United States Botanic Garden
The United States Botanic Garden is a botanic garden on the grounds of the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C. near Garfield Circle. The U. S. Botanic Garden is supervised by the Congress through the Architect of the Capitol, responsible for maintaining the grounds of the United States Capitol; the USBG is open every day including federal holidays. It is the oldest continually operating botanic garden in the United States; the Columbian Institute for the Promotion of Arts and Sciences in Washington, D. C. first suggested the creation of a botanic garden in 1816. The idea of establishing a botanic garden in Washington, D. C. was supported by the Washington Botanical Society, organized in 1817, many of whose members were members of the Columbian Institute, however this society disbanded in 1826. In 1820, President James Monroe set aside 5 acres for a "national greenhouse." Dr. Edward Cutbush and first president of the Columbian Institute, was one of the earliest advocates for a plant repository and saw the necessity for a botanical garden "where various seeds and plants could be cultivated, and, as they multiplied, distributed to other parts of the Union."The tract, swamp land, was located next to the Smithsonian Museum and a mere eighty feet from the steps of the Capitol.
The land was situated between First and Third streets and Pennsylvania and Maryland avenues on the west side of the Capitol building. It was owned by David Burnes, the Scots farmer who owned much of the site of the city of Washington, he had been warned in 1796 that if he chose to plant crops "on the avenue and the Mall", it was at his own risk as something might be done "almost any time" to make a thoroughfare. It is probable that Thomas Jefferson was the first influential person who took an interest in cleaning up the brush that covered the land. By 1810, some rows of Lombardy poplars had been planted, the avenue itself "was too much of a morass" to be traversed on horseback. One of the greatest accomplishments of the institution was the creation of a botanic garden in 1821. "By the end of 1823 the swampy tract of land granted by Congress had been drained and leveled, an elliptical pond with an island at its center constructed, four graveled walks laid out. Trees and shrubs were planted, the garden was maintained as well as scanty funds would permit until the institute expired in 1837, one year before the termination of its charter."On May 26, 1824, the grounds were extended and in 1825, they were enclosed.
"There seems to be no record of what plantings were made by the Columbian Institute. The institute had expended $1,500 on the grounds for walks and plantings and had asked Congress to be reimbursed, but this request was not granted."Although the membership roster of the Columbian Institution included many distinguished citizens and several presidents, they were unable to raise money for the greenhouse and lecture hall. Meetings were held in a variety of temporary offices, including a committee room in the capitol building that Congress granted use of on December 20, 1828. Despite all the hardships, the Institute launched an enthusiastic effort to collect plants and seeds. In 1826, a committee was appointed to meet with heads of government departments to help solicit "all subjects of natural history that may be deemed interesting" from foreign representatives; the following year, Secretary of the Treasury, Richard Rush was involved in the solicitation by circulating a letter to foreign dignitaries."
In the letter he stated that President John Quincy Adams was "desirous of causing to be introduced into the United States all such trees and plants from other countries not heretofore known in the United States, as may give promise, under proper cultivation, of flourishing and becoming useful...."The publicity was successful. Plants and seeds made their way to the Institute from as far away as Brazil; some came from areas nearby, such as Montgomery County in Maryland. In 1824, a List of Plants in the Botanic Garden of the Columbian Institute was prepared by William Elliot; the pamphlet mentioned more than 458 plants growing at that time. Sixteen years passed and by 1836, no further improvements had been made on the property. "The tract was a stagnant and malarial swamp and Congress was prevailed upon to make an appropriation of $5,000 for improvements." The funds were used to erect a fountain. Financial woes continued to plague the Institute, there was "never enough money from contributions for proper maintenance of the garden and plant collections."
The facility ceased to operate in 1837. However it was re-instituted in 1842 when the Wilkes expedition of the South Seas brought back a collection of plants. In 1838, Lieutenant Charles Wilkes set out on the United States Exploring Expedition commissioned by Congress to circumnavigate the globe and explore the Pacific Ocean. Between the years 1838–1842, the expedition, consisting of six government ships, traveled 87,000 miles and collected a large assortment of horticultural and botanical specimens; these formed the nucleus of the present garden. The expedition confirmed that Antarctica was a continent; the staff included a botanist, W. D. Breckenridge who brought back a large collection of specimens, including seeds and cuttings; because the garden was situated in a swamp, early attempts at cultivation were not successful, during 1842. During this trip, Wilkes collected live and dried specimens of plants and was one of the first to use wardian cases to maintain live plants on long voyages. Mem
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, the District of Columbia to its south and west. The state's largest city is Baltimore, its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, the Chesapeake Bay State, it is named after the English queen Henrietta Maria, known in England as Queen Mary. Sixteen of Maryland's twenty-three counties border the tidal waters of the Chesapeake Bay estuary and its many tributaries, which combined total more than 4,000 miles of shoreline. Although one of the smallest states in the U. S. it features a variety of climates and topographical features that have earned it the moniker of America in Miniature. In a similar vein, Maryland's geography and history combines elements of the Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic regions of the country. One of the original Thirteen Colonies of Great Britain, Maryland was founded by George Calvert, a Catholic convert who sought to provide a religious haven for Catholics persecuted in England.
In 1632, Charles I of England granted Calvert a colonial charter, naming the colony after his wife, Queen Mary. Unlike the Pilgrims and Puritans, who enforced religious conformity in their settlements, Calvert envisioned a colony where people of different religious sects would coexist under the principle of toleration. Accordingly, in 1649 the Maryland General Assembly passed an Act Concerning Religion, which enshrined this principle by penalizing anyone who "reproached" a fellow Marylander based on religious affiliation. Religious strife was common in the early years, Catholics remained a minority, albeit in greater numbers than in any other English colony. Maryland's early settlements and population centers clustered around rivers and other waterways that empty into the Chesapeake Bay, its economy was plantation-based, centered on the cultivation of tobacco. The need for cheap labor led to a rapid expansion of indentured servants, penal labor, African slaves. In 1760, Maryland's current boundaries took form following the settlement of a long-running border dispute with Pennsylvania.
Maryland was an active participant in the events leading up to the American Revolution, by 1776 its delegates signed the Declaration of Independence. Many of its citizens subsequently played key military roles in the war. In 1790, the state ceded land for the establishment of the U. S. capital of Washington, D. C. Although a slave state, Maryland remained in the Union during the U. S. Civil War, its strategic location giving it a significant role in the conflict. After the war, Maryland took part in the Industrial Revolution, driven by its seaports, railroad networks, mass immigration from Europe. Since the Second World War, the state's population has grown to six million residents, it is among the most densely populated states in the nation; as of 2015, Maryland had the highest median household income of any state, owing in large part to its close proximity to Washington, D. C. and a diversified economy spanning manufacturing, higher education, biotechnology. Maryland has been ranked as one of the best governed states in the country.
The state's central role in American history is reflected by its hosting of some of the highest numbers of historic landmarks per capita. Maryland is comparable in overall area with Belgium, it is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii, the next smaller state. The next larger state, its neighbor West Virginia, is twice the size of Maryland. Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature, it ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and large bald cypress near the Chesapeake Bay, to rolling hills of oak forests in the Piedmont Region, pine groves in the Maryland mountains to the west. Maryland is bounded on its north by Pennsylvania, on its west by West Virginia, on its east by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean, on its south, across the Potomac River, by West Virginia and Virginia; the mid-portion of this border is interrupted by District of Columbia, which sits on land, part of Montgomery and Prince George's counties and including the town of Georgetown, Maryland.
This land was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia.. The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Most of the state's waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a tiny portion of extreme western Garrett County, the eastern half of Worcester County, a small portion of the state's northeast corner. So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland's geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state's official nickname to the "Bay State", a nickname, used by Massachusetts for decades; the highest point in Maryland, with an elevation of 3,360 feet, is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain, in the southwest corner of Garrett County, near the bo
Tim Ryan (Ohio politician)
Timothy John Ryan is an American politician serving as the U. S. Representative for Ohio's 13th congressional district since 2003; the district, numbered as the 17th district from 2003 to 2013, takes in a large swath of northeast Ohio, from Youngstown to Akron. Ryan is a member of the Democratic Party. Born in Niles, Ryan worked as an aide to Congressman Jim Traficant after graduating from Bowling Green State University, he served in the Ohio Senate from 2001 to 2002 before winning election to succeed Traficant. In November 2016, Ryan launched an unsuccessful challenge to unseat Nancy Pelosi as party leader of the House Democrats. On April 4, 2019, Ryan announced his candidacy for president of the United States. Ryan was born in Niles, the son of Rochelle Maria and Allen Leroy Ryan. Ryan's parents divorced when he was seven years old, Ryan was raised by his mother. Ryan graduated from John F. Kennedy High School in Warren, where he played football as a quarterback and coached junior high basketball.
Ryan was recruited to play football at Youngstown State University, but a knee injury ended his playing career and he transferred to Bowling Green State University. He received a Bachelor of Arts degree in political science from Bowling Green in 1995 and was a member of Delta Tau Delta fraternity. After college, Ryan joined the staff of Ohio Congressman Jim Traficant. In 2000, he earned a Juris Doctor degree from Franklin Pierce Law Center in New Hampshire. From 2000 to 2002 he served half a term in the Ohio State Senate. After Jim Traficant was convicted on criminal charges in 2002, Ryan declared his candidacy for the 17th District; as the result of redistricting following the 2000 census, the 17th, which had long been based in Youngstown, had been pushed to the west and now included much of Portage County and part of Akron. Before the redistricting, all of Akron had been part of the 14th District, represented by eight-term Democrat Tom Sawyer; the 14th had been eliminated in the year 2000 redistricting.
Ryan was seen as an underdog in a six-way Democratic primary that included Sawyer. In the 2002 Democratic primary, Ryan defeated Sawyer, seen as insufficiently labor-friendly in the newly-drawn district. In the November 2002 general election, he faced Republican Insurance Commissioner Ann Womer Benjamin as well as Traficant, who ran as an independent from his prison cell. Ryan won with 51 percent of the vote; when he took office in January 2003, he was the youngest Democrat in the House, at 29 years of age. He has been reelected five times. In 2010, he was held to 53 percent of the vote. In every other election since his first run for the district, Ryan has won at least 67 percent of the vote, his district was renumbered as the 13th in 2012, was pushed westward, absorbing most of Akron. In his first year in office, Ryan was one of seven members of Congress who voted against the Do-Not-Call Implementation Act, one of 8 Congressmen who opposed ratification of FTC's establishment of a National Do Not Call Registry.
Ryan was a member of the "30 Something" Working Group, a Congressional caucus that includes those members of the United States House of Representatives who are Democrats and have not yet reached the age of 40. It was organized by the Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi to energize and engage younger people in politics by focusing on issues that are important to them. Ryan voted for the Stupak Amendment restricting federal funding for abortions, but in January 2015, he announced that having "gained a deeper understanding of the complexities and emotions that accompany the difficult decisions " over his time in public office, he had reversed his position on abortion and now identified as pro-choice. Before the 2004 presidential election, Ryan spoke on the House floor in an impassioned speech denouncing the Bush administration’s denial of a draft reinstatement, comparing this to the administration's previous claims that Iraq was developing weapons of mass destruction, the Bush tax cuts would create jobs, other such claims.
He repeated in September 2006 with an heated speech accusing the Bush administration of trying to distract the public from key issues like the war in Iraq and the economy. In 2010, Ryan introduced the Currency Reform for Fair Trade Act, which sought punitive trade tariffs on countries, notably China, that were engaging in currency manipulation, it never made it to the floor in the Senate. In an October 2010 interview with conservative magazine Human Events, Ryan said tax increases on small businesses were necessary "because we have huge deficits. We gotta shore up Social Security. We gotta shrink our deficits". Ryan initiated a bid to replace Pelosi as House Minority Leader on November 17, 2016, prompted by colleagues following the 2016 presidential election. After Pelosi agreed to give more leadership opportunities to junior members, she defeated Ryan by a vote of 134–63 on November 30. Ryan helped Adi Othman, an illegal immigrant in Youngstown, remain in the United States. Othman had lived in the United States for nearly 40 years, ran several businesses in Youngstown, was married to a US citizen and had four US-born children.
Ryan presented a bill to Congress whereby Othman would be granted a more thorough review of his case to stay in the United States.
Roy Dean Blunt is an American politician, the senior United States Senator from Missouri, serving since 2011. A member of the Republican Party, he served as a member of the United States House of Representatives and as Missouri Secretary of State. Born in Niangua, Blunt is a graduate of Southwest Baptist University and Missouri State University. After serving as Missouri Secretary of State from 1985 to 1993, he was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives for Missouri's 7th Congressional District in 1996. There he served as Republican Whip from 2003 to 2009. Blunt ran for United States Senate in 2010; the following year, he was elected vice-chairman of the Senate Republican Conference. Blunt is the dean of Missouri's Congressional delegation, was elected to serve as Policy Committee chairman in November 2018. Blunt was born in Niangua, the son of Neva Dora and Leroy Blunt, a politician, he earned a B. A. degree in history in 1970 from Southwest Baptist University. During his time in college, he received three draft deferments from the Vietnam War.
Two years he earned a master's degree in history from Missouri State University. Blunt was a high school history teacher at Marshfield High School from 1970 to 1972, taught at Southwest Baptist University and as a member of the adjunct faculty at Drury University, he went on to serve as president of Southwest Baptist University, his alma mater, from 1993-96. Blunt entered politics in 1973, when he was appointed county clerk and chief election official of Greene County, Missouri, he was subsequently served a total of 12 years. In 1980 incumbent Republican Lieutenant Governor Bill Phelps ran for governor. Blunt, the Greene County Clerk, decided to run for the open seat and won the Republican primary, but lost the general election to State Representative Ken Rothman 56%–44%. In 1984, after incumbent Democratic Missouri Secretary of State James C. Kirkpatrick decided to retire, Blunt ran for the position and won the Republican primary with 79% of the vote. In the general election, he defeated Democratic State Representative Gary D. Sharpe 54%–46%.
He became the first Republican to hold the post in 50 years. In 1988, he won reelection against Democrat James Askew 61%–38%. Since incumbent Republican Governor John Ashcroft was term-limited, Blunt ran for the governorship in 1992. Missouri Attorney General William Webster won the Republican primary, defeating Blunt and Missouri Treasurer Wendell Bailey 44%–40%–15%. Webster lost the general election to Mel Carnahan. In 1996 Blunt decided to run for the United States House of Representatives after incumbent U. S. Representative Mel Hancock honored his pledge to serve only four terms. Blunt ran in Missouri's 7th congressional district, the state's most conservative district, in the Ozark Mountains in the southwest. Blunt's political action committee is the Rely on Your Beliefs Fund. On August 6, 1996, he won the Republican primary, defeating Gary Nodler 56%–44%. In the general election, he defeated Democrat Ruth Bamberger 65%–32%. EducationBlunt supported the No Child Left Behind Act, he voted in favor of school vouchers within the District of Columbia but against broader legislation allowing states to use federal money to issue vouchers for private or religious schools.
He received a 17% rating from the National Education Association in 2003. Fiscal issuesBlunt received a 97% rating from the United States Chamber of Commerce, he supported efforts to overhaul U. S. bankruptcy laws, requiring consumers who seek bankruptcy protection to repay more of their debts. Blunt opposes federal cap and trade legislation and supports drilling for oil on the U. S. coastline. He does not believe in man-made global warming, stating: "There isn't any real science to say we are altering the climate or path of the Earth." Gun policyBlunt voted to prohibit lawsuits against gun manufacturers and dealers if the guns they manufacture or sell are used in a crime. He has voted to require anyone who purchases a gun at a gun show to go through a background check that must be completed within 24 hours, he has received an "A" rating from the National Rifle Association. Health policyBlunt chaired the House Republican Health Care Solutions Group. In 2006, Blunt advocated for legislation that placed restrictions on over-the-counter cold medicines that could be used in the production of methamphetamines.
The legislation, called the Combat Meth Act, was opposed by retail and drug lobbyists. In August 2009, Blunt stated in two separate newspaper interviews that, because he was 59 years old, "In either Canada or Great Britain, if I broke my hip, I couldn't get it replaced." He stated he had heard the statement in Congressional testimony by "some people who are supposed to be experts on Canadian health care." The PolitiFact service of the St. Petersburg Times reported that it could not find any such testimony. In 2012, Blunt attempted to add an amendment to a highway funding bill that would allow employers to refuse to provide health insurance for birth control and contraceptives. In a press release, Blunt defended the amendment on the grounds that it protected the First Amendment rights of religious employers. Minimum wageBlunt voted against HR 2007-018, which raised the federal minimum wage to $7.25 per hour. Social issuesHe has voted to ban partial-birth abortions and to restrict or criminalize transporting minors across state lines for the purpose of getting an abortion.
He opposes federal funding for elective abortions in accordance with the Hyde Amendment. He voted in favor of the unsuccessful Federal Marriage Amendment which sought to
Hungary is a country in Central Europe. Spanning 93,030 square kilometres in the Carpathian Basin, it borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, Slovenia to the west. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union; the official language is Hungarian, the most spoken Uralic language in the world, among the few non-Indo-European languages to be spoken in Europe. Hungary's capital and largest city is Budapest; the territory of modern Hungary was for centuries inhabited by a succession of peoples, including Celts, Germanic tribes, West Slavs and the Avars. The foundations of the Hungarian state were established in the late ninth century CE by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád following the conquest of the Carpathian Basin, his great-grandson Stephen I ascended the throne in 1000, converting his realm to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a regional power, reaching its cultural and political height in the 15th century.
Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Hungary was occupied by the Ottoman Empire. It came under Habsburg rule at the turn of the 18th century, joined Austria to form the Austro–Hungarian Empire, a major European power; the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed after World War I, the subsequent Treaty of Trianon established Hungary's current borders, resulting in the loss of 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Following the tumultuous interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a satellite state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a socialist republic spanning four decades; the country gained widespread international attention as a result of its 1956 revolution and the seminal opening of its previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989, which accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. On 23 October 1989, Hungary became a democratic parliamentary republic.
Hungary is an OECD high-income economy and has the world's 58th largest economy by PPP. It ranks 45th on the Human Development Index, owing in large part to its social security system, universal health care, tuition-free secondary education. Hungary's rich cultural history includes significant contributions to the arts, literature, sports and technology, it is the 13th most popular tourist destination in Europe, attracting 15.8 million international tourists in 2017, owing to attractions such as the largest thermal water cave system in the world, second largest thermal lake, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest natural grasslands in Europe. Hungary's cultural and academic prominence classify it as a middle power in global affairs. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and has been part of the Schengen Area since 2007, it is a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe, the Visegrád Group.
The "H" in the name of Hungary is most due to early founded historical associations with the Huns, who had settled Hungary prior to the Avars. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Byzantine Greek Oungroi. According to an explanation,the Greek name was borrowed from Old Bulgarian ągrinŭ, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the collective name for the tribes who joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars; the Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of ország. The word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri; the first element magy is from Proto-Ugric *mäńć-'man, person' found in the name of the Mansi people. The second element eri,'man, lineage', survives in Hungarian férj'husband', is cognate with Mari erge'son', Finnish archaic yrkä'young man'; the Roman Empire conquered the territory west of the Danube between 35 and 9 BC. From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century, Pannonia was part of the Roman Empire, located within part of Hungary's territory.
Around AD 41–54, a 500-strong cavalry unit created the settlement of Aquincum and a Roman legion of 6,000 men was stationed here by AD 89. A civil city grew in the neighbourhood of the military settlement and in AD 106 Aquincum became the focal point of the commercial life of this area and the capital city of the province of Pannonia Inferior; this area now corresponds to the Óbuda district of Budapest, with the Roman ruins now forming part of the modern Aquincum museum. Came the Huns, a Central Asian tribe who built a powerful empire. After Hunnish rule, the Germanic Ostrogoths and Gepids, the Avar Khaganate, had a presence in the Carpathian Basin. In the 9th century, East Francia, the First Bulgarian Empire and Great Moravia ruled the territory of the Carpathian Basin; the freshly unified Hungarians led by Árpád, settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895. According to linguistic evidence, they originated from an ancient Uralic-speaking population that inhabited the forested area between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains.
As a federation of united tribes, Hungary was established in 895, some 50 years after the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843, before the unification of the Anglo-Saxon king
Hungarian Revolution of 1956
The Hungarian Revolution of 1956, or the Hungarian Uprising, was a nationwide revolution against the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956. Leaderless when it first began, it was the first major threat to Soviet control since the Red Army drove Nazi Germany from its territory at the End of World War II in Europe; the revolt began as a student protest, which attracted thousands as they marched through central Budapest to the Hungarian Parliament building, calling out on the streets using a van with loudspeakers. A student delegation, entering the radio building to try to broadcast the students' demands, was detained; when the delegation's release was demanded by the protesters outside, they were fired upon from within the building by the State Security Police, known as the ÁVH. One student was wrapped in a flag and held above the crowd; this was the start of the revolution. As the news spread and violence erupted throughout the capital.
The revolt spread across Hungary, the government collapsed. Thousands organised into militias, battling the Soviet troops. Pro-Soviet communists and ÁVH members were executed or imprisoned, former political prisoners were released and armed. Radical impromptu workers' councils wrested municipal control from the ruling Hungarian Working People's Party and demanded political changes. A new government formally disbanded the ÁVH, declared its intention to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact and pledged to re-establish free elections. By the end of October, fighting had stopped, a sense of normality began to return. Appearing open to negotiating a withdrawal of Soviet forces, the Politburo changed its mind and moved to crush the revolution. On 4 November, a large Soviet force invaded other regions of the country; the Hungarian resistance continued until 10 November. Over 2,500 Hungarians and 700 Soviet troops were killed in the conflict, 200,000 Hungarians fled as refugees. Mass arrests and denunciations continued for months thereafter.
By January 1957, the new Soviet-installed government had suppressed all public opposition. These Soviet actions, while strengthening control over the Eastern Bloc, alienated many Western Marxists, leading to splits and/or considerable losses of membership for communist parties in capitalist states. Public discussion about the revolution was suppressed in Hungary for more than 30 years. Since the thaw of the 1980s, it has been a subject of intense debate. At the inauguration of the Third Hungarian Republic in 1989, 23 October was declared a national holiday. During World War II, Hungary was a member of the Axis powers, allied with the forces of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Bulgaria. In 1941, the Hungarian military participated in the occupation of Yugoslavia and the invasion of the Soviet Union; the Red Army was able to force back the Hungarian and other Axis invaders, by 1944 was advancing towards Hungary. Fearing invasion, the Hungarian government began armistice negotiations with the Allies.
These ended when Nazi Germany invaded and occupied the country and set up the pro-Axis Government of National Unity. Both Hungarian and German forces stationed in Hungary were subsequently defeated when the Soviet Union invaded the country in late 1944. Toward the end of World War II, the Soviet Army occupied Hungary, with the country coming under the Soviet Union's sphere of influence. After World War II, Hungary was a multiparty democracy, elections in 1945 produced a coalition government under Prime Minister Zoltán Tildy. However, the Hungarian Communist Party, a Marxist–Leninist group who shared the Soviet government's ideological beliefs wrested small concessions in a process named salami tactics, which sliced away the elected government's influence, despite the fact that it had received only 17% of the vote. After the elections of 1945, the portfolio of the Interior Ministry, which oversaw the Hungarian State Security Police, was transferred from the Independent Smallholders Party to a nominee of the Communist Party.
The ÁVH employed methods of intimidation, falsified accusations and torture to suppress political opposition. The brief period of multi-party democracy came to an end when the Communist Party merged with the Social Democratic Party to become the Hungarian Working People's Party, which stood its candidate list unopposed in 1949; the People's Republic of Hungary was declared. The Hungarian Working People's Party set about to modify the economy into socialism by undertaking radical nationalization based on the Soviet model. Writers and journalists were the first to voice open criticism of the government and its policies, publishing critical articles in 1955. By 22 October 1956, Technical University students had resurrected the banned MEFESZ student union, staged a demonstration on 23 October that set off a chain of events leading directly to the revolution. Hungary became a communist state under the authoritarian leadership of Mátyás Rákosi. Under Rákosi's reign, the Security Police began a series of purges, first within the Communist Party to end opposition to Rákosi's reign.
The victims were labeled as "Titoists", "western agents", or "Trotskyists" for as insignificant a crime as spending time in the West to participate in the Spanish Civil War. In total, about half of all the middle and lower level party officials—at least 7,000 people—were purged. From 1950 to 1952, the Security Police forcibly relocated thousands of people to obtain property and housing for the Working People's Party members, to remove the threat of the intellectual
Architect of the Capitol
The Architect of the Capitol is the federal agency responsible for the maintenance, operation and preservation of the United States Capitol Complex, the head of that agency. The Architect of the Capitol is in the legislative branch and is accountable to the United States Congress and the Supreme Court; the current acting Architect of the Capitol is Christine A. Merdon, the Deputy Chief Architect of the Capitol & Chief Operating Officer; the most recent Architect of the Capitol was Stephen T. Ayers. Ayers served as acting Architect of the Capitol since February 2007, was unanimously confirmed by the Senate on May 12, 2010, becoming the 11th Architect of the Capitol, he retired on November 23, 2018. The Architect of the Capitol sits on the Capitol Police Board, which has jurisdiction over the United States Capitol Police, on the United States Capitol Guide Board, which has jurisdiction over the United States Capitol Guide Service; until 1989, the position of Architect of the Capitol was filled by appointment from the President of the United States for an indefinite term.
Legislation enacted in 1989 provides that the Architect is to be appointed for a term of ten years by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate, from a list of three candidates recommended by a congressional commission. Upon confirmation by the Senate, the Architect becomes an official of the legislative branch as an officer and agent of Congress; the Architect of the Capitol is responsible to the United States Congress and the Supreme Court for the maintenance, operation and preservation of 17.4 million square feet of buildings and more than 553 acres of land throughout Capitol Hill. The Architect's Office is responsible for the upkeep and improvement of the Capitol Grounds, the arrangement of inaugural ceremonies and other ceremonies held in the building or on the grounds. Legislation has been enacted over the years to place additional buildings and grounds under the jurisdiction of the Architect of the Capitol; the Capitol Complex includes the following facilities: the Capitol the Capitol Visitor Center the seven congressional office buildings Cannon Ford Longworth Rayburn Russell Dirksen Hart the Library of Congress buildings the United States Supreme Court Building the United States Botanic Garden the Thurgood Marshall Federal Judiciary Building the Capitol Power Plant the House and Senate page dormitories the United States Capitol Police headquarters and K9 division facilities other facilities Office of the Supervising Architect for the U.
S. Treasury Official website Architect of the Capitol: Appointment Process and Current Legislation Congressional Research Service