Commandant of the Coast Guard
The Commandant of the United States Coast Guard is the service chief and highest-ranking member of the United States Coast Guard. The Commandant is an admiral, appointed for a four-year term by the President of the United States upon confirmation by the United States Senate; the Commandant is assisted by a vice commandant, an admiral, two Area Commanders and two Deputy Commandants, all of whom are vice admirals. Though the United States Coast Guard is one of the five military branches of the United States, unlike the other service chiefs, the Commandant of the Coast Guard is not a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff; the Commandant is, entitled to the same supplemental pay as the Joint Chiefs, per 37 U. S. C. § 414, is accorded privilege of the floor under Senate Rule XXIII as a de facto JCS member during Presidential addresses. The Commandant maintains operational command over the Coast Guard, unlike the chiefs of the other services, who serve only administrative roles. Thus, while the operational chain of command for the other services goes from the President through the Secretary of Defense to the combatant commanders of the unified combatant commands and control of the Coast Guard goes from the President through the Secretary of Homeland Security through to the Commandant.
Prior to the creation of the Department of Homeland Security in 2003, the United States Coast Guard operated under and the Commandant reported to the Secretary of Transportation from 1966 to 2003, the Secretary of the Treasury from 1790 until 1966. The title of Commandant dates to a 1923 act that distributed the commissioned line and engineer officers of the U. S. Coast Guard in grades. Before 1923, the rank and title of the head of the Coast Guard was "captain-commandant." The rank "captain-commandant" originated in the Revenue Cutter Service in 1908. The original holder of that rank was the Chief of the Revenue Cutter Service; the Coast Guard traces the lineage of Commandants back to Captain Leonard G. Shepard, chief of the Revenue Marine Bureau though he never received the title of Captain-Commandant; the Captain-Commandant position was created in 1908 when Captain Worth G. Ross was the first to hold the position. Although he was retired, Ross's predecessor, Captain Charles F. Shoemaker, was elevated to the rank of Captain-Commandant.
Shoemaker's predecessor, Captain Shepard, had died and was not elevated to the rank. Chiefs exercised centralized control over the Revenue Marine Bureau. Captain Alexander V. Fraser, USRM, 1843–1848 Captain Richard Evans, USRM, 1848–1849In 1849 the Revenue Marine Bureau was dissolved, the Revenue Marine fell under the control the Commissioner of Customs until the Revenue Marine Bureau was again established in 1869. N. Broughton Devereux, 1869–1871 Sumner I. Kimball, 1871–1878 Ezra Clark, 1878–1885 Peter Bonnett, 1885–1889 There have been 26 Commandants of the Coast Guard since the office of Chief of the Revenue Marine Bureau was transferred to a military billet; this includes the current Commandant. Vice Commandant of the United States Coast Guard Master Chief Petty Officer of the Coast Guard Footnotes Citations References cited Commandant's official website
Vice Commandant of the United States Coast Guard
The Vice Commandant serves as the second-in-command of the United States Coast Guard. Since 1929, 31 officers have served as Vice Commandant, or, as the position was referred to before 1972, Assistant Commandant; the title of the position was changed effective October 1972, pursuant to Pub. L. 92–451. This position has been held by a vice admiral until the Coast Guard Authorization Act of 2015 elevated the statutory rank for the position to admiral. Commandant of the Coast Guard Master Chief Petty Officer of the Coast Guard Vice Commandants of the Coast Guard Vice Commandant's official website
Coast Guard Investigative Service
The Coast Guard Investigative Service is a division of the United States Coast Guard that investigates crimes where the U. S. Coast Guard has an interest, it is composed of civilian, active duty, reserve enlisted, warrant officer Special Agents. The mission of the Coast Guard Investigative Service is to conduct professional criminal investigations, engage in law enforcement information and intelligence collection, provide protective services, establish and maintain law enforcement liaison directed at preserving the integrity of the Coast Guard, protecting the welfare of Coast Guard people, supporting Coast Guard and Department of Homeland Security maritime law enforcement and counter-terrorism missions worldwide; the Coast Guard Investigative Service is a federal law enforcement agency whose law enforcement authority is derived from 14 U. S. C. § 95. This authority provides for Coast Guard special agents to conduct investigations of actual, alleged or suspected criminal activity; the criminal investigative function of the Coast Guard Investigative Service is similar to that of a major crimes unit at a large metropolitan police department, investigating crimes such as those "internal" to the Coast Guard, including fraud, larceny and rape, as well as "external" investigations of maritime-related crimes ranging from migrant and drug smuggling, rape, false distress calls, violations of the environmental laws.
The Coast Guard Investigative Service is a centralized directorship managed by a professional criminal investigator who reports directly to the Coast Guard's Vice Commandant of the Coast Guard. It is located outside the Coast Guard's operational chain of command. Felony violations of the Uniform Code of Military Justice United States Code violations related to or within the maritime jurisdiction of the U. S. Counter-narcotics and alien-smuggling investigations Fisheries Violations and Environmental Crimes Counter-terrorism and force protection Investigative assistance to federal and local law enforcement Protective service operations Assistance to U. S. Secret Service Presidential Detail Other foreign and domestic dignitaries as requested Human intelligence collection operations Image intelligence collection operations Law enforcement information collection Counterintelligence functions are investigated by the US Coast Guard Counterintelligence Service as part of US Coast Guard Intelligence.
Department of Homeland Security Office of Inspector General Hotline complaint investigations TRICARE medical fraud investigations Contract fraud investigations FBI Joint Terrorism Task Force Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Force High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area Task Force Border Enforcement Security Team INTERPOL International Association of Chiefs of Police The CGIS special agent workforce is composed of active duty military and civilian personnel. All CGIS Special Agents are sworn personnel with powers of warrant service. All CGIS Special Agents have full arrest powers under Title 95 of the United States Code; the active duty military component is composed of Enlisted Personnel, Chief Warrant Officer and Commissioned Officer investigator positions. The civilian component is composed of GS-1811-11 to SES criminal investigator positions; the Coast Guard Investigative Service's standard issue firearm is the SIG Sauer P229R DAK or SIG Sauer P239 DAK in.40 S&W. In March 2010, the character of Abigail Borin, a fictional CGIS Special Agent portrayed by actress Diane Neal, appeared on the hit television drama NCIS in an episode entitled "Jurisdiction".
Special Agent in Charge Borin appeared again in January 2011, in the episode "Ships in the Night", as CGIS joined the NCIS team in the investigation of the murder of a U. S. Marine Corps officer on a dinner boat cruise on the Potomac River; the story illustrates CGIS's law enforcement responsibilities along the United States' rivers and inland waterways in support of the Coast Guard. She returned for a third time in the episode "Safe Harbor", which had a plot that illustrated the role of the CGIS in supporting the Department of Homeland Security through maritime law enforcement and counter-terrorism missions worldwide. Borin appeared in the 2012 episode "Lost at Sea," the 2013 episode "Oil and Water," and the 2014 episode "The San Dominick." Diane Neal reprised her role as Special Agent in Charge Borin in the 2015 episode of NCIS: New Orleans "The Abyss," which showcases CGIS' role in interviewing and interrogating suspected terrorists aboard USCG vessels, their role in the recovery of remains in US waters.
She returned in the subsequent episode "The Walking Dead," and again at the conclusion of the first season, bringing Borin's total appearances to 9. List of United States federal law enforcement agencies U. S. Coast Guard Intelligence United States Coast Guard Police U. S. Coast Guard Legal Division Coast Guard Court of Criminal Appeals Special agent Military police Shore Patrol Naval Criminal Investigative Service Office of Air and Marine National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Office for Law Enforcement Diplomatic Security Service, U. S. Department of State U. S. Air Force Office of Special Investigations U. S. Army Criminal Investigation Command United States Army Counterintelligence Official website
Deployable Operations Group
The Deployable Operations Group was a United States Coast Guard command that provided properly equipped and organized Deployable Specialized Forces to Coast Guard, DHS, DoD and inter-agency operational and tactical commanders. Headquartered in Arlington, Virginia, it was established on 20 July 2007, was commanded by a captain and was decommissioned by the Commandant of the Coast Guard, Admiral Robert Papp on 1 October 2013. Although many of the units existed long before the 2007 commissioning. Upon decommissioning, the units assigned to the DOG were split between Coast Guard Pacific and Atlantic Area commands. From 2007-2013, the DOG and DSF deployed throughout the world in support of national interests and requirements as tailored and integrated force packages; this included response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake, in support of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, more deploying specialized counter piracy boarding teams to the Middle East to combat piracy operations. The DOG's purpose was to develop systems and processes for standardized training, organization and scheduling of deployable specialized forces to execute mission objectives in support of tactical and operational commanders.
The DOG was the Coast Guard's element of specialized forces, but is not a part of United States Special Operations Command because the Coast Guard does not operate under the Department of Defense. DOG units' missions include high-risk, high-profile tasks such as counter-terrorism, diving operations, intelligence-cued boardings, shipboard take-downs and threat assessments involving nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons The DOG had medics who were attached to medical teams operating within differing commands; these medics supported roles in Afghanistan and other areas with Navy and Department of Defense groups. The DOG managed Coast Guard personnel assigned to the Navy Expeditionary Combat Command, it was involved in the selection of Coast Guard candidates to attend United States Naval Special Warfare training and serve with Navy SEAL Teams. While the program is suspended there are still several Coast Guardsmen serving on SEAL Teams. DOG deployable specialized forces was composed of 3,000 Coast Guard personnel, including the following unit types: Port Security Units are deployable expeditionary force protection.
They can be abroad in support of various Department of Defense operations. Tactical Law Enforcement Teams provide specialized Law Enforcement Detachments to conduct counter-narcotics law enforcement and maritime interdiction operations from U. S. and allied naval vessels. There are two units, Tactical Law Enforcement Team South based in Opa-locka and the Pacific Area Tactical Law Enforcement Team based in San Diego, California. Maritime Safety and Security Teams are Anti-terrorism units created under the Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 in response to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001; the eleven MSSTs provide waterborne anti-terrorism and shoreside Anti-terrorism, force protection for strategic shipping, high interest vessels, critical infrastructure. MSSTs are a quick response force capable of rapid worldwide deployment via air, ground or sea transportation in response to changing threat conditions and evolving Maritime Homeland Security mission requirements. Multi-mission capability facilitates augmentation for other selected Coast Guard missions.
Other federal agencies that MSST's train with are U. S. Navy VBSS Teams, FBI, their local SWAT Teams. MSST special capabilities include: Waterside Security Maritime Law Enforcement K9 explosive detection teams The MSRT is the only unit within the Coast Guard that has counterterrorism capabilities to conduct action against hostile targets; the MSRT is trained to be the first responder to potential terrorist threats, deny preemptive terrorist actions, execute security actions against armed hostiles and/or non-compliant threats, execute tactical facility entry, participate in port level counterterrorism exercises, educate other forces on Coast Guard counterterrorism procedures. Although the MSRT's focus is on the safety and security of homeland defense, it is capable of deploying worldwide in response to incidents. Other specialized units and federal agencies that MSRT train with are U. S. Navy SEAL teams, U. S. Navy HSC Squadrons, Navy EOD, Special Mission Units, the U. S. Secret Service, FBI, U.
S. Border Patrol's BORTAC, US Customs and Border Protection SRT, their motto, as seen on their unit patch, is "Nox Noctis est Nostri", which translates to "The Night is Ours". MSRT Special Capabilities include: Counterterrorism Direct Action Advanced Interdiction Hostage Rescue/Personnel Recovery Small Unit Tactics Counter Assault Tactical Maritime Law Enforcement Medium to High risk boardings Airborne Use of Force K9 explosive detection teams CBRNEElements of the MSRT's primary assault force are known as a Direct Action Section. Members of a DAS may include a Team Leader, Comms/JTAC's, Medics, Precision Marksmen, Observation members, team members trained to identify Chemical Biological Nuclear Radiological threats; these assault force teams train extensively in advanced close quarters combat and advanced combat marksmanship. They are well equipped to and surreptitiously board suspicious vessels, secure gas and oil platforms or secure land based targets by fast-roping from helicopters or using other undisclosed methods to neutralize enemy personnel.
The Tactical Delivery Team, boat assault force, are trained in advanced vessel d
Paul F. Zukunft
Paul Frederick Zukunft is a retired United States Coast Guard admiral who served as the 25th Commandant of the U. S. Coast Guard, he was confirmed by the U. S. Senate as the Commandant, with the rank of Admiral, in May 2014 and relieved Admiral Robert J. Papp Jr. as Commandant on 30 May 2014. Prior to his selection as Commandant, he served as Coast Guard Pacific Area. In this position, Zukunft was the operational commander for all U. S. Coast Guard missions within the half of the world that ranges from the Rocky Mountains to the waters off the East Coast of Africa, he concurrently served as Commander, Defense Force West and provided U. S. Coast Guard mission support to the U. S. Department of Defense and Combatant Commanders. Previous flag assignments include The Assistant Commandant for Marine Safety and Stewardship. S. Coast Guard Pacific Area. Zukunft wears the permanent Cutterman Insignia and is a certified NIMS ICS Type I Incident Commander, his personal awards include the Department of Homeland Security Distinguished Service Medal, Coast Guard Distinguished Service Medal, Defense Superior Service Medal, three Legion of Merit, five Meritorious Service Medals with "O" device among others.
Zukunft is a native of North Branford, Connecticut. He graduated from the United States Coast Guard Academy in 1977 with a Bachelor of Science degree in Government, he attended Webster University in 1988 where he received his Master of Arts degree in Management, the U. S. Naval War College in 1997 graduating with a Master of Arts degree in National Security and Strategic Studies, he is a graduate of the Asia Pacific Center for Security Studies Executive Seminar and Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government National Preparedness Leadership Initiative course. Zukunft was promoted to flag rank in 2006, his six previous flag assignments include The Assistant Commandant for Marine Safety and Stewardship. Additionally, Zukunft served as the Federal On-Scene Coordinator for the Deepwater Horizon Spill of National Significance in 2010, directed more than 47,000 responders, 6,500 vessels and 120 aircraft during one of the largest oil spills in U. S. history. Zukunft has served at sea, commanding USCGC Rush, USCGC Harriet Lane, USCGC Cape Upright.
Zukunft's senior staff assignments include Chief of Operations, Coast Guard Pacific Area and Chief of Operations Oversight, Coast Guard Atlantic Area where he directly supervised all major cutter operations in the Atlantic and Pacific theaters. He served as the Chief of Staff of the Fourteenth Coast Guard District in Honolulu. On 28 February 2014, United States Secretary of Homeland Security Jeh Johnson announced that U. S. President Barack Obama intended to nominate Zukunft for the position of Commandant of the U. S. Coast Guard, succeeding Admiral Robert J. Papp Jr, he was confirmed by the Senate on 15 May 2014, frocked to full Admiral the same day. He assumed the office of Commandant on 30 May 2014
Cape May Bird Observatory
Not to be confused with the Isle of May bird observatory in Scotland. The Cape May Bird Observatory was founded in 1975 in Cape May, New Jersey, United States and is sponsored by the New Jersey Audubon Society; the purpose of the Cape May Bird Observatory is to conduct research, encourage conservation, organize educational and recreational birding activities. It consists of two separate centers: the Center for Research and Education in Cape May Court House in the central part of Cape May County, the Northwood Center in Cape May Point. Cape May is at a crossroads for bird migration; every spring and fall, thousands of migrating birds pass through the area. Subsequently, birders from all over the world have flocked to Cape May to witness the migrations. Former Cape May Bird Observatory Director Paul Kerlinger published landmark studies on ecotourism in the 1990s, showing the impact of ecotourism dollars on Cape May and several other tourist areas with wildlife refuges; the United States Fish and Wildlife Service honored his work with a special citation by director Molly Beattie.
The Cape May Bird Observatory, as part of the New Jersey Audubon Society helps to organize the World Series of Birding each May. The World Series, as well as other birding festivals, such as the Cape May Fall Weekend, bring hundreds of people to the Cape May area, who enjoy its rich avifauna and support the local economy; the Cape May area is home to many birding authors, including Dunne, Kerlinger and Clay Sutton, Michael O'Brien, Richard Crossley and Kevin Karlson. Author David Allen Sibley was a Cape May birder. Sibley wrote his classic field guide, The Sibley Guide to Birds, while he was living and birding in Cape May Point. Official website
Cape May Historic District
The Cape May Historic District is an area of 380 acres with over 600 buildings in the resort town of Cape May, Cape May County, New Jersey. The city claims to be America's first seaside resort and has numerous buildings in the Late Victorian style, including the Eclectic and Shingle styles, as well as the Bungalow style. According to National Park Service architectural historian Carolyn Pitts, "Cape May has one of the largest collections of late 19th century frame buildings left in the United States... that give it a homogeneous architectural character, a kind of textbook of vernacular American building." The City of Cape May sits at the south end of Cape May Peninsula which divides the Atlantic Ocean from the Delaware Bay. Cape May Point, about two miles west of the City of Cape May, borders the Bay, while Cape May City borders the Ocean. Cape Island Creek, a tidal "creek" and marsh divided the site of the city from the rest of Cape May, but its southern end has long been covered with landfill.
The Cape May Canal, built in 1942, now divides both Cape May City and Cape May Point from the rest of the peninsula. Cape May was first discovered by Europeans by Henry Hudson on August 28, 1609, he landed on the shore of Delaware Bay a few miles north of Cape May Point before returning to the Atlantic Ocean. Cornelius Mey explored the area further in 1621 for the Dutch West India Company and by May, 1630 Samuel Godyn and Samuel Blommaert bought land for the Dutch from Native Americans covering the southern four miles of the Cape. In 1632 the Dutch established a fishing and whaling settlement in the area, but by 1638 colonists from New England had moved in. By the 1660s the English gained control and Daniel Coxe, a London Quaker, organized a government in 1687. Early settlers worked in the lumber, whaling and shellfish industries. A road along the coast built in 1796 helped establish the hamlet of Cape May; the early emergence of Cape May as a summer resort was due to easy transport by water from Philadelphia to the Atlantic Ocean.
Early Cape May vacationers were carried to the town on sloops from Philadelphia, water transport was easy from New York, Washington, D. C. and points south. Southerners became a large proportion of summer vacationers; the resort business in Cape May began to thrive when regular steamboat traffic on the Delaware River began after the War of 1812, carrying passengers from Philadelphia and New Castle, Delaware. Commodore Stephen Decatur made his summer home at the Atlantic Hotel about this time; the predecessor of the Congress Hall Hotel was opened in 1816 by Thomas Hughes. It took its current name in 1828. In 1830 a visitor wrote that Cape May Island is a noted and much frequented watering place, the season at which commences about the first of July and continues until the middle of August or the first of September. There are six boarding houses, three of which are large. Early visitors included Henry Clay in 1847, Abraham Lincoln in 1849. Serving Presidents who visited included Franklin Pierce, James Buchanan, Ulysses Grant, Chester Arthur, Benjamin Harrison.
Harrison made Congress Hall his Summer White House. From the 1850s through the 1880s up to 3,000 visitors arrived each day during the summer season. Newport, Rhode Island, Saratoga Springs, New York and Long Branch, New Jersey were the town's main rivals in the summer resort business, as Cape May's reputation rose and fell with the whims of fashion. During the 1850s summer cottages were first built and the construction of large hotels continued. Thomas U. Walter, the Architect of the Capitol, designed an addition to the Columbia Hotel; the Mount Vernon Hotel, designed to be the largest hotel in the world burned down in 1856, before its completion. Competition from Atlantic City appeared in 1854 with the construction of the Camden and Atlantic Railroad. Cape May was not connected to Philadelphia by rail until the completion of the Cape May & Millville Railroad in the mid-1860s. Architect Stephen Decatur Button began designing buildings in Cape May in 1863 when he remodeled and expanded the Columbia Hotel.
During the next thirty years he designed over forty buildings in the town. His best known buildings there include the John McCreary House, Jackson's Clubhouse, the Stockton Cottages, the Windsor Hotel and the Atlantic Terrace Houses. Plans for the George Allen House are believed to have been taken from a pattern book by Samuel Sloan. Architect Frank Furness is believed to have designed the Emlen Physick Estate, but may have otherwise visited Cape May only as a vacationer. Otherwise most of the buildings were built and designed by local builders in the vernacular style, borrowing from older buildings, pattern books and fashionable architects alike. Several fires destroyed portions of the town and the wooden, frame-built houses; the fire of 1878 destroyed about half the town, but many buildings were rebuilt. This fire gave a particular boost to Button's career, many of the local builders appear to have copied Button's style at this time. From about 1900-1920 larger bungalows and mansions were built on Beach Avenue on the eastern end of town.
Having lost its transportation advantage with the coming of the railroad and the automobile, Cape May fell out of fashion as a popular resort. Atlantic City became the popular New Jersey beach resort in the 1920s and in the 1950s and 1960s the automobile-oriented Wildwoods, just north of Cape May, became a strong competitor, with its own di