The Volcano Islands or Iwo Islands are a group of three Japanese islands south of the Bonin Islands that belong to the municipality of Ogasawara, Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. The islands are all active volcanoes lying atop an island arc, they have an area of 32.55 square kilometres, a population of 380. The Volcano Islands are: Kita Iwo Jima, 5.57 square kilometres, 792 metres Iwo Jima, 20.60 square kilometres, 166 metres Minami Iwo Jima 3.54 square kilometres, 916 metres Farther north but in the same volcanic arc is: Nishino-shima, 38 metres There is a Japan Self-Defense Forces air base on Iwo Jima with a staff of 380. It is located in the village of Minami. Other than that, the islands are uninhabited; the first recorded sighting by Europeans was in October 1543 by Spanish navigator Bernardo de la Torre on board of carrack San Juan de Letrán when trying to return from Sarangani to New Spain. Iwo Jima was charted as the old Spanish term for sulphur; the islands were uninhabited until 1889, when the two northern islands were settled by Japanese settlers from the Izu Islands.
They were annexed by Japan in 1891. The population was about 1,100 in 1939, distributed among five settlements: Higashi, Nishi and Motoyama on Iwo Jima; the municipal administration office was located in Higashi until 1940, when the municipality was integrated into the administration of Ogasawara, Tokyo. Iwo Jima was the site of the Battle of Iwo Jima in World War II, the island group came under the United States administration; the Volcano Islands were returned to Japanese administration in 1968. Media related to Volcano Islands at Wikimedia Commons Nanpō Islands Geography of Japan
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Lyman Louis Lemnitzer was a United States Army general, who served as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from 1960 to 1962. He served as Supreme Allied Commander Europe of NATO from 1963 to 1969. Lemnitzer was born on August 1899 in Honesdale, Pennsylvania, he was raised Lutheran, graduated from Honesdale High School in 1917. He entered the United States Military Academy at West Point, from which he graduated in 1920 with a commission as a second lieutenant of Coast Artillery. Lemnitzer graduated from the Coast Artillery School in 1921, served at Fort Adams in Rhode Island and in the Philippines, he was an instructor at West Point from 1926 to 1930. Lemnitzer served again in the Philippines from 1934 to 1935, graduated from the United States Army Command and General Staff College in 1936, he was an instructor at the Coast Artillery School, graduated from the United States Army War College in 1940. At the start of World War II Lemnitzer served with the 70th Coast Artillery Regiment and the 38th Coast Artillery Brigade.
In May 1941, Lemnitzer a colonel, was assigned to the War Plans Division of the Army staff, to the staff of the Army Ground Forces. Lemnitzer was promoted to brigadier general in June 1942 and commanded the 34th Coast Artillery Brigade, he was subsequently assigned to General Dwight D. Eisenhower's staff, where he helped plan the invasions of North Africa and Sicily and was promoted to major general in November 1944. Lemnitzer was one of the senior officers sent to negotiate the Italian fascist surrender during the secret Operation Sunrise and the German surrender in 1945. Following the end of World War II, Lemnitzer was assigned to the Strategic Survey Committee of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and was named Deputy Commandant of the National War College. In 1950, at the age of 51, Lemnitzer took parachute training and was placed in command of the 11th Airborne Division, he was assigned to Korea in command of the 7th Infantry Division in November 1951 and was promoted to lieutenant general in August 1952.
Lemnitzer was promoted to the rank of general and named commander of US Army forces in the Far East and of the Eighth Army in March 1955. He was named Chief of Staff of the United States Army in July 1957 and appointed Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in September 1960; as Chairman, Lemnitzer was involved in the Bay of Pigs crisis and the early years of United States involvement in the Vietnam War. He was required to testify before the United States Senate Foreign Affairs Committee about his knowledge of the activities of Major General Edwin Walker, dismissed from the Army over alleged attempts to promote his political beliefs in the military. Lemnitzer approved the plans known as Operation Northwoods in 1962, a proposed plan to discredit the Castro regime and create support for military action against Cuba by staging false flag acts of terrorism and developing "a Communist Cuban terror campaign in the Miami area, in other Florida cities and in Washington". Lemnitzer presented the plans to Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara on March 13, 1962.
It is unclear how McNamara reacted, but three days President John F. Kennedy told the general that there was no chance that the US would take military action against Cuba. Within a few months, after the refusal to endorse Operation Northwoods, Lemnitzer was denied another term as JCS chairman. In November 1962, Lemnitzer was appointed as commander of U. S. European Command, as Supreme Allied Commander Europe of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, his time in command saw the Cyprus crisis of 1963–1964 and the withdrawal of NATO forces from France in 1966. As of 2015, Lemnitzer is the only Chairman of the Joint Chiefs to hold another U. S military command after his term as Chairman ended, rather than retiring. Lemnitzer retired from the military in July 1969, his 14-year tenure as a four star general on active duty is the longest in the history of the U. S. Army, he was the only person in history to serve as Army Chief of Staff, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and Supreme Allied Commander for NATO.
In 1975, President Gerald Ford appointed Lemnitzer to the Commission on CIA Activities within the United States to investigate whether the Central Intelligence Agency had committed acts that violated US laws, allegations that E. Howard Hunt and Frank Sturgis were involved in the assassination of John F. Kennedy. Lemnitzer is buried in Arlington National Cemetery, his wife, Katherine Tryon Lemnitzer, is buried with him. Lemnitzer was played by John Seitz in the 1991 Oliver Stone film, JFK. Lemnitzer was awarded numerous military awards and decorations including but not limited to: Foreign decorationsLemnitzer held the distinction of being a Freemason. Finding aid for Lyman L. Lemnitzer Oral History, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library Official US Joint Chiefs of Staff Biography
United States Military Government of the Ryukyu Islands
The United States Military Government of the Ryukyu Islands was the government in Okinawa, Japan from 1945 to 1950, whereupon it was replaced by the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands. The government was headed by the military governor and his second-in-command, the Chief Military Government Officer, they were assisted by the Deputy Commander of the Military Government. United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands Government of the Ryukyu Islands, the body of Okinawan self-governance from 1952–1972
Left- and right-hand traffic
Left-hand traffic and right-hand traffic are the practice, in bidirectional traffic, of keeping to the left side or to the right side of the road, respectively. A fundamental element to traffic flow, it is sometimes referred to as the rule of the road. RHT is used in 165 countries and territories, with the remaining 75 countries and territories using LHT. Countries that use LHT account for about a sixth of the world's area with about 35% of its population and a quarter of its roads. In 1919, 104 of the world's territories were LHT and an equal number were RHT. From 1919 to 1986, 34 of the LHT territories switched to RHT. Many of the countries with LHT were part of the British Empire. In addition, Thailand and other countries have retained the LHT tradition. Conversely, many of the countries with RHT were part of the French colonial empire or, in Europe, were subject to French rule during the Napoleonic conquests. For rail traffic, LHT predominates in Western Europe, Latin America, in countries in the British and French Empires, whereas North American and central and eastern European train services operate RHT.
According to the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, water traffic is RHT: a vessel proceeding along a narrow channel must keep to starboard, when two power-driven vessels are meeting head-on both must alter course to starboard also. For aircraft the US Federal Aviation Regulations suggest RHT principles, both in the air and on water. In LHT vehicles keep left, cars are RHD with the steering wheel on the right-hand side and the driver sitting on the offside or side closest to the centre of the road; the passenger sits on the nearside, closest to the kerb. Roundabouts circulate clockwise. In RHT everything is reversed: cars keep right, the driver sits on the left side of the car, roundabouts circulate anticlockwise. Ancient Greek and Roman troops kept to the left when marching. In 1998, archaeologists found a well-preserved double track leading to a Roman quarry near Swindon, in southern England; the grooves in the road on the left side were much deeper than those on the right side, suggesting LHT, at least at this location, since carts would exit the quarry loaded, enter it empty.
In the year 1300, Pope Boniface VIII directed pilgrims to keep left. Following the French Revolution, all traffic in France kept right; the first reference in English law to an order for LHT was with regard to London Bridge. The United Kingdom is LHT, but its overseas territories of Gibraltar and British Indian Ocean Territory are RHT. In the late 1960s, the UK Department for Transport considered switching to RHT, but declared it unsafe and too costly for such a built-up nation. Road building standards, for motorways in particular, allow asymmetrically designed road junctions, where merge and diverge lanes differ in length. Sweden switched to RHT in 1967, having been LHT since from about 1734 despite having land borders with RHT countries, 90 percent of cars being left-hand drive vehicles. A referendum was held in 1955, with an overwhelming majority voting against a change to RHT; some years the government ordered a conversion, which took place at 5 am on Sunday, 3 September 1967. The accident rate dropped after the change, but soon rose back to near its original level.
The day was known as the'H' being for Högertrafik. When Iceland switched the following year, it was known as H-dagurinn, again meaning "H-Day". Most passenger cars were LHD. LHT was used in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, when the empire was split up, the countries all changed to RHT. Austria switched sides in 1921 in Vorarlberg, 1930 in North Tyrol, 1935 in Carinthia and East Tyrol, in 1938 in the rest of the country. Partitions of Poland changed to RHT in the 1920s, Partitions belonging to the German Empire and the Russian Empire were RHT. Croatia-Slavonia switched to RHT on joining the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, although Istria and Dalmatia were RHT. Nazi Germany introduced the switch to right-hand traffic in Czechoslovakia and Slovakia in 1938–39. West Ukraine was LHT, although the rest of Ukraine, having been part of the Russian Empire drove on the right. In Romania Transylvania, the Banat and Bukovina were LHT until 1919, while Wallachia and Moldavia were RHT. In Italy the countryside was RHT while cities were LHT until 1927.
Rome changed to RHT in 1924 and Milan in 1926. Alfa Romeo and Lancia did produce RHD cars until as late as 1950 and 1953 only to special order, as many drivers favoured the RHD layout in RHT as this offered the driver a clearer view of the edge of the road in mountainous regions at a time when many such roads lacked barriers or walls; the Rome Metro uses LHT. Finland ruled as part of LHT Sweden, switched to RHT in 1858 as the Grand Duchy of Finland by Russian decree. Rotterdam was LHT until 1917, although the rest Today, four countries in Europe continue to use left-hand traffic, all island nations: the UK, Cyprus and Malta. LHT was introduced in British West Africa. All of the countries part of this colony have borders with former French RHT jurisdictions and have switched sides since decolonization; these include Ghana, The Gambia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria. LHT was introduced by the British in the East Africa Protectorate and the Cape Colony. All of these have remained LHT. Sudan part of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan switched to RHT in 1973, as it
Far East Command (United States)
Far East Command was a United States military command from 1947 until 1957, functionally organised to undertake the occupation of Japan. It was created on 1 January 1947, abolished, with functions transferred to Pacific Command, effective 1 July 1957, pursuant to Joint Chiefs of Staff 1259/378. From 1947–51 it was commanded by General Douglas MacArthur, succeeded by Generals Matthew Ridgway and Mark Clark. Commanders were Generals John E. Hull, Maxwell D. Taylor, Lyman Lemnitzer, its initial army forces in 1947 comprised Eighth Army, XXIV Corps/U. S. Army Forces in Korea, the Ryukyus and Marianas-Bonins Commands. There was no overall headquarters for the ground elements within the Far East Command, the five separate ground commands reported directly to CINCFE. Far East Air Forces and Naval Forces Far East reported directly to CINCFE giving MacArthur seven subordinate military headquarters; the Marianas-Bonins Command was established in January 1947 as result a major reorganization of U. S. military forces in the Asia/Pacific region.
The MARBO SSI was approved on 8 August 1948. Whether to place the Bonin and Mariana Islands under PACOM or FECOM became a bone of contention; the Navy saw all Pacific islands as one strategic entity, while the Army insisted that FECOM be able to draw upon military resources in the Bonin-Marianas during an emergency. Accordingly, the Commander in Chief, Far East, was given control over local forces and facilities in these islands, while naval administration and logistics there fell under Commander in Chief, Pacific. Following signing of the Japanese Instrument of Surrender, 2 September 1945, the Ryukyu Islands were administered by the Department of the Navy, 21 September 1945 – 30 June 1946, with Commanding Officer, Naval Operating Base, Okinawa functioning as chief military government officer under authority of Commander-in-Chief, U. S. Pacific Fleet. Transfer of administration from the Department of the Navy to the War Department was authorized by Joint Chiefs of Staff approval, 1 April 1946.
Pursuant to implementing instructions of General Headquarters U. S. Army Forces in the Pacific, the Okinawa Base Command was redesignated Ryukyus Command, effective 1 July 1946, by General Order 162, Headquarters U. S. Army Forces, Western Pacific, made responsible for administration under a Deputy Commander for Military Government; the Ryukyu Islands was administered successively by Ryukyus Command, 1 July – 30 November 1946. All were headquartered at Fort Buckner; the PHILRYCOM marriage of convenience did not last out 1948, as the command was separated into a Philippine Command and a Ryukyus Command on 1 August 1948. In June 1950 GHQ, FEC, located in Tokyo, with main offices in the Dai Ichi Building, had Maj. Gen. Edward M. Almond as chief of staff and Maj. Gen. Doyle O. Hickey as deputy chief of staff; the major subordinate Army commands were Eighth Army, commanded by Lt. Gen. Walton H. Walker. In the Philippines, the Thirteenth Air Force controlled U. S. installations through PHILCOM, a small and diminishing headquarters commanded by Maj. Gen. Howard M. Turner USAF.
Naval Forces, Far East, were commanded by Vice Adm. C. Turner Joy. Far East Air Forces came under Lt. Gen. George E. Stratemeyer. FEAF and NavFE headquarters were located in Tokyo in buildings separate from GHQ, FEC. XVI Corps was activated in April 1951 as the command reserve. In 1951, during the Korean War, the Joint Chiefs of Staff shifted responsibility for the Bonins and Marianas as well as the Philippines and Taiwan from FECOM to PACOM; the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands was established, effective 15 December 1950, by a directive of Headquarters Far East Command. That directive ordered Commander-in-Chief Far East, Gen. Douglas MacArthur, to organize a civil administration for the Ryukyu Islands in accordance with JCS 1231/14 October 4, 1950. USCAR continued to function under the Department of the Army from 1950 to 1971. Hal M. Friedman, Arguing Over the American Lake: Bureaucracy and Rivalry in the U. S. Pacific, 1945–1947, Volume 126 of Texas A & M University military history series: Texas A and M University, Texas A&M University Press, 2009, ISBN 1603441255, 9781603441254.
The History of the Unified Command Plan 1946 – 1993