Fort Lesley J. McNair
Fort Lesley J. McNair is a United States Army post located on the tip of Greenleaf Point, the peninsula that lies at the confluence of the Potomac River and the Anacostia River in Washington, D. C. To the peninsula's west is the Washington Channel, while the Anacostia River is on its south side. Named Washington Arsenal, the fort has been an army post for more than 200 years, third in length of service, after the United States Military Academy at West Point and the Carlisle Barracks; the fort is named for Lesley J. McNair, a U. S. Army General, killed in action in World War II; the military reservation was established in 1791 on about 28 acres at the tip of Greenleaf Point. Major Pierre Charles L'Enfant included it in his plans for Washington, the Federal City, as a major site for the defense of the capital. An arsenal first occupied the site and defenses were built in 1794. However, the fortifications did not halt the invasion of British forces in 1814, who burned down many public government buildings in Washington, D.
C. during the War of 1812. Soldiers at the arsenal evacuated north with as much gunpowder as they could carry, hiding the rest in a well as the British soldiers came up the Potomac River after burning the Capitol. About 47 British soldiers found the powder magazines. Someone threw a match into the well and "a tremendous explosion ensued," a doctor at the scene reported, "whereby the officers and about 30 of the men were killed and the rest most shockingly mangled." The remaining soldiers destroyed the arsenal buildings, but the facilities were rebuilt after the war. Land was purchased north of the arsenal in 1826 for the first federal penitentiary; the conspirators accused of assassinating president Abraham Lincoln were imprisoned there, tried by military commission and, after being found guilty, four were hanged and the rest received prison sentences. Among those hanged was Mary Surratt, the first woman executed under federal orders. One of the buildings on the complex, Ulysses S. Grant Hall, is the location of the 1865 military tribunal of the conspirators of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln.
The Hall periodically holds public open houses, where each quarter of the Hall is open to the public and people can visit the courtroom and learn more about the trials. A hospital was built next to the penitentiary in 1857, wounded Civil War soldiers were treated at what was called the Washington Arsenal; the arsenal was closed in 1881, the post was transferred to the Quartermaster Corps. A general hospital, the predecessor to the Walter Reed Army Medical Center, was located at the post from 1898 until 1909. Major Walter Reed found the area's marshlands an excellent site for his research on malaria. Reed's work contributed to the discovery of the cause of yellow fever. Reed died of peritonitis after an appendectomy at the post in 1902; the post dispensary and the visiting officers' quarters now occupy the buildings where Reed worked and died. About 90 percent of the present buildings on the post's 100 acres were built, reconstructed or remodeled by 1908. In 1901, with the birth of the Army War College, the post, now called Washington Barracks, became the army's center for the education and training of senior officers to lead and direct large numbers of troops.
Its first classes were conducted in 1904 in Roosevelt Hall, the iconic building designed by the architectural firm of McKim and White. The Army Industrial College was founded at McNair in 1924 to prepare officers for high level posts in Army supply organizations, to study industrial mobilization, it evolved into the Industrial College of the Armed Forces. The post was renamed as Fort Humphreys in 1935; the Army War College was reorganized as the Army-Navy Staff College in 1943, became the National War College in 1946. The two colleges became the National Defense University in 1976; the post was renamed in 1948 to honor Lieutenant General Lesley J. McNair, commander of army ground forces during World War II, headquartered at the post and was killed during Operation Cobra near Saint-Lô, France, on July 25, 1944, he was killed in an infamous friendly fire incident when errant bombs of the U. S. Eighth Air Force fell on the positions of 2nd Battalion, 120th Infantry, where McNair was observing the fighting.
Fort McNair has been the headquarters of the U. S. Army Military District of Washington since 1966. Fort McNair, a part of the Joint Base Myer–Henderson Hall, is the headquarters of the Army's Military District of Washington and home of the National Defense University, as well as the official residence of the U. S. Army's Vice Chief of Staff; the National Defense University represents a significant concentration of the defense community's intellectual resources. Established in 1976, the university includes the National War College and the Industrial College of the Armed Forces at Fort McNair, the Joint Forces Staff College in Norfolk, Virginia; these and other schools are separate entities, but their close affiliation enhances the exchange of faculty expertise and educational resources, promotes interaction among students and faculty, reduces administrative costs. The National War College and the Industrial College of the Armed Forces concentrate on preparing civilian and military professionals in areas of national security strategy, decision-making and combined warfare and the resource component of national strategy.
The Joint Forces Staff College, established under the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 1946, prepares selected officers for joint and combined duty. In 1990, the iCollege was formed as the capstone institution for Defense Information Resource Management education; as such, it provides graduate-level courses in informati
The Spanish–American War was an armed conflict between Spain and the United States in 1898. Hostilities began in the aftermath of the internal explosion of USS Maine in Havana harbor in Cuba, leading to U. S. intervention in the Cuban War of Independence. The war led to emergence of U. S. predominance in the Caribbean region, resulted in U. S. acquisition of Spain's Pacific possessions. That led to U. S. involvement in the Philippine Revolution and in the Philippine–American War. The main issue was Cuban independence. Revolts had been occurring for some years in Cuba against Spanish rule; the U. S. backed these revolts upon entering the Spanish–American War. There had been war scares before, as in the Virginius Affair in 1873, but in the late 1890s, American public opinion was agitated by reports of gruesome Spanish atrocities; the business community had just recovered from a deep depression and feared that a war would reverse the gains. It lobbied vigorously against going to war. President William McKinley sought a peaceful settlement.
The United States Navy armored cruiser USS Maine mysteriously sank in Havana Harbor. McKinley signed a joint Congressional resolution demanding Spanish withdrawal and authorizing the President to use military force to help Cuba gain independence on April 20, 1898. In response, Spain severed diplomatic relations with the United States on April 21. On the same day, the U. S. Navy began a blockade of Cuba. Both sides declared war; the ten-week war was fought in both the Pacific. As U. S. agitators for war well knew, U. S. naval power would prove decisive, allowing expeditionary forces to disembark in Cuba against a Spanish garrison facing nationwide Cuban insurgent attacks and further wasted by yellow fever. The invaders obtained the surrender of Santiago de Cuba and Manila despite the good performance of some Spanish infantry units and fierce fighting for positions such as San Juan Hill. Madrid sued for peace after two Spanish squadrons were sunk in Santiago de Cuba and Manila Bay and a third, more modern, fleet was recalled home to protect the Spanish coasts.
The result was the 1898 Treaty of Paris, negotiated on terms favorable to the U. S. which allowed it temporary control of Cuba and ceded ownership of Puerto Rico and the Philippine islands. The cession of the Philippines involved payment of $20 million to Spain by the U. S. to cover infrastructure owned by Spain. The defeat and loss of the last remnants of the Spanish Empire was a profound shock to Spain's national psyche and provoked a thorough philosophical and artistic reevaluation of Spanish society known as the Generation of'98; the United States gained several island possessions spanning the globe and a rancorous new debate over the wisdom of expansionism. The combined problems arising from the Peninsular War, the loss of most of its colonies in the Americas in the early 19th-century Spanish American wars of independence, three Carlist Wars marked the low point of Spanish colonialism. Liberal Spanish elites like Antonio Cánovas del Castillo and Emilio Castelar offered new interpretations of the concept of "empire" to dovetail with Spain's emerging nationalism.
Cánovas made clear in an address to the University of Madrid in 1882 his view of the Spanish nation as based on shared cultural and linguistic elements – on both sides of the Atlantic – that tied Spain's territories together. Cánovas saw Spanish imperialism as markedly different in its methods and purposes of colonization from those of rival empires like the British or French. Spaniards regarded the spreading of civilization and Christianity as Spain's major objective and contribution to the New World; the concept of cultural unity bestowed special significance on Cuba, Spanish for four hundred years, was viewed as an integral part of the Spanish nation. The focus on preserving the empire would have negative consequences for Spain's national pride in the aftermath of the Spanish–American War. In 1823, the fifth American President James Monroe enunciated the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that the United States would not tolerate further efforts by European governments to retake or expand their colonial holdings in the Americas or to interfere with the newly independent states in the hemisphere.
S. would respect the status of the existing European colonies. Before the American Civil War, Southern interests attempted to have the United States purchase Cuba and convert it into a new slave territory; the pro-slavery element proposed the Ostend Manifesto proposal of 1854. It was rejected by anti-slavery forces. After the American Civil War and Cuba's Ten Years' War, U. S. businessmen began monopolizing the devalued sugar markets in Cuba. In 1894, 90% of Cuba's total exports went to the United States, which provided 40% of Cuba's imports. Cuba's total exports to the U. S. were twelve times larger than the export to her mother country, Spain. U. S. business interests indicated that while Spain still held political authority over Cuba, economic authority in Cuba, acting-authority, was shifting to the US. The U. S. became interested in a trans-isthmus canal either in Nicaragua, or in Panama, where the Panama Canal would be built, realized the need for naval protection. Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan was an influential theorist.
S. built a p
U.S. Army Heritage and Education Center
The United States Army Heritage and Education Center, at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, is the U. S. Army's primary historical research facility. Formed in 1999 and reorganized in 2013, the center consists of the Military History Institute, the Army Heritage Museum, the Historical Services Division and Education Services, the U. S. Army War College Library, Collections Management; the U. S. Army Heritage and Education Center is part of the United States Army War College, but has its own 56-acre campus; the Heritage and Education Center makes available contemporary and historical materials related to strategic leadership, the global application of Landpower, U. S. Army Heritage to inform research, educate an international audience, honor Soldiers and present; the USAHEC team strives to: Use: The premier choice for researching strategic leadership, employment of Landpower, U. S. Army Heritage Support: Actively support the USAWC mission and JIIM team with value-added products and analysis Acquire: Purchase or accept donations of relevant contemporary and historical materials Hold: Account for, process and secure all contemporary and historical materials, digitize where appropriate Educate: Communicate and make available our holdings in a variety of formats and programs Conserve: Provide long-term care and preservation for contemporary and historical materials using state-of-the-art techniques The current research collection contains military history books, military newspapers and field manuals, veteran’s surveys and transcribes oral histories.
The collections include material from as early as the Revolutionary War to current U. S. Army operations; the USAHEC provides interpretive exhibits and educational outreach programs to foster a greater understanding of the Army's central role in the growth and protection of the nation and its way of life. The USAHEC motto is "Telling the Army story, one Soldier at a time." The U. S. Army Military History Institute pre-dates the U. S. Army Heritage and Education Center by over 30 years. Formed in 1967 as the Military History Research Collection, a branch of the U. S. Army War College Library, the institute became the primary repository for unofficial Army historical materials. Official U. S. Army records and other materials belong to the National Archives. For most of its existence, the institute was housed in Upton Hall on Carlisle Barracks. Built in 1941 as an academic building for the Medical Field Service School, Upton Hall was adequate as a library but ill-suited for the size and preservation needs of a major archive.
Secretary of the Army Louis Caldera formed the Army Heritage and Education Center in June 1999 as a means of bringing an Army museum to Carlisle and promoting the holdings of the institute. His successor Thomas E. White approved the construction of a new facility, the present-day Ridgway Hall, in 2001, he stated: "We will relocate its documents and holdings—the unofficial history of the United States Army—into a newly built state-of-the art archive, give that facility responsibility for administering historical documents and photographs Army wide, associate it with an educational facility and a museum". The center, including the holdings of the institute, relocated from Upton Hall to Ridgway Hall in 2004 opening on September 24; the Army named the building for former Army Chief of Staff General Matthew B. Ridgway, commander of the 82nd Airborne Division in World War II and of United Nations forces in the Korean War; the Army Heritage Museum, formed with the center in 1999, held its artifacts in storage in various places on Carlisle Barracks before the construction of its Interim Storage Facility beside Ridgway Hall in 2004.
By 2005, the center created the Army Heritage Trail and began placing historical markers and large artifacts such as tanks and field artillery on display for public view. The first permanent structures, the Civil War cabins opened in October of that year; the Trail continued to grow and evolve over time, continues to expand today. In 2009, the USAHEC broke ground for the Visitor and Education Center as plans for the growth of the campus continued. In May 2011, the Center opened to the public and serves as the welcome and orientation site for all visitors to the campus; the building features a 7,000-square-foot exhibit space and two multipurpose rooms for conferences and other presentations. In the year, the USAHEC opened the state-of-the-art Conservation Facility to house and preserve the U. S. Army's artifact collection; the U. S. Army Heritage and Education Center consists of the following buildings: the Visitor and Education Center, Ridgway Hall, the Conservation Facility, the Fabrication Facility.
The campus includes a one-mile outdoor Army Heritage Trail. The Trail consists of macro-exhibits showcasing various periods of the U. S. Army’s history. Named after Army Chief of Staff General Matthew B. Ridgway, commander of the 82nd Airborne Division in World War II and of United Nations forces in the Korean War, Ridgway Hall opened to the public in 2004. Home of the Military History Institute, the 66,000-square-foot hall holds over 15 million items on U. S. Army history, covering the Revolutionary War era to current operations; the collections include one of the largest American Civil War photograph collection in the world. The research facility is open to the public during normal operating hours, enjoys use by scholars, students and researchers of all kinds. Along with a reading room for researchers, the hall has several small exhibits that displa
Shoulder sleeve insignia
A shoulder sleeve insignia, is an embroidered patch worn on some uniforms of the United States Army. It is used by major formations of the U. S. Army; the U. S. Army is unique among the U. S. Armed Forces in that all soldiers are required to wear the patch of their headquarters as part of their military uniforms. Shoulder sleeve insignia receive their name from the fact that they are most worn on the upper left sleeve of the Army Combat Uniform. S. Army uniforms. However, they can be placed on other locations, notably on the side of a helmet. Shoulder sleeve insignia worn on the upper right sleeve of Army uniforms denote former wartime service; these "combat patches" are no longer worn on the Army Service Uniform. Instead, a 2 inch metal replica is worn on the right breast pocket and is known as the Combat Service Identification Badge. Shoulder sleeve insignia were designed with intricate designs including bright colors, when created; because these bright colors and designs risk standing out when a soldier is in combat or in hiding, the shoulder sleeve insignia in its color form was only worn on the dress uniform or service uniform when a soldier was not in combat.
However, with the retirement of the Army Green Uniform in 2015, the full-color SSI was discontinued and was replaced with a CSIB. For combat uniforms, "subdued" versions have been created for wear on the battlefield. After a few years of retirement, the full-color SSI will return when the "pinks and greens" uniform is re-introduced in the late 2010s and early 2020s. "Full color" SSI were only worn on the brown service coat during the 1940s, on the green "Class A" uniform and on the OG-107 during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Full color SSI were worn on the "full color" Military Police brassard, worn by MPs while wearing the green "Class A" service uniform or while wearing subdued field uniforms in a garrison environment. However, with the ACU, the MP brassard was replaced by a rectangular patch made of fabric or infrared-reflective material, reading "MP". In one notable exception, the U. S. 1st Infantry Division wore full-color SSI on their BDUs and ACUs for a time, before that too was replaced with a subdued version.
The subdued version of the SSI created for the Battle Dress Uniform features patches that are olive, dark brown and black, to match the BDU. In general, this version is obsolete because the Army phased out the BDU in the late 2000s in favor of the Army Combat Uniform; the subdued version created for the Desert Camouflage Uniform is tan and "spice" brown, to match the uniform's design. This version is obsolete, as the Army phased out DCUs in favor of ACUs; the subdued version created for the Army Combat Uniform is the version used in the field today. Since the Army-wide adoption of the ACU, SSI for the ACU have been developed; these SSI are foliage green, light brown, black, though a few patches feature red and maroon colors for some details. Unlike previous patches, the ACU SSI are velcro-backed, designed to attach to the velcro pockets on the shoulder of the uniform, instead of being sewn on; this makes them easier to replace. Since the development of the Operational Camouflage Pattern uniform new SSI have been procured where the "Foliage" green of the ACU SSI is replaced by "Bagby" green.
Velcro remains the method for attaching the SSI to the uniform. Well-recognized examples are the shoulder sleeve insignia for the 1st Infantry Division and the 1st Cavalry Division. In the U. S. Army, the SSI is worn on the left upper arm, just below the uniform's shoulder seam on all but the ACU. On the Army Combat Uniform the SSI is attached to a velcro backing and is centered on rectangle of velcro on the arm. First Army has directed that all subordinate brigades wear the First Army SSI instead of their own authorized brigade SSI; the most common place for the SSI to be worn is on the upper sleeve of the uniform, however it is sometimes worn on other places, notably when the soldier's body armor covers the shoulders. SSI are commonly worn on the shoulder pads of interceptor body armor, which covers the SSI on the uniform; some soldiers wear SSI on their MICH TC-2000 Combat Helmets, however this is not standard practice for all units. Some SSI are too large to be worn on the helmets. SSI are occasionally worn on the backpacks or rucksacks of soldiers, but this is not standard practice and is personal preference.
Which SSI is worn depends on the chain of command that the soldier's formation is a part of. The soldier wears the SSI of their division or separate brigade, but if they fall under the command of a different division, they must wear the SSI of that division; those soldiers who are combat veterans are authorized permanent wear of the SSI of the unit they fought with on their right shoulder. This shoulder sleeve insignia recognizes "former wartime service" and is called a "combat patch". Per Army Regulation 670-1, a soldier is authorized to wear the SSI of their higher headquarters; this is not dependent on whether or not the higher headquarters deployed, or to whom the soldier was attached throughout his/her deployment. Exceptions have been made for operations of short duration such as service in the Dominican Republic and Grenada. With the transformation of the U. S. Army into a brigade-centered force, the SSI that soldiers may wear for wartime service has grown. Where soldiers once fought only under the command of
United States Department of Defense
The Department of Defense is an executive branch department of the federal government charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces. The department is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active duty servicemen and women as of 2016. Adding to its employees are over 826,000 National Guardsmen and Reservists from the four services, over 732,000 civilians bringing the total to over 2.8 million employees. Headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, just outside Washington, D. C. the DoD's stated mission is to provide "the military forces needed to deter war and ensure our nation's security". The Department of Defense is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a cabinet-level head who reports directly to the President of the United States. Beneath the Department of Defense are three subordinate military departments: the United States Department of the Army, the United States Department of the Navy, the United States Department of the Air Force.
In addition, four national intelligence services are subordinate to the Department of Defense: the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, the National Reconnaissance Office. Other Defense Agencies include the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Defense Logistics Agency, the Missile Defense Agency, the Defense Health Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, the Defense Security Service, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency, all of which are under the command of the Secretary of Defense. Additionally, the Defense Contract Management Agency provides acquisition insight that matters, by delivering actionable acquisition intelligence from factory floor to the warfighter. Military operations are managed by ten functional Unified combatant commands; the Department of Defense operates several joint services schools, including the Eisenhower School and the National War College. The history of the defense of the United States started with the Continental Congress in 1775.
The creation of the United States Army was enacted on 14 June 1775. This coincides with the American holiday Flag Day; the Second Continental Congress would charter the United States Navy, on 13 October 1775, create the United States Marine Corps on 10 November 1775. The Preamble of the United States Constitution gave the authority to the federal government to defend its citizens: We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Upon the seating of the first Congress on 4 March 1789, legislation to create a military defense force stagnated as they focused on other concerns relevant to setting up the new government. President George Washington went to Congress to remind them of their duty to establish a military twice during this time.
On the last day of the session, 29 September 1789, Congress created the War Department, historic forerunner of the Department of Defense. The War Department handled naval affairs until Congress created the Navy Department in 1798; the secretaries of each of these departments reported directly to the president as cabinet-level advisors until 1949, when all military departments became subordinate to the Secretary of Defense. After the end of World War II, President Harry Truman proposed creation of a unified department of national defense. In a special message to Congress on 19 December 1945, the President cited both wasteful military spending and inter-departmental conflicts. Deliberations in Congress went on for months focusing on the role of the military in society and the threat of granting too much military power to the executive. On 26 July 1947, Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947, which set up a unified military command known as the "National Military Establishment", as well as creating the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Council, National Security Resources Board, United States Air Force and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The act placed the National Military Establishment under the control of a single Secretary of Defense. The National Military Establishment formally began operations on 18 September, the day after the Senate confirmed James V. Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense; the National Military Establishment was renamed the "Department of Defense" on 10 August 1949 and absorbed the three cabinet-level military departments, in an amendment to the original 1947 law. Under the Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, channels of authority within the department were streamlined, while still maintaining the ordinary authority of the Military Departments to organize and equip their associated forces; the Act clarified the overall decision-making authority of the Secretary of Defense with respect to these subordinate Military Departments and more defined the operational chain of command over U. S. military forces as running from the president to the Secretary of Defense and to the unified combatant commanders.
Provided in this legislation was a centralized research authority, the Advanced Research Projects Agency known as DARPA. The act was written and promoted by the Eisenhower administration, was signed into law 6 August 1958; the Secretary of Defense, appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by federal law (1
General Roy Stanley Geiger was a United States Marine Corps four-star general who served in World War I and World War II. In World War II, he became the first Marine Corps general to lead an army-sized force. Geiger commanded the III Amphibious Corps in the Battle of Okinawa in 1945 before assuming the command of the U. S. Tenth Army upon the combat death of its commander, Lt. General Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr.. Geiger led the Tenth Army until relieved by General Joseph Stilwell. Marine Corps base Camp Geiger in North Carolina is named in his honor. Geiger was born in Florida, he attended Florida State Normal and Industrial College and received a law degree, LLB, from Stetson University. He enlisted in the Marine Corps as a private on November 2, 1907, in St. Paul and was sent to Naval Station Norfolk for his initial training. Geiger spent most of his enlisted time at the Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. where he was promoted to corporal on June 2, 1908. Following a series of professional examinations and the passing of a Naval Medical Board he accepted his commission as a Second Lieutenant on February 5, 1909.
Following attendance at the Marine Officers' School at Port Royal, South Carolina, he served as a member of the Marine detachments aboard Wisconsin and Delaware. In August 1912, he was assigned to Nicaragua, where he participated in the bombardment and capture of the hills called Coyotepe and Barranca. Further foreign shore duty followed in the Philippines and China with the First Brigade and with the Marine Detachment, American Legation, China, from 1913 to 1916. In March 1916, Geiger joined Florida, as a student naval aviator, he completed the course and was designated a naval aviator in June 1917. He was designated Naval Aviator # 49 on June 9, 1917. Further training followed and in July 1918, he arrived in France, he served with Royal Air Force at Dunkirk. He commanded a squadron of the First Marine Aviation Force and was attached to the Day Wing, Northern Bombing Group, he was detached to the United States in January 1919. For distinguished service in leading bombing raids against the enemy, he was awarded the Navy Cross.
From December 1919 to January 1921, he was a squadron commander with the Marine Aviation Force attached to the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade in Haiti. Upon return to the United States and after duty at the Marine Flying Field, Marine Barracks, MCB Quantico, Virginia, he attended Command and General Staff School at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, he graduated in June 1925. Again he went to foreign shore duty, commanding Observation Squadron Two with the First Brigade in Haiti. In August 1927, he returned to Quantico as a squadron officer and instructor at the Marine Corps Schools, in May 1928, was assigned to duty in the Aviation Section, Division of Operations and Training, at Marine Corps Headquarters. After attending the U. S. Army War College and graduating in June 1929, he was ordered to Quantico, where he was assigned duty as Commanding Officer, Aircraft Squadrons, East Coast Expeditionary Force, he returned to Washington and served as the Officer in Charge, Marine Corps Aviation from 1931-1935, a billet held by a Lieutenant General, now known as the Deputy Commandant for Aviation.
In June 1935, he returned to Quantico as Aircraft One, Fleet Marine Force. From June 1939 to March 1941, he was a student at the Senior and the Advanced Courses, Naval War College, Rhode Island; this was followed with a brief tour of duty in the Office of the Naval London. In April 1941, Geiger made his way from Lisbon to Gibraltar, where he changed from civilian clothes to his military uniform, he had lunch with the Governor at Government House, in a visit which lifted British morale in Gibraltar. He was on his way to the Western Desert, as the first U. S. military observer attached to the British 8th Army. In August, he became Commanding General, 1st Marine Aircraft Wing, Fleet Marine Force, in which capacity he was found upon the United States' entry into World War II. On September 3, 1942, he was stationed at Guadalcanal to lead the Cactus Air Force during the early part of the Guadalcanal Campaign; until November 4, he was commander of the combined Army and Marines Air Forces stationed here of which the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing was part.
He was awarded a Gold Star in lieu of a second Navy Cross for his service on Guadalcanal. His citation reads in part, "Despite continuous bombardment by enemy aircraft, hostile naval gunfire and shore based artillery, the combined total of Army and Marine Corps units stationed at Guadalcanal under Major General Geiger's efficiently coordinated command succeeded in shooting down 268 Japanese planes in aerial combat and inflicting damage on a number estimated to be as great... Sank six enemy vessels, including one heavy cruiser sank three destroyers and one heavy cruiser, damaged 18 other ships, including one heavy cruiser and five light cruisers." Geiger was recalled to Marine Corps Headquarters in May 1943. In November 1943, he returned to the field, this time as Commanding General of the I Amphibious Corps and led the Corps from November 9, to December 15, 1943, in the Battle of Bougainville, for which he was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal. Redesignated III Amphibious Corps in April 1944, he led this organization in the invasion and subsequent recapture of Guam during July and August 1944, in the assault and capture of the southern Palau Islands in September and October of the same year.
For those operations he was awarded two Gold Stars in lieu of a second and third Distinguished Service Medal. Geiger led this Corps into action for
National War College
The National War College of the United States is a school in the National Defense University. It is housed in Roosevelt Hall on Fort Lesley J. McNair, Washington, D. C. the third-oldest Army post still active. The National War College was established on July 1, 1946, as an upgraded replacement for the Army-Navy Staff College, which operated from June 1943 to July 1946; the college was one of James Forrestal's favorite causes. According to Lt. Gen. Leonard T. Gerow, President of the Board which recommended its formation:The College is concerned with grand strategy and the utilization of the national resources necessary to implement that strategy.... Its graduates will exercise a great influence on the formulation of national and foreign policy in both peace and war.... Mid-level and senior military officers who are to be promoted to the most senior ranks are selected to study at the War College in preparation for higher staff and command positions. About 75 percent of the student body is composed of equal representation from the land and sea services.
The remaining 25 percent are drawn from the Department of State and other federal departments and agencies. In addition, international fellows from a number of countries join the student body; the curriculum is based upon critical analysis of strategic problem solving with emphasis on strategic leadership. Starting with the 2014–2015 academic year, the curriculum will be based upon a core standard throughout National Defense University; because of NWC's privileged location close to the White House, the Supreme Court, Capitol Hill, it has been able throughout its history to call upon an extraordinarily well-connected array of speakers to animate its discussions. All lectures at the National War College are conducted under a strict "no quotation nor attribution" policy which has facilitated discussion on some of the most difficult issues of the day. Graduates of the National War College include numerous current and former flag officers, general officers, U. S. ambassadors. Notable graduates include former U.
S. Secretary of State and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Colin Powell. S. Senator John McCain. S Army Chief of Staff and Secretary of Veterans Affairs Eric Shinseki. S. Chief of Naval Operations Elmo Zumwalt. S. A. F Chief of Staff Merrill A. McPeak. S. Ambassador to Russia John Beyrle. S. Ambassador to Libya J. Christopher Stevens. S. Air Force Chief of Staff Norton A. Schwartz. Roosevelt Hall is a Beaux Arts–style building housing the NWC since its inception in 1946. Designed by the New York architectural firm McKim and White, it is now designated a National Historical Landmark and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Air War College Dwight D. Eisenhower School for National Security and Resource Strategy List of National Historic Landmarks in the District of Columbia Marine Corps War College National Register of Historic Places listings in the District of Columbia Naval War College United States Army War College National War College homepage