Elbert P. Tuttle United States Court of Appeals Building
The Elbert P. Tuttle U. S. Court of Appeals Building known as U. S. Post Office and Courthouse, is a historic Renaissance Revival style courthouse located in the Fairlie-Poplar district of Downtown Atlanta in Fulton County, Georgia, it is the courthouse for the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit. Its role as the first courthouse in which many key cases of the Civil Rights Movement were heard had it listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974, it was listed as a contributing building in the Fairlie Poplar Historic District in 1984. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 2015. In the years following the American Civil War, Atlanta's population expanded rapidly. To meet increased demands for federal services, Congress approved funds for a new building containing both postal and courthouse functions; when ground was broken in 1907, workers discovered a natural rock formation that resembled an American eagle, which observers interpreted to mean that the federal building was destined for the site.
James Knox Taylor, supervising architect of the U. S. Treasury Department, designed the building, completed in 1910 and deemed by the press to be "a great step forward in the scheme of beautifying Atlanta."When the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals was established in 1981, it occupied the building, renamed in 1989 to honor Elbert Parr Tuttle, a renowned judge. Many important cases have been argued in the courthouse. In 2000, the court upheld the American government's decision that Elian Gonzalez, a Cuban boy, rescued off the Florida coast after his mother died during an attempt to enter the United States, should be returned to the custody of his father, in Cuba; the same year, several lawsuits involving the presidential election were decided. In Bush v. Gore, the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals upheld the denial of a petition to stop manual recounts of ballots; the controversy was decided by the Supreme Court. James Knox Taylor designed the Elbert P. Tuttle U. S. Court of Appeals Building in the Second Renaissance Revival style of architecture.
The dignified style was used for federal buildings during the early twentieth century. The building occupies the block bounded by Forsyth, Fairlie and Walton streets in downtown Atlanta, it has a U-shaped footprint with a central courtyard. The building is clad in granite on the street elevations, while the sides that enclose the courtyard are clad in buff-colored brick; the facade faces Forsyth Street. The first story is defined by round-arched openings. Separating the first and second stories is a stringcourse with medallions and incised vertical designs topped with a wave pattern. Windows on the second level each have a classical balustrade, frieze with carved classical motifs, molded cornice supported by scrolled brackets; the third and fourth stories are marked by large round-arched windows with scrolled keystones. These windows denote the interior location of the courtrooms; the arched windows are divided by circular medallions. The top level has small rectangular windows separated by cartouches.
A heavy, ornate cornice with a dentil course and carved anthemion motifs tops the building. Other elevations contain a similar level of detail. Windows on other elevations are topped with pediments containing cartouches or lintels with medallions or carved keystones; some windows contain carved serpent-and-staff designs, which were associated with Mercury, the Roman messenger god, an early symbol of the postal service in the United States. An iron arch spans a loading dock in the courtyard area on Fairlie Street. Many original interior finishes and public spaces remain; the dominant feature of the first-floor lobby is its vaulted ceiling, which springs from a series of pilasters. At each end of the lobby are domed ceilings. Window and door frames and wainscot are marble. Original arched, bronze casement windows remain in place. Beneath each window is an original wall-mounted marble letter table resting on cast-iron brackets. Floors were marble, but are now covered with green terrazzo panels trimmed with gray terrazzo.
A mural by an unknown artist depicts a classical seated figure of Justice flanked by allegorical representations of Agriculture and Industry. A staircase with marble treads and wainscot and a cast-iron baluster with a swag pattern leads to upper floors; the main courtrooms are the most significant spaces on the third floor. The most impressive is the two-story en banc courtroom, designed for all of the appellate judges to meet to hear a case. Walls are covered with elaborately carved, stained oak paneling decorated with garlands, scrolled brackets, molding. Large, round-arch windows are balanced with recessed arched bays on the opposite walls. Bronze grilles are located throughout; the maple floor is laid in a herringbone pattern and an elaborate, coffered ceiling with rosettes tops the room. Another appellate courtroom, although smaller in scale, is impressive. Similar finishes are used on the walls and floor, a gallery of oak benches provides seating for observers. 1906-1910: U. S. Post Office constructed 1974: Building listed in the National Register of Historic Places 1981: U.
S. Court of Appeals established 1989: Building renamed to honor Judge Elbert Parr Tuttle 2000: Elian Gonzalez case and Bush v. Gore argued 2015: Building designated a National Historic Landmark Location: 56 Forsyth Street Architect: James Knox Taylor Construction Dates: 1906-1910 Architectural Style: Second Renaissance Revival Landmark Status: Ind
Tampa is a major city in, the county seat of, Hillsborough County, United States. It is on the west coast of Florida on Tampa Bay, near the Gulf of Mexico, is the largest city in the Tampa Bay Area; the bay's port is the largest in near downtown's Channel District. Bayshore Boulevard runs along the bay, is east of the historic Hyde Park neighborhood. Today, Tampa is part of the metropolitan area most referred to as the "Tampa Bay Area". For U. S. Census purposes, Tampa is part of the Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area; the four-county area is composed of 3.1 million residents, making it the second largest metropolitan statistical area in the state, the fourth largest in the Southeastern United States, behind Washington, D. C. Miami, Atlanta; the Greater Tampa Bay area has over 4 million residents and includes the Tampa and Sarasota metro areas. The city had a population of 335,709 at the 2010 census, an estimated population of 385,430 in 2017; the Tampa Bay Partnership and U.
S. Census data showed an average annual growth of 2.47 percent, or a gain of 97,000 residents per year. Between 2000 and 2006, the Greater Tampa Bay Market experienced a combined growth rate of 14.8 percent, growing from 3.4 million to 3.9 million and hitting the 4 million population mark on April 1, 2007. A 2012 estimate shows the Tampa Bay area population to have 4,310,524 people and a 2017 projection of 4,536,854 people. Public Transportation in the area includes. There is the TECO Line Streetcar System; when the pioneer community living near the US Army outpost of Fort Brooke was incorporated in 1849, it was called "Tampa Town", the name was shortened to "Tampa" in 1855. The earliest instance of the name "Tampa", in the form "Tanpa", appears in the memoirs of Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda, who spent 17 years as a captive of the Calusa and traveled through much of peninsular Florida, he described Tanpa as an important Calusa town to the north of the Calusa domain under another chief. Archaeologist Jerald Milanich places the town of Tanpa at the mouth of Charlotte Harbor.
The entrances to Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor are obscured by barrier islands, their locations, the names applied to them, were a source of confusion to explorers and map-makers from the 16th century though the 18th century. Bahía Tampa and Bahía de Espíritu Santo were each used, at one time or another, for the modern Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor. Tampa Bay was labeled Bahía de Espíritu Santo in the earliest Spanish maps of Florida, but became known as Bahía Tampa as early as 1695. "B. Tampa", corresponding to Tampa Bay, appeared on a British map of 1705, with "Carlos Bay" for Charlotte Harbor to the south, while a 1748 British map had "B. del Spirito Santo" for Tampa Bay, again, "Carlos Bay" to the south. A Spanish map of 1757 renamed Tampa Bay as "San Fernando"; as late as 1774, Bernard Romans called Tampa Bay "Bay of Espiritu Santo", with "Tampa Bay" restricted to the Northwest arm, the northeast arm named "Hillsborough Bay". The name may have come from the Calusa language, or the Timucua language.
Some scholars have compared "Tampa" to "itimpi", which means "close to or nearby" in the Creek language, but its meaning is not known. People from Tampa are known as "Tampans" or "Tampanians". Local authorities consulted by Michael Kruse of the Tampa Bay Times suggest that "Tampan" was more common, while "Tampanian" became popular when the former term came to be seen as a potential insult. A mix of Cuban and Spanish immigrants began arriving in the late 1800s to found and work in the new communities of Ybor City and West Tampa. By about 1900, these newcomers came to be known as "Tampeños", a term, still sometimes used to refer to their descendants living in the area, to all residents of Tampa inconsiderate of their ethnic background; the shores of Tampa Bay have been inhabited for thousands of years. A variant of the Weeden Island culture developed in the area by about 2000 years ago, with archeological evidence suggesting that these residents relied on the sea for most of their resources, as a vast majority of inhabited sites have been found on or near the shoreline and there is little evidence of farming.
At the time of European contact in the early 16th century, the Safety Harbor culture dominated the area, with indigenous peoples organized into three or four chiefdoms around the shores of the bay. Early Spanish explorers to visit the area interacted extensively with the Tocobaga, whose principal town was located at the northern end of Old Tampa Bay near today's Safety Harbor in Pinellas County. While there is a substantial historical record of the Tocobaga, there is less surviving documentation describing the Pohoy chiefdom, which controlled the area near the mouth of the Hillsborough River near today's downtown Tampa. However, brief mentions by explorers along with surviving artifacts suggest that the Pohoy and other groups that once lived on Tampa Bay had similar cultures and lifestyles as the better-documented Tocobaga. Expeditions led by Pánfilo de Narváez and Hernando de Soto landed near Tampa, but neither conquistador stayed long. There is no natural gold or silver in Florida, the native inhabitants repulsed Spanish attempts to establish a permanent settlement or convert them to Catholicism.
The fighting resulted in a few deaths, but the many more deaths were caused by infectious diseases brought from Europe, which devastated the population of Native Americans across Florida and the entir
Clarence Thomas is an American judge and government official who serves as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He is the most senior associate justice on the Court following the retirement of Anthony Kennedy. Thomas is the second African American to serve on the Court. Among the current members of the Court he is the longest-serving justice, with a tenure of 10,031 days as of April 10, 2019. Thomas grew up in Savannah and was educated at the College of the Holy Cross and at Yale Law School, he was appointed an Assistant Attorney General in Missouri in 1974, subsequently practiced law there in the private sector. In 1979, he became a legislative assistant to Senator John Danforth and in 1981 was appointed Assistant Secretary for Civil Rights at the U. S. Department of Education. In 1982, President Ronald Reagan appointed Thomas Chairman of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. In 1990, President George H. W. Bush nominated Thomas for a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.
He served in that role for 16 months, on July 1, 1991, was nominated by Bush to fill Marshall's seat on the United States Supreme Court. Thomas's confirmation hearings were bitter and intensely fought, centering on an accusation that he had sexually harassed attorney Anita Hill, a subordinate at the Department of Education and subsequently at the EEOC. Hill claimed that Thomas had made sexual and romantic overtures to her, despite her rebuffing him and telling him to stop; the U. S. Senate confirmed Thomas by a vote of 52–48. Since joining the court, Thomas has taken a textualist approach, seeking to uphold the original meaning of the United States Constitution and statutes, he is along with fellow justice Neil Gorsuch, an advocate of natural law jurisprudence. Thomas is viewed as the most conservative member of the court. Thomas is known for never speaking during oral arguments. Clarence Thomas was born in 1948 in Pin Point, Georgia, a small, predominantly black community near Savannah founded by freedmen after the American Civil War.
He was the second of three children born to M. C. Thomas, a farm worker, Leola Williams, a domestic worker, they were descendants of American slaves, the family spoke Gullah as a first language. Thomas's earliest known ancestors were slaves named Sandy and Peggy, who were born around the end of the 18th century and owned by wealthy planter Josiah Wilson of Liberty County, Georgia. M. C. left his family. Thomas's mother was sometimes paid only pennies per day, she had difficulty putting food on the table, was forced to rely on charity. After a house fire left them homeless and his younger brother Myers were taken to live with his maternal grandparents in Savannah, Georgia. Thomas was seven when the family moved in with his maternal grandfather, Myers Anderson, Anderson's wife, Christine, in Savannah. Living with his grandparents, Thomas enjoyed amenities such as indoor plumbing and regular meals for the first time in his life, his grandfather, Myers Anderson, had little formal education, but had built a thriving fuel oil business that sold ice.
Thomas calls his grandfather "the greatest man I have known." When Thomas was 10, Anderson started taking the family to help at a farm every day from sunrise to sunset. His grandfather believed in hard self-reliance. Thomas' grandfather impressed upon his grandsons the importance of getting a good education. Raised Catholic, he attended the majority-black St. Pius X high school for two years before transferring to St. John Vianney's Minor Seminary on the Isle of Hope, where he was an honor student and among few black students, he briefly attended Conception Seminary College, a Roman Catholic seminary in Missouri. No-one in Thomas's family had attended college. In a number of interviews, Thomas stated that he left the seminary in the aftermath of the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr, he had overheard another student say after the shooting, "Good, I hope the son of a bitch died." He did not think. At a nun's suggestion, Thomas attended the College of the Holy Cross in Massachusetts. While there, Thomas helped.
Once, he walked out after an incident in which black students were punished while white students went undisciplined for committing the same violation. Having spoken the Gullah language as a child, Thomas realized in college that he still sounded unpolished despite having been drilled in grammar at school, he chose to major in English literature "to conquer the language." At Holy Cross, he was a member of Alpha Sigma Nu and the Purple Key Society. Thomas graduated from Holy Cross in 1971 with an A. B. cum laude in English literature. Thomas had a series of deferments from the military draft while in college at Holy Cross. Upon graduation, he was classified as 1-A and received a low lottery number, indicating he might be drafted to serve in Vietnam. Thomas failed his medical exam, due to curvature of the spine, was not drafted. Thomas entered Yale Law School, from which he received a Juris Doctor degree in 1974, graduating towards the middle of his class. Thomas has recollected that his Yale Juris Doctor degr
Beverly B. Martin
Beverly Baldwin Martin is a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit and a former United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of Georgia. Born in Macon, Martin graduated from Stratford Academy in 1973 before attending Mercer University for one year from 1972 to 1973, but received no degree, she received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Stetson University in 1976 and a Juris Doctor from University of Georgia School of Law in 1981. Martin was in private practice with the firm of Martin Snow, LLP in Georgia from 1981 to 1984, was an assistant attorney general in the State Law Department of the Office of Attorney General of Georgia from 1984 to 1994, she was an Assistant United States Attorney for the Middle District of Georgia from 1994 to 1997, United States Attorney for the Middle District of Georgia from 1997 to 2000. On the recommendation of Senator Max Cleland, Martin was nominated on March 27, 2000 by President Bill Clinton to a seat on the United States District Court for the Northern District of Georgia vacated by George Ernest Tidwell.
She was confirmed by the United States Senate on June 16, 2000, received her commission on August 3, 2000. Her service terminated on February 2010, due to elevation to the Eleventh Circuit. On June 19, 2009, President Barack Obama nominated Martin to a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit; the United States Senate confirmed Martin's nomination in a 97-0 vote on January 20, 2010. She received her commission on January 28, 2010. Beverly B. Martin at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. Beverly Martin at Ballotpedia
Adalberto Jose Jordan is a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit. Jordan was confirmed by the United States Senate to the Eleventh Circuit on February 15, 2012, he received his judicial commission on February 17, 2012. Jordan is an adjunct professor at the University of Miami School of Law, his alma mater, at Florida International University's College of Law. In February 2016, The New York Times identified Jordan as a potential Supreme Court nominee to replace Justice Antonin Scalia. In early March, Jordan removed himself from consideration. Jordan was born in Havana and came with his family to Miami, Florida when he was a young boy, in 1968. Jordan graduated from St. Brendan High School in 1980, he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in politics, magna cum laude, from the University of Miami, in 1984. While an undergraduate at the University of Miami, Jordan was a walk-on member of the baseball team. Jordan earned his Juris Doctor summa cum laude, from the University of Miami School of Law in 1987, where he was the Articles & Comments Editor for the University of Miami Law Review, graduating second in his law school class.
Jordan went on to clerk for Judge Thomas Alonzo Clark of the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit in Atlanta, Georgia from 1987 to 1988, for Justice Sandra Day O'Connor of the United States Supreme Court from 1988 to 1989. In 1989, Jordan returned to Miami to work as an associate for Steel, Hector & Davis, a prestigious local law firm, acquired by Squire, Sanders & Dempsey in 2005. Despite being there a short time, Jordan was named a partner at Steel, Hector & Davis by his fifth year. Shortly after making partner, Jordan made the transition to public-sector lawyering, became an Assistant United States Attorney for the Southern District of Florida in 1994. In 1998, he was appointed Chief of the Appellate Division, served in that position for about one year. On March 15, 1999, President Bill Clinton nominated Jordan to the seat on the United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida, vacated by Judge Lenore Carrero Nesbitt. Jordan was confirmed to the federal bench by the United States Senate on September 8, 1999, by a vote of 93-1, with then-Senator Bob Smith of New Hampshire as the lone dissenting vote.
Jordan received his commission on September 9, 1999. In May 2011, the South Florida Daily Business Review reported that Jordan was being vetted by the Federal Bureau of Investigation in anticipation of President Obama nominating Jordan to a vacancy on the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit created when 11th Circuit Judge Susan H. Black took senior status in February 2011. On August 2, 2011, President Barack Obama nominated Jordan for the judgeship. On October 13, 2011 the Senate Judiciary Committee approved his nomination by voice vote. On February 9, 2012, Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid moved to invoke cloture on Jordan's nomination, thereby cutting off debate and ending a Republican filibuster of Jordan's nomination. A cloture vote was held for February 13, 2012. Cloture was invoked in an 89–5 vote. On February 15, 2012, the United States Senate confirmed Jordan to the seat on the Eleventh Circuit in a 94–5 vote. Jordan received his judicial commission on February 17, 2012.
Adalberto Jordan is married to Lazara Esther Jordan, née Castillo, a teacher at St. Brendan Catholic High School, of which both are alumni. Barack Obama Supreme Court candidates Barack Obama judicial appointment controversies Adalberto Jordan at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. Adalberto Jordan at Ballotpedia Florida Bar profile
United States District Court for the Middle District of Florida
The United States District Court for the Middle District of Florida is a federal court in the Eleventh Circuit. The District was established on July 30, 1962 with parts of the Northern and Southern Districts transferring into the newly created Middle District The United States Attorney for the District is Maria Chapa Lopez since January 5, 2018; the United States District Court for the Middle District of Florida is one of three federal judicial districts in Florida. Court for the District is held at Fort Myers, Ocala and Tampa. Fort Myers Division comprises the following counties: Charlotte, Desoto, Glades and Lee. Jacksonville Division comprises the following counties: Baker, Clay, Duval, Hamilton, Putnam, St. Johns and Union. Ocala Division comprises the following counties: Citrus, Lake and Sumter. Orlando Division comprises the following counties: Brevard, Osceola and Volusia. Tampa Division comprises the following counties: Hardee, Hillsborough, Pasco, Pinellas and Sarasota; as of December 14, 2018 Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their district court.
Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the district court judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, have not served as chief judge. A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority among the group of qualified judges; the chief judge serves until age 70, whichever occurs first. The age restrictions are waived if no members of the court would otherwise be qualified for the position; when the office was created in 1948, the chief judge was the longest-serving judge who had not elected to retire on what has since 1958 been known as senior status or declined to serve as chief judge. After August 6, 1959, judges could not remain chief after turning 70 years old; the current rules have been in operation since October 1, 1982. Completed in 1908 by architect John Knox Taylor, the historic Federal courthouse in Tampa stands as the only civic building constructed in the eclectic renaissance style.
Serving as a U. S. Post Office, the courthouse moved two blocks down to its current location in 1998. Congress named the court in honor of long-time Tampa representative and University of Florida Law alumnus Sam Gibbons. United States District Court for the Northern District of Florida United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit Courts of Florida List of United States federal courthouses in Florida Official website for the U. S. District Court for the MDFL Official website for the U. S. Attorney's Office for the MDFL Biographical Directory of Federal Judges
West Palm Beach, Florida
West Palm Beach is a city in and the county seat of Palm Beach County, United States. It is located to the west of the adjacent Palm Beach, situated on a barrier island across the Lake Worth Lagoon; the population was 99,919 at the 2010 census. West Palm Beach is a principal city of the Miami metropolitan area, home to an estimated 6,158,824 people in 2017, it is the oldest incorporated municipality in Greater Miami, having been incorporated as a city two years before Miami in November 1894. West Palm Beach is located 68 miles north of Downtown Miami; the beginning of the historic period in south Florida is marked by Juan Ponce de León's first contact with native people in 1513. Europeans found a thriving native population, which they categorized into separate tribes: the Mayaimi in the Lake Okeechobee Basin and the Jaega and Ais people in the East Okeechobee area and on the east coast north of the Tequesta; when the Spanish arrived, there were about 20,000 Native Americans in south Florida. By 1763, when the English gained control of Florida, the native peoples had all but been wiped out through war, enslavement, or European diseases.
Other native peoples from Alabama and Georgia moved into Florida in the early 18th century. They were of varied ancestry, but Europeans called them all "Creeks." In Florida, they were known as the Miccosukee Indians. The Seminoles clashed with American settlers over land and over escaped slaves who found refuge among them, they resisted the government's efforts to move them to the Indian Territory west of the Mississippi. Between 1818 and 1858, three wars were fought between the United States government. By 1858, there were few Seminoles remaining in Florida; the area, to become West Palm Beach was settled in the late 1870s and 1880s by a few hundred settlers who called the vicinity "Lake Worth Country." These settlers were a diverse community from different parts of the world. They included founding families such at the Potters and the Lainharts, who would go on to become leading members of the business community in the fledgling city; the first white settlers in Palm Beach County lived around Lake Worth an enclosed freshwater lake, named for Colonel William Jenkins Worth, who had fought in the Second Seminole War in Florida in 1842.
Most settlers engaged in the growing of tropical fruits and vegetables for shipment the north via Lake Worth and the Indian River. By 1890, the U. S. Census counted over 200 people settled along Lake Worth in the vicinity of what would become West Palm Beach; the area at this time boasted a hotel, the "Cocoanut House", a church, a post office. The city was platted by Henry Flagler as a community to house the servants working in the two grand hotels on the neighboring island of Palm Beach, across Lake Worth in 1893, coinciding with the arrival of the Florida East Coast railroad. Flagler paid two area settlers, Captain Porter and Louie Hillhouse, a combined sum of $45,000 for the original town site, stretching from Clear Lake to Lake Worth. On November 5, 1894, 78 people met at the "Calaboose" and passed the motion to incorporate the Town of West Palm Beach in what was Dade County; this made West Palm Beach the first incorporated municipality in South Florida. The town council addressed the building codes and the tents and shanties were replaced by brick, brick veneer, stone buildings.
The city grew during the 1890s and the first two decades of the 20th century, most residents were engaged in the tourist industry and related services or winter vegetable market and tropical fruit trade. In 1909, Palm Beach County was formed by the Florida State Legislature and West Palm Beach became the county seat. In 1916, a new neo-classical courthouse was opened, painstakingly restored back to its original condition, is now used as the local history museum; the city grew in the 1920s as part of the Florida land boom. The population of West Palm Beach quadrupled from 1920 to 1927, all kinds of businesses and public services grew along with it. Many of the city's landmark structures and preserved neighborhoods were constructed during this period. Flagler intended for his Florida East Coast Railway to have its terminus in West Palm, but after the area experienced a deep freeze, he chose to extend the railroad to Miami instead; the land boom was faltering when city was devastated by the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane.
The Depression years of the 1930s were a quiet time for the area, which saw slight population growth and property values lower than during the 1920s. The city only recovered with the onset of World War II, which saw the construction of Palm Beach Air Force Base, which brought thousands of military personnel to the city; the base was vital to the allied war effort, as it provided an excellent training facility and had unparalleled access to North Africa for a North American city. During World War II, German U-Boats sank dozens of merchant ships and oil tankers just off the coast of West Palm Beach. Nearby Palm Beach was under black out conditions to minimize night visibility to German U-boats; the 1950s saw another boom in population due to the return of many soldiers and airmen who had served in the vicinity during the war. The advent of air conditioning encouraged growth, as year-round living in a tropical climate became more acceptable to northerners. West Palm Beach became the one of the nation's fastest growing metropolitan areas during the 1950s.
However, many of the city's residents