Judiciary Act of 1789
The Judiciary Act of 1789 was a United States federal statute adopted on September 24, 1789, in the first session of the First United States Congress. It established the federal judiciary of the United States. Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution prescribed that the "judicial power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, such inferior Courts" as Congress saw fit to establish, it made no provision for the composition or procedures of any of the courts, leaving this to Congress to decide. The existence of a separate federal judiciary had been controversial during the debates over the ratification of the Constitution. Anti-Federalists had denounced the judicial power as a potential instrument of national tyranny. Indeed, of the ten amendments that became the Bill of Rights, five dealt with judicial proceedings. After ratification, some opponents of a strong judiciary urged that the federal court system be limited to a Supreme Court and local admiralty judges; the Congress, decided to establish a system of federal trial courts with broader jurisdiction, thereby creating an arm for enforcement of national laws within each state.
Senator Richard Henry Lee reported the judiciary bill out of committee on June 12, 1789. The bill passed the Senate 14–6 on July 17, 1789, the House of Representatives debated the bill in July and August 1789; the House passed an amended bill 37–16 on September 17, 1789. The Senate struck four of the House amendments and approved the remaining provisions on September 19, 1789; the House passed the Senate's final version of the bill on September 21, 1789. U. S. President George Washington signed the Act into law on September 24, 1789; the Act set the number of Supreme Court justices at six: one Chief Justice and five Associate Justices. The Supreme Court was given exclusive original jurisdiction over all civil actions between states, or between a state and the United States, as well as over all suits and proceedings brought against ambassadors and other diplomatic personnel; the Court was given appellate jurisdiction over decisions of the federal circuit courts as well as decisions by state courts holding invalid any statute or treaty of the United States.
SECTION 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the supreme court of the United States shall consist of a chief justice and five associate justices, any four of whom shall be a quorum, shall hold annually at the seat of government two sessions, the one commencing the first Monday of February, the other the first Monday of August; the Act created 13 judicial districts within the 11 states that had ratified the Constitution. Each state comprised one district, except for Virginia and Massachusetts, each of which comprised two. Massachusetts was divided into the District of Massachusetts. Virginia was divided into the District of Virginia; this Act established a circuit district court in each judicial district. The circuit courts, which comprised a district judge and two Supreme Court justices "riding circuit," had original jurisdiction over serious crimes and civil cases of at least $500 involving diversity jurisdiction or the United States as plaintiff in common law and equity.
The circuit courts had appellate jurisdiction over the district courts. The single-judge district courts had jurisdiction over admiralty cases, petty crimes, suits by the United States for at least $100. Notably, the federal trial courts had not yet received original federal question jurisdiction. Congress authorized all people to either represent themselves or to be represented by another person; the Act did not prohibit paying a representative to appear in court. Congress authorized persons who were sued by citizens of another state, in the courts of the plaintiff's home state, to remove the lawsuit to the federal circuit court; the power of removal, the Supreme Court's power to review state court decisions where federal law was at issue, established that the federal judicial power would be superior to that of the states. The Act created the Office of Attorney General, whose primary responsibility was to represent the United States before the Supreme Court; the Act created a United States Attorney and a United States Marshal for each judicial district.
The Judiciary Act of 1789 included the Alien Tort Statute, now codified as 28 U. S. C. § 1350, which provides jurisdiction in the district courts over lawsuits by aliens for torts in violation of the law of nations or treaties of the United States. After signing the Judiciary Act into law, President Washington submitted his nominations to fill the offices created by the Act. Among the nominees were John Jay for Chief Justice of the United States.
United States Department of Justice
The United States Department of Justice known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U. S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration; the Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives, the Drug Enforcement Administration. The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters, running the federal prison system; the department is responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet.
The current Attorney General is William Barr. The office of the Attorney General was established by the Judiciary Act of 1789 as a part-time job for one person, but grew with the bureaucracy. At one time, the Attorney General gave legal advice to the U. S. Congress as well as the President, but in 1819 the Attorney General began advising Congress alone to ensure a manageable workload; until March 3, 1853, the salary of the Attorney General was set by statute at less than the amount paid to other Cabinet members. Early Attorneys General supplemented their salaries by running private law practices arguing cases before the courts as attorneys for paying litigants. Following unsuccessful efforts to make Attorney General a full-time job, in 1869, the U. S. House Committee on the Judiciary, led by Congressman William Lawrence, conducted an inquiry into the creation of a "law department" headed by the Attorney General and composed of the various department solicitors and United States attorneys. On February 19, 1868, Lawrence introduced a bill in Congress to create the Department of Justice.
President Ulysses S. Grant signed the bill into law on June 22, 1870. Grant appointed Amos T. Akerman as Attorney General and Benjamin H. Bristow as America's first Solicitor General the same week that Congress created the Department of Justice; the Department's immediate function was to preserve civil rights. It set about fighting against domestic terrorist groups, using both violence and litigation to oppose the 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments to the Constitution. Both Akerman and Bristow used the Department of Justice to vigorously prosecute Ku Klux Klan members in the early 1870s. In the first few years of Grant's first term in office there were 1000 indictments against Klan members with over 550 convictions from the Department of Justice. By 1871, there were 3000 indictments and 600 convictions with most only serving brief sentences while the ringleaders were imprisoned for up to five years in the federal penitentiary in Albany, New York; the result was a dramatic decrease in violence in the South.
Akerman gave credit to Grant and told a friend that no one was "better" or "stronger" than Grant when it came to prosecuting terrorists. George H. Williams, who succeeded Akerman in December 1871, continued to prosecute the Klan throughout 1872 until the spring of 1873 during Grant's second term in office. Williams placed a moratorium on Klan prosecutions because the Justice Department, inundated by cases involving the Klan, did not have the manpower to continue prosecutions; the "Act to Establish the Department of Justice" drastically increased the Attorney General's responsibilities to include the supervision of all United States Attorneys under the Department of the Interior, the prosecution of all federal crimes, the representation of the United States in all court actions, barring the use of private attorneys by the federal government. The law created the office of Solicitor General to supervise and conduct government litigation in the Supreme Court of the United States. With the passage of the Interstate Commerce Act in 1887, the federal government took on some law enforcement responsibilities, the Department of Justice tasked with performing these.
In 1884, control of federal prisons was transferred to the new department, from the Department of Interior. New facilities were built, including the penitentiary at Leavenworth in 1895, a facility for women located in West Virginia, at Alderson was established in 1924. In 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued an executive order which gave the Department of Justice responsibility for the "functions of prosecuting in the courts of the United States claims and demands by, offsenses against, the Government of the United States, of defending claims and demands against the Government, of supervising the work of United States attorneys and clerks in connection therewith, now exercised by any agency or officer..." The U. S. Department of Justice building was completed in 1935 from a design by Milton Bennett Medary. Upon Medary's death in 1929, the other partners of his Philadelphia firm Zantzinger and Medary took over the project. On a lot bordered by Constitution and Pennsylvania Avenues and Ninth and Tenth Streets, Northwest, it holds over 1,000,000 square feet of space.
The sculptor C. Paul Jennewein served as overall design consultant for the entire building, contributing more than 50 separate sculptural elements inside and outside. Various efforts, none successful, have been made to determine the original intended meaning of the Latin motto appearing on the Department of Justice s
President of the United States
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In contemporary times, the president is looked upon as one of the world's most powerful political figures as the leader of the only remaining global superpower; the role includes responsibility for the world's most expensive military, which has the second largest nuclear arsenal. The president leads the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP; the president possesses international hard and soft power. Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch of the federal government, it vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The power includes the execution and enforcement of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal executive, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn either or both houses of Congress under extraordinary circumstances. The president directs the foreign and domestic policies of the United States, takes an active role in promoting his policy priorities to members of Congress. In addition, as part of the system of checks and balances, Article I, Section 7 of the Constitution gives the president the power to sign or veto federal legislation; the power of the presidency has grown since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole. Through the Electoral College, registered voters indirectly elect the president and vice president to a four-year term; this is the only federal election in the United States, not decided by popular vote. Nine vice presidents became president by virtue of a president's intra-term resignation. Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 sets three qualifications for holding the presidency: natural-born U. S. citizenship.
The Twenty-second Amendment precludes any person from being elected president to a third term. In all, 44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms, so he is counted twice, as both the 22nd and 24th president. Donald Trump of New York is the current president of the United States, he assumed office on January 20, 2017. In July 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the Thirteen Colonies, acting jointly through the Second Continental Congress, declared themselves to be 13 independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. Recognizing the necessity of coordinating their efforts against the British, the Continental Congress began the process of drafting a constitution that would bind the states together. There were long debates on a number of issues, including representation and voting, the exact powers to be given the central government. Congress finished work on the Articles of Confederation to establish a perpetual union between the states in November 1777 and sent it to the states for ratification.
Under the Articles, which took effect on March 1, 1781, the Congress of the Confederation was a central political authority without any legislative power. It could make its own resolutions and regulations, but not any laws, could not impose any taxes or enforce local commercial regulations upon its citizens; this institutional design reflected how Americans believed the deposed British system of Crown and Parliament ought to have functioned with respect to the royal dominion: a superintending body for matters that concerned the entire empire. The states were out from under any monarchy and assigned some royal prerogatives to Congress; the members of Congress elected a President of the United States in Congress Assembled to preside over its deliberation as a neutral discussion moderator. Unrelated to and quite dissimilar from the office of President of the United States, it was a ceremonial position without much influence. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies.
With peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. By 1786, Americans found their continental borders besieged and weak and their respective economies in crises as neighboring states agitated trade rivalries with one another, they witnessed their hard currency pouring into foreign markets to pay for imports, their Mediterranean commerce preyed upon by North African pirates, their foreign-financed Revolutionary War debts unpaid and accruing interest. Civil and political unrest loomed. Following the successful resolution of commercial and fishing disputes between Virginia and Maryland at the Mount Vernon Conference in 1785, Virginia called for a trade conference between all the states, set for September 1786 in Annapolis, with an aim toward resolving further-reaching interstate commercial antagonisms; when the convention failed for lack of attendance due to suspicions among most of the other states, Alexander Hamilton led the Annapolis delegates in a call for a convention to offer revisions to the Articles, to be held the next spring in Philadelphia.
Prospects for the next convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washington's attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. When the Constitutional Convention convened in May 1787, the 12 state delegations in attendance (Rh
Northern Mariana Islands
The Northern Mariana Islands the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, is an insular area and commonwealth of the United States consisting of 14 islands in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. The CNMI includes the 14 northernmost islands in the Mariana Archipelago except the southernmost island of the chain, a separate U. S. territory. The CNMI and Guam are the westernmost territory of the United States; the United States Department of the Interior cites a landmass of 183.5 square miles. According to the 2010 United States Census, 53,883 people were living in the CNMI at that time; the vast majority of the population resides on Saipan and Rota. The other islands of the Northern Marianas are sparsely inhabited; the administrative center is a village in northwestern Saipan. However, most publications consider Saipan to be the capital because the island is governed as a single municipality; the first people of the Mariana Islands immigrated at some point between 4000 BC and 2000 BC from Southeast Asia.
After first contact with Spaniards, they became known as the Chamorros, a Spanish word similar to Chamori, the name of the indigenous caste system's higher division. The ancient people of the Marianas raised colonnades of megalithic capped pillars called latte stones upon which they built their homes; the Spanish reported that by the time of their arrival, the largest of these were in ruins, that the Chamorros believed the ancestors who had erected the pillars lived in an era when people possessed supernatural abilities. Archeologists in 2013 posited that the first people to settle in the Marianas may have made what was at that point the longest uninterrupted ocean-crossing voyage in human history, that archeological evidence indicates that Tinian might have been the first Pacific island outside of Asia to be settled; the first European explorer of the area, the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan, arrived in 1521. He landed on Guam, the southernmost island of the Marianas, claimed the archipelago for Spain.
The Spanish ships were met offshore by the native Chamorros, who delivered refreshments and helped themselves to a small boat belonging to Magellan's fleet. This led to a cultural clash: in Chamorro tradition, little property was private and taking something one needed, such as a boat for fishing, did not count as stealing; the Spanish did not understand this custom, fought the Chamorros until the boat was recovered. Three days after he had been welcomed on his arrival, Magellan fled the archipelago. Spain regarded the islands as annexed and made them part of the Spanish East Indies. In 1734, the Spanish built a royal palace in Guam for the governor of the islands, its remains are visible in the 21st century. Guam operated as an important stopover between Manila and Mexico for galleons carrying gold between the Philippines and Spain; some galleons sunk in Guam remain. In 1668, Father Diego Luis de San Vitores renamed the islands Las Marianas in honor of his patroness the Spanish regent Mariana of Austria, widow of Felipe IV.
Most of the islands' native population died from Spanish diseases or married non-Chamorro settlers under Spanish rule. New settlers from the Philippines and the Caroline Islands, were brought to repopulate the islands; the Chamorro population recovered, Chamorro and Refaluwasch languages and other ethnic differences remain in the Marianas. During the 17th century, Spanish colonists forcibly moved the Chamorros to Guam, to encourage assimilation and conversion to Roman Catholicism. By the time they were allowed to return to the Northern Marianas, many Carolinians from present-day eastern Yap State and western Chuuk State had settled in the Marianas. Both languages, as well as English, are now official in the commonwealth; the Northern Marianas experienced an influx of immigration from the Carolines during the 19th century. Both this Carolinian subethnicity and Carolinians in the Carolines archipelago refer to themselves as the Refaluwasch; the indigenous Chamoru word for the same group of people is gu'palao.
They are referred to as "Carolinians", though unlike the other two monikers, this can mean those who live in the Carolines and who may have no affiliation with the Marianas. The conquering Spanish did not focus attempts at cultural suppression against Carolinian immigrants, whose immigration they allowed during a period when the indigenous Chamoru majority was being subjugated with land alienation, forced relocations and internment. Carolinians in the Marianas continue to be fluent in the language, have maintained many of the cultural distinctions and traditions of their ethnicity's land of ancestral origin. Following its loss during the Spanish–American War of 1898, Spain ceded Guam to the United States and sold the remainder of the Marianas, along with the Caroline Islands, to Germany under the German–Spanish Treaty of 1899. Germany administered the islands as part of its colony of German New Guinea and did little in terms of development. Early in World War I, Japan invaded the Northern Marianas.
In 1919, the League of Nations awarded all of Germany's islands in the Pacific Ocean located north of the Equator, including the Northern Marianas, under mandate to Japan. Under this arrangement, the Jap
The USA PATRIOT Act is an Act of the U. S. Congress, signed into law by President George W. Bush on October 26, 2001; the title of the Act is a contrived three letter initialism preceding a seven letter acronym, which in combination stand for Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001. The acronym was created by Chris Kyke. In response to the September 11 attacks and the 2001 anthrax attacks, Congress swiftly passed legislation to strengthen national security. On October 23, 2001, Republican Rep. Jim Sensenbrenner introduced H. R. 3162 incorporating provisions from a previously-sponsored House bill and a Senate bill introduced earlier in the month. The next day, the Act passed the House by a vote of 357–66, with Democrats comprising the overwhelming portion of dissent; the three Republicans voting "no" were Robert Ney of Ohio, Butch Otter of Idaho, Ron Paul of Texas. On October 25, the Act passed the Senate by a 98–1 vote, the only dissident being Russ Feingold of Wisconsin.
Those opposing the law have criticized its authorization of indefinite detentions of immigrants. Since its passage, several legal challenges have been brought against the act, federal courts have ruled that a number of provisions are unconstitutional. Many of the act's provisions were to sunset beginning December 31, 2005 four years after its passage. In the months preceding the sunset date, supporters of the act pushed to make its sun-setting provisions permanent, while critics sought to revise various sections to enhance civil liberty protections. In July 2005, the U. S. Senate passed a reauthorization bill with substantial changes to several of the act's sections, while the House reauthorization bill kept most of the act's original language; the two bills were reconciled in a conference committee criticized by Senators from both the Republican and Democratic parties for ignoring civil liberty concerns. The bill, which removed most of the changes from the Senate version, passed Congress on March 2, 2006, was signed by President Bush on March 9 and 10 of that year.
On May 26, 2011, President Barack Obama signed the PATRIOT Sunsets Extension Act of 2011, a four-year extension of three key provisions in the Act: roving wiretaps, searches of business records, conducting surveillance of "lone wolves"—individuals suspected of terrorist-related activities not linked to terrorist groups. Following a lack of Congressional approval, parts of the Patriot Act expired on June 1, 2015. With passing the USA Freedom Act on June 2, 2015, the expired parts were restored and renewed through 2019. However, Section 215 of the law was amended to stop the National Security Agency from continuing its mass phone data collection program. Instead, phone companies will retain the data and the NSA can obtain information about targeted individuals with permission from a federal court. Title I authorizes measures to enhance the ability of domestic security services to prevent terrorism; the title established a fund for counter-terrorist activities and increased funding for the Terrorist Screening Center, administered by the FBI.
The military was authorized to provide assistance in some situations that involve weapons of mass destruction when so requested by the Attorney General. The National Electronic Crime Task Force was expanded, along with the President's authority and abilities in cases of terrorism; the title condemned the discrimination against Arab and Muslim Americans that happened soon after the September 11 terrorist attacks. The impetus for many of the provisions came from earlier bills, for instance the condemnation of discrimination was proposed by Senator Tom Harkin in an amendment to the Combatting Terrorism Act of 2001, though in a different form, it included "the prayer of Cardinal Theodore McCarrick, the Archbishop of Washington in a Mass on September 12, 2001 for our Nation and the victims in the immediate aftermath of the terrorist hijackings and attacks in New York City, Washington, D. C. and Pennsylvania reminds all Americans that'We must seek the guilty and not strike out against the innocent or we become like them who are without moral guidance or proper direction.'"
Further condemnation of racial vilification and violence is spelled out in Title X, where there was condemnation of such activities against Sikh Americans, who were mistaken for Muslims after the September 11th terrorist attack. Title II is titled "Enhanced Surveillance Procedures", covers all aspects of the surveillance of suspected terrorists, those suspected of engaging in computer fraud or abuse, agents of a foreign power who are engaged in clandestine activities, it made amendments to FISA, the ECPA, many of the most controversial aspects of the USA PATRIOT Act reside in this title. In particular, the title allows government agencies to gather "foreign intelligence information" from both U. S. and non-U. S. Citizens, changed FISA to make gaining foreign intelligence information the significant purpose of FISA-based surveillance, where it had been the primary purpose; the change in definition was meant to remove a legal "wall" between criminal investigations and surveillance for the purposes of gathering foreign intelligence, which hampered in
A prosecutor is a legal representative of the prosecution in countries with either the common law adversarial system, or the civil law inquisitorial system. The prosecution is the legal party responsible for presenting the case in a criminal trial against an individual accused of breaking the law; the prosecutor represents the government in the case brought against the accused person. Prosecutors are lawyers who possess a law degree, are recognized as legal professionals by the court in which they intend to represent society, they only become involved in a criminal case once a suspect has been identified and charges need to be filed. They are employed by an office of the government, with safeguards in place to ensure such an office can pursue the prosecution of government officials. Multiple offices exist in a single country in those countries with federal governments where sovereignty has been bifurcated or devolved in some way. Since prosecutors are backed by the power of the state, they are subject to special professional responsibility rules in addition to those binding all lawyers.
For example, in the United States, Rule 3.8 of the ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct requires prosecutors to "make timely disclosure to the defense of all evidence or information that tends to negate the guilt of the accused or mitigates the offense." Not all U. S. states adopt the model rules. S. Supreme Court cases and other appellate cases have ruled. Typical sources of ethical requirements imposed on prosecutors come from appellate court opinions, state or federal court rules, state or federal statutes. In Australia, Canada and Wales, Hong Kong, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland, Trinidad & Tobago and South Africa, the head of the prosecuting authority is known as the Director of Public Prosecutions, is appointed, not elected. A DPP may be subject to varying degrees of control by the Attorney General by a formal written directive which must be published. In Australia, the Offices of the Director of Public Prosecutions institute prosecutions for indictable offences on behalf of the Crown.
At least in the case of serious matters, the DPP will be asked by the police, during the course of the investigation, to advise them on sufficiency of evidence, may well be asked, if he or she thinks it proper, to prepare an application to the relevant court for search, listening device or telecommunications interception warrants. More recent constitutions, such as South Africa's, tend to guarantee the independence and impartiality of the DPP. Prosecutors in Australia come in a few distinct species. Prosecutors of minor criminal cases in lower courts, are Police Sergeants with a traineeship in prosecution and advocacy lasting appoximately 1 year in duration, although they may hold law degrees. Crown Prosecutors are always lawyers, barristers, they represent the state or Commonwealth in serious criminal cases in higher courts, County Court and above. Aside from Police prosecutors and Crown prosecutors, government agencies have the authority to appoint non-lawyers to prosecute on their behalf, such as the RSPCA Inspectors.
In Canada, public prosecutors in most provinces are called Crown Counsel. They are appointed by the provincial Attorney-General. Though Scots law is a mixed system, its civil law jurisdiction indicates its civil law heritage. Here, all prosecutions are carried out by Procurators Fiscal and Advocates Depute on behalf of the Lord Advocate, and, in theory, they can direct investigations by the police. In serious cases, a Procurator Fiscal, Advocate Depute or the Lord Advocate, may take charge of a police investigation, it is at the discretion of the Procurator Fiscal, Advocate Depute, or Lord Advocate to take a prosecution to court, to decide on whether or not to prosecute it under solemn procedure or summary procedure. Other remedies are open to a prosecutor in Scotland, including fiscal fines and non-court based interventions, such as rehabilitation and social work. All prosecutions are handled within the Crown Procurator Fiscal Service. Procurators fiscal will refer cases involving minors to Children's Hearings, which are not courts of law, but a panel of lay members empowered to act in the interests of the child.
In the United States, the director of a prosecution office may be known by any of several names depending on the jurisdiction, most District Attorney. In Commonwealth states, like Virginia, they are known as Commonwealth's Attorney The prosecution is the legal party responsible for presenting the case against an individual or a corporation suspected of breaking the law and directing further criminal investigations and recommending the sentencing of offenders, are the only attorneys allowed to participate in grand jury proceedings; the titles of prosecutors in state courts vary from state to state and level of government and include the terms District Attorney in New York, Texas, Delaware, North Carolina, Nevada, Wisconsin and Oklahoma.
Dismissed U.S. attorneys summary
This article about dismissed U. S. attorneys summarizes the circumstances surrounding a number of U. S. attorneys dismissed from office in the United States Department of Justice in 2006. Eight were dismissed In December 2006, others may have been forced out of office under similar circumstances in 2005 and 2006; the manner of the firings, the congressional response to them, the explanations offered by Bush administration officials are aspects of a political controversy starting in the first quarter of 2007. As of May 2007 a clear explanation of why the attorneys were dismissed had not been put forward by the Bush administration or the Department of Justice leadership. There are in total 93 U. S. attorneys that serve 94 Federal district courts. Seven attorneys were dismissed on December 7, 2006. Subsequent disclosures showed that two additional attorneys, Bud Cummins and Todd Graves, may have been dismissed under similar circumstances earlier in 2006. Bud Cummins is associated with those dismissed on December 7 because he announced his resignation in mid-December, effective December 20, 2006.
However, Cummins had been informed of his pending dismissal in June 2006. Cummins' dismissal received significant attention from the media and from congressional investigators after Deputy Attorney General Paul McNulty testified that his dismissal was requested from the White House in order to install Karl Rove protégé Timothy Griffin in his place. Both Todd Graves, his replacement, Department of Justice official Bradley Schlozman, have been called to testify in the ongoing Senate investigation of the U. S. Attorney controversy. Two U. S. Attorneys who were fired in 2005, Thomas M. DiBiagio and Kasey Warner, have made public statements claiming that there may be similarities between their dismissals and those of the nine attorneys fired in 2006. To date, their cases have received less attention from the media in comparison to the attorneys fired in 2006. Allen Weh, chairman of the New Mexico Republican Party, said he complained in 2005 about then-U. S. Attorney David Iglesias to a White House aide for Karl Rove, asking.
In 2006 Rove told Weh "He's gone." Weh was dissatisfied with Iglesias due in part to his failure to indict Democrats in a voter fraud investigation. Weh followed up with, "There's nothing we've done that's wrong." In March 2007, the White House spokeswoman, Dana Perino, said Rove "wasn't involved in, going to be fired or hired." However, one of the stated reasons for Iglesias' dismissal, by Administration officials, was dissatisfaction in his prosecution of voter-fraud cases. Iglesias "had been heralded for his expertise in that area by the Justice Department, which twice selected him to train other federal prosecutors to pursue election crimes" and was "one of two chief federal prosecutors invited to teach at a'voting integrity symposium' in October 2005... sponsored by Justice's public integrity and civil rights sections."In February 2007 Iglesias publicly alleged that "two lawmakers called him about a well-known criminal investigation involving a Democratic legislator" and that "the lawmakers who called him seemed focused on whether charges would be filed before the November elections.
He said the calls made him feel'pressured to hurry the subsequent cases and prosecutions.'" According to and confirmed prior to the 2006 midterm election, Heather Wilson and Pete Domenici called and "pressured" Iglesias "to speed up indictments in a federal corruption investigation that involved at least one former Democratic state senator." When Iglesias told Domenici that an indictment wouldn't be handed down until at least December, Iglesias said "the line went dead," and he was fired one week by the Bush Administration. After denying the call, Domenici admitted making it in March 2007. According to The Washington Post, "A communication by a senator or House member with a federal prosecutor regarding an ongoing criminal investigation is a violation of ethics rules." Domenici admitted calling Iglesias despite the initial denial, but Domenici said he never used the word "November" when he called Iglesias about an ongoing Albuquerque courthouse corruption case. Domenici has denied trying to influence Iglesias, has hired lawyer K. Lee Blalack II to represent him.
According to the Justice Department, Domenici called the Department and demanded Iglesias be replaced on four occasions. On the day that Iglesias was fired, Harriet Miers' deputy William Kelley wrote that Domenici's chief of staff "is happy as a clam" about Iglesias and a week Sampson wrote that "Domenici is going to send over names tomorrow."Rep. Heather Wilson called and "pressured New Mexico U. S. attorney David Iglesias to speed up indictments in a federal corruption investigation that involved at least one former Democratic state senator. Wilson was curt after Iglesias was non-responsive to her questions about whether an indictment would be unsealed." Iglesias was fired one week afterward by the Bush Administration. Ex-Governor David Cargo accused Wilson of "essentially taking the Fifth " defense thus far. DOJ received complaints from "two prominent Republican attorneys, Mickey Barnett and Patrick J. Rogers, met last June with Gonzales's senior counsel, Monica Goodling, to complain that Iglesias was inattentive to voter fraud.
Goodling met with them after Kyle Sampson sent her an email saying, "It is sensitive -- you should do it."House Judiciary Committee Chairman John Conyers, D-Mich. issued subpoenas on