with many agencies present.
The installation is managed by Installation Management Command and hosts the headquarters of the United States Army Tank Automotive Research and Engineering Center and the United States Army TACOM Life Cycle Management Command. TACOM continues to function at the location, is in fact in a major building boom as of 2010. United States Army Tank Automotive Research and Engineering Center United States Army TACOM Life Cycle Management Command TACOM LCMC M3 Lee, 1941-1942 M4 Sherman, 1941-1945 M26 Pershing, 1945 M46 Patton, 1949 M47 Patton, 1951-1953 M67 "Zippo", 1955-1956 M60 Patton, 1960-1987 M1 Abrams, 1980-1996 Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant, Local Legacies. Library of Congress Bos, Ann M. and Talbot, Enough and On Time, The Story of the Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant, Michigan History Magazine. June, 2001. Meredith, Vast Plant for Tanks Has Closed. 21 December 1996. The New York Times. Detroit Arsenal of Democracy Museum, Veterans' Memorial Park, 27400 Campbell Road, Michigan 48093 "Tanks Are Mighty Fine Things," a booklet about the WW2 History of the Detroit Tank Arsenal.
Congressional Record, remarks on the dedication of the Michigan Historical Marker concerning the Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant by U. S. Senator Carl Levin. Description of Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant at Globalsecurity.org. Detroit Tank Arsenal in Warren Township, 1941. U. S. Army Tank Automotive Command history. Wikimapia, Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant. "Tanks are mighty fine things" at the Internet Archive A film clip "Assembly Lines of Defense" is available at the Internet Archive
United States Army Combat Capabilities Development Command
The Combat Capabilities Development Command, is a subordinate command of the Combat Development Command, U. S. Army Futures Command. RDECOM was tasked with "creating and delivering technology-enabled solutions" to the U. S. Army. Headquartered at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland, RDECOM employed more than 13,000 scientists, engineers and support personnel working at six major RDE centers and at the U. S. Army Research Laboratory, providing nearly all of the Army's basic and applied research and development services, including in collaboration with other branches of the armed forces and through a network of more than a thousand academic and international partners. Speed of delivery and integration with the weapon systems are now needed for CCDC operations. CCDC now includes the Data Analysis Center, must now align with the top six priorities of Futures Command: Long Range Precision Fires Next Generation Combat Vehicles Future Vertical Lift Army Network Air & Missile Defense Soldier Lethalityas well as Multi-Domain Operations.
CCDC described its role as "the Army's enabling command in the development and delivery of capabilities that empower and protect the Warfighter." It conducts and sponsors scientific research in areas important to the Army, develops scientific discoveries into new technologies, engineers technologies into new equipment and capabilities, works with the U. S. Army Training and Doctrine Command to help requirements writers define the future needs of the Army. CCDC is headquartered at Aberdeen Proving Ground; as of April 2019, Major-General Cedric T. Wins is the commanding general, assisted by Brigadier-General Vincent F. Malone as deputy commanding general and Command Sergeant-Major Jon R. Stanley as command sergeant major, they oversee one laboratory and six major centers: Army Research Laboratory Edgewood Chemical Biological Center Natick Soldier Research and Engineering Center Tank Automotive Research and Engineering Center Aviation & Missile Research and Engineering Center Armaments Research and Engineering Center Communications-Electronics Research and Engineering Center.
After assuming command of the Army Materiel Command in October 2001, General Paul J. Kern saw the need to streamline how the Army developed technology. At the time, the Army's laboratories and research centers reported through multiple channels, among other problems. Kern argued that the Army had to "figure out how to get technology in the hands of the Warfighters quicker" and that it was "the impression of everyone out there that the laboratories take too long, they do science for science's sake, engineering for engineering's sake". Kern proposed to unite the laboratories and research centers under a single command, the idea was initiated to senior commanders and civilians; the new command was approved, was provisionally stood up in October 2002, based at Aberdeen Proving Grounds where it replaced and integrated the headquarters element of the Soldier and Biological Chemical Command. In June 2003, RDECOM assumed operational control of the RDE centers. An organizational ceremony took place in October 2003 at Aberdeen Proving Ground, where SBCCOM stood down and the 389th Army Band and the Army Material Command's Acquisition Center were assigned to RDECOM.
RDECOM became a major subordinate command of the Army Material Command in March 2004, with over 17,000 military and contractor personnel at the time. In 2006, the 389th Army Band was moved to Redstone Arsenal, Alabama. In 2008, the AMC Acquisition Center became part of the new Army Contracting Command, itself a major subordinate of the AMC. From February 2012 to September 2014, RDECOM was led by a civilian commander, Dale Ormond, before returning to military command; as of 2018, CCDC reports to Army Futures Command, which will reach full operational capability by August 2019. The new command is focused on readiness for future combat with near-peer competitors, in a shift away from the unconventional, asymmetric warfare fought in various theaters since 2001. On June 4, 2018, the Headquarters, Department of the Army published General Order 2018-10, "Establishment of the United States Army Futures Command," formally transferring RDECOM from AMC to the new command effective July 1, 2018; the transition of authority from AMC to AFC took place at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD on 31 January 2019, with a reflagging of the Command and repatching of the commander and CSM.
United States Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory Naval Research Laboratory Air Force Research Laboratory DARPA This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Army
Rock Island Arsenal
The Rock Island Arsenal comprises 946 acres, located on Arsenal Island known as Rock Island, on the Mississippi River between the cities of Davenport and Rock Island, Illinois. It lies within the state of Illinois, it is home of First Army headquarters. The island was established as a government site in 1816, with the building of Fort Armstrong, it is now the largest government-owned weapons manufacturing arsenal in the United States. It has manufactured military ordnance since the 1880s. In 1919–1920 one hundred of the Anglo-American or Liberty Mark VIII tanks were manufactured, although too late for World War I, it is designated as a National Historic Landmark. Established as both an arsenal and a center for the manufacture of leather accoutrements and field gear, today it provides manufacturing and base support services for the Armed Forces; the Arsenal is the only active U. S. Army foundry, manufactures ordnance and equipment, including artillery, gun mounts, recoil mechanisms, small arms, aircraft weapons sub-systems, grenade launchers, weapons simulators, a host of associated components.
Some of the Arsenal's most successful products include the M198 and M119 towed howitzers, the M1A1 gun mount. About 250 military personnel and 6,000 civilians work there; the 2000 census population was 145. From the autobiography of Black Hawk: "When we arrived we found that the troops had come to build a fort on Rock Island... We did not object, however, to their building their fort on the island, but were sorry, as this was the best one on the Mississippi, had long been the resort of our young people during the summer, it was our garden, like the white people have near their big villages, which supplied us with strawberries, gooseberries, plums and nuts of different kinds." The island facilities were converted and built in 1863. The construction was makeshift; the first prisoners were 468 Confederates captured in battles at Tennessee. That month more than 5,000 Confederates would swell the population of Rock Island military prison, they were kept in each holding around 100 prisoners. A total of 41 Confederate prisoners escaped during the prison's operation, many more would try but fail.
A total of 1,964 Confederate prisoners and 125 Union guards are buried in the adjacent military cemetery, including 49 members of the 108th Regiment of United States Colored Troops, who served as guards. Most died from disease, since sanitation was primitive as in all army encampments, exposure to heat and humidity during the summers and freezing temperatures during winters. In 1864, deadly smallpox epidemics raged through the prison; the prison camp operated from December 1863 until July 1865. After the war, the prison facility was destroyed. During its two years in operation, the prison camp housed a total of more than 12,400 Confederates. Other historical sites in the area include the Confederate Cemetery, the Rock Island National Cemetery, 19th-century stone workshops, officers' quarters along the river, Col. Davenport's House, the site of the first bridge built across the Mississippi. Following the war, the federal government retained ownership of Arsenal Island and developed it for use as an arsenal and ordnance manufacturing center, which led to its being renamed.
The Rock Island Arsenal Museum was established on July 4, 1905. It is the second-oldest US Army Museum in the US after the West Point Museum; the museum has been closed twice, during World War I and World War II, to provide more space for manufacturing facilities. Exhibits interpret the history of Rock Island Arsenal and the Union prison camp during the American Civil War, the site's role as a military industrial facility; the museum contains the second-largest collection of small arms weapons in the U. S. Army, an outdoor vehicle display. Indoor exhibits include: Outdoor exhibits include: American Civil War List of Civil War POW Prisons and Camps Prisoner-of-war camp List of National Historic Landmarks in Illinois Historic American Engineering Record No. IL-20, "Rock Island Arsenal" Official website The Rock Island Arsenal Joint Manufacturing & Arsenal at GlobalSecurity.org Technology Center The Rock Island Arsenal profile at globalsecurity.org Rock Island Arsenal Museum Rock Island Civil War prison Rock Island National Cemetery and Confederate POW Camp Rock Island Memorial POW Camp #2229 Rock Island Arsenal Wikimapia