Detroit is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Michigan, the largest United States city on the United States–Canada border, the seat of Wayne County. The municipality of Detroit had a 2017 estimated population of 673,104, making it the 23rd-most populous city in the United States; the metropolitan area, known as Metro Detroit, is home to 4.3 million people, making it the second-largest in the Midwest after the Chicago metropolitan area. Regarded as a major cultural center, Detroit is known for its contributions to music and as a repository for art and design. Detroit is a major port located on the Detroit River, one of the four major straits that connect the Great Lakes system to the Saint Lawrence Seaway; the Detroit Metropolitan Airport is among the most important hubs in the United States. The City of Detroit anchors the second-largest regional economy in the Midwest, behind Chicago and ahead of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 13th-largest in the United States. Detroit and its neighboring Canadian city Windsor are connected through a tunnel and the Ambassador Bridge, the busiest international crossing in North America.
Detroit is best known as the center of the U. S. automobile industry, the "Big Three" auto manufacturers General Motors and Chrysler are all headquartered in Metro Detroit. In 1701, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, the future city of Detroit. During the 19th century, it became an important industrial hub at the center of the Great Lakes region. With expansion of the auto industry in the early 20th century, the city and its suburbs experienced rapid growth, by the 1940s, the city had become the fourth-largest in the country. However, due to industrial restructuring, the loss of jobs in the auto industry, rapid suburbanization, Detroit lost considerable population from the late 20th century to the present. Since reaching a peak of 1.85 million at the 1950 census, Detroit's population has declined by more than 60 percent. In 2013, Detroit became the largest U. S. city to file for bankruptcy, which it exited in December 2014, when the city government regained control of Detroit's finances.
Detroit's diverse culture has had both local and international influence in music, with the city giving rise to the genres of Motown and techno, playing an important role in the development of jazz, hip-hop and punk music. The erstwhile rapid growth of Detroit left a globally unique stock of architectural monuments and historic places, since the 2000s conservation efforts managed to save many architectural pieces and allowed several large-scale revitalizations, including the restoration of several historic theatres and entertainment venues, high-rise renovations, new sports stadiums, a riverfront revitalization project. More the population of Downtown Detroit, Midtown Detroit, various other neighborhoods has increased. An popular tourist destination, Detroit receives 19 million visitors per year. In 2015, Detroit was named a "City of Design" by UNESCO, the first U. S. city to receive that designation. Paleo-Indian people inhabited areas near Detroit as early as 11,000 years ago including the culture referred to as the Mound-builders.
In the 17th century, the region was inhabited by Huron, Odawa and Iroquois peoples. The first Europeans did not penetrate into the region and reach the straits of Detroit until French missionaries and traders worked their way around the League of the Iroquois, with whom they were at war, other Iroquoian tribes in the 1630s; the north side of Lake Erie was held by the Huron and Neutral peoples until the 1650s, when the Iroquois pushed both and the Erie people away from the lake and its beaver-rich feeder streams in the Beaver Wars of 1649–1655. By the 1670s, the war-weakened Iroquois laid claim to as far south as the Ohio River valley in northern Kentucky as hunting grounds, had absorbed many other Iroquoian peoples after defeating them in war. For the next hundred years no British, colonist, or French action was contemplated without consultation with, or consideration of the Iroquois' response; when the French and Indian War evicted the Kingdom of France from Canada, it removed one barrier to British colonists migrating west.
British negotiations with the Iroquois would both prove critical and lead to a Crown policy limiting the west of the Alleghenies settlements below the Great Lakes, which gave many American would-be migrants a casus belli for supporting the American Revolution. The 1778 raids and resultant 1779 decisive Sullivan Expedition reopened the Ohio Country to westward emigration, which began immediately, by 1800 white settlers were pouring westwards; the city was named by French colonists, referring to the Detroit River, linking Lake Huron and Lake Erie. On July 24, 1701, the French explorer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, along with more than a hundred other settlers began constructing a small fort on the north bank of the Detroit River. Cadillac would name the settlement Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, after Louis Phélypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain, Minister of Marine under Louis XIV. France offered free land to colonists to attract families to Detroit. By 1773, the population of Detroit was 1,400. By 1778, its population was up to 2,144 and it was the third-largest city in the Province of Quebec.
The region's economy was based on the lucrative fur trade, in which nume
Sonia Maria Sotomayor is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, appointed by President Barack Obama in May 2009 and confirmed that August. She has the distinction of being Latina Justice. Sotomayor was born in New York City, to Puerto Rican-born parents, her father died when she was nine, she was subsequently raised by her mother. Sotomayor graduated summa cum laude from Princeton University in 1976 and received her J. D. from Yale Law School in 1979, where she was an editor at the Yale Law Journal. She worked as an assistant district attorney in New York for four-and-a-half years before entering private practice in 1984, she played an active role on the boards of directors for the Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund, the State of New York Mortgage Agency, the New York City Campaign Finance Board. Sotomayor was nominated to the U. S. District Court for the Southern District of New York by President George H. W. Bush in 1991. In 1997, she was nominated by President Bill Clinton to the U.
S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, her nomination was slowed by the Republican majority in the United States Senate, but she was confirmed in 1998. On the Second Circuit, Sotomayor heard appeals in more than 3,000 cases and wrote about 380 opinions. Sotomayor has taught at the New York University School of Columbia Law School. In May 2009, President Barack Obama nominated Sotomayor to the Supreme Court following the retirement of Justice David Souter, her nomination was confirmed by the Senate in August 2009 by a vote of 68–31. While on the court, Sotomayor has supported the informal liberal bloc of justices when they divide along the perceived ideological lines. During her tenure on the Supreme Court, Sotomayor has been identified with concern for the rights of defendants, calls for reform of the criminal justice system, making impassioned dissents on issues of race and ethnic identity, including Schuette v. BAMN, Utah v. Strieff, Trump v. Hawaii. Sonia Maria Sotomayor was born in the New York City borough of The Bronx.
Her father was Juan Sotomayor, from the area of Santurce, San Juan, Puerto Rico, her mother was Celina Báez, an orphan from the neighborhood of Santa Rosa in Lajas, a still rural area on Puerto Rico's southwest coast. The two left Puerto Rico separately and married during World War II after Celina served in the Women's Army Corps. Juan Sotomayor had a third-grade education, did not speak English, worked as a tool and die worker. Sonia's younger brother, Juan Sotomayor became a physician and university professor in the Syracuse, New York, area. Sotomayor was raised a Catholic and grew up in Puerto Rican communities in the South Bronx and East Bronx; the family lived in a South Bronx tenement before moving in 1957 to the well-maintained and ethnically mixed, working-class Bronxdale Houses housing project in Soundview. Her relative proximity to Yankee Stadium led to her becoming a lifelong fan of the New York Yankees; the extended family got together and visited Puerto Rico during summers. Sonia grew up with an alcoholic father and a mother, distant.
Sonia was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes at age seven, began taking daily insulin injections. Her father died of heart problems at age 42. After this, she became fluent in English. Sotomayor has said that she was first inspired by the strong-willed Nancy Drew book character, after her diabetes diagnosis led doctors to suggest a different career from detective, she was inspired to go into a legal career and become a judge by watching the Perry Mason television series, she reflected in 1998: "I was going to college and I was going to become an attorney, I knew that when I was ten. Ten. That's no jest."Celina Sotomayor put great stress on the value of education. Despite the distance between the two, which became greater after her father's death and, not reconciled until decades Sotomayor has credited her mother with being her "life inspiration". For grammar school, Sotomayor attended Blessed Sacrament School in Soundview, where she was valedictorian and had a near-perfect attendance record. Although underage, Sotomayor worked at a hospital.
Sotomayor passed the entrance tests for and attended Cardinal Spellman High School in the Bronx. At Cardinal Spellman, Sotomayor was elected to the student government, she graduated as valedictorian in 1972. Meanwhile, the Bronxdale Houses had fallen victim to increasing heroin use and the emergence of the Black Spades gang. In 1970, the family found refuge by moving to Co-op City in the Northeast Bronx. Sotomayor entered Princeton University on a full scholarship, by her own description gaining admission in part due to her achievements in high school and in part because affirmative action made up for her standardized test scores not being comparable to those of other applicants, she would say that there are cultural biases built into such testing and praise affirmative action for fulfilling "its purpose: to create the conditions whereby students from disadvantaged backgrounds could be brought to the starting line of a race many were unaware was ev
Chief Justice of the United States
The Chief Justice of the United States is the chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United States, as such the highest-ranking judge of the federal judiciary. Article II, Section 2, Clause 2 of the Constitution grants plenary power to the President of the United States to nominate, with the advice and consent of the United States Senate, appoint a chief justice, who serves until they resign, are impeached and convicted, retire, or die; the chief justice has significant influence in the selection of cases for review, presides when oral arguments are held, leads the discussion of cases among the justices. Additionally, when the Court renders an opinion, the chief justice, if in the majority, chooses who writes the Court's opinion; when deciding a case, the chief justice's vote counts no more than that of any associate justice. Article I, Section 3, Clause 6 of the Constitution designates the chief justice to preside during presidential impeachment trials in the Senate. While nowhere mandated, the presidential oath of office is administered by the Chief Justice.
Additionally, the chief justice serves as a spokesperson for the federal government's judicial branch and acts as a chief administrative officer for the federal courts. The Chief Justice presides over the Judicial Conference and, in that capacity, appoints the director and deputy director of the Administrative Office; the Chief Justice is an ex officio member of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution and, by custom, is elected chancellor of the board. Since the Supreme Court was established in 1789, 17 people have served as chief justice; the first was John Jay. The current chief justice is John Roberts. John Rutledge, Edward Douglass White, Charles Evans Hughes, Harlan Fiske Stone, William Rehnquist served as associate justice prior to becoming chief justice; the United States Constitution does not explicitly establish an office of Chief Justice, but presupposes its existence with a single reference in Article I, Section 3, Clause 6: "When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside."
Nothing more is said in the Constitution regarding the office. Article III, Section 1, which authorizes the establishment of the Supreme Court, refers to all members of the Court as "judges"; the Judiciary Act of 1789 created the distinctive titles of Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. In 1866, at the urging of Salmon P. Chase, Congress restyled the chief justice's title to the current Chief Justice of the United States; the first person whose Supreme Court commission contained the modified title was Melville Fuller in 1888. The associate justices' title was not altered in 1866, remains as created; the chief justice, like all federal judges, is nominated by the President and confirmed to office by the U. S. Senate. Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution specifies that they "shall hold their Offices during good Behavior"; this language means that the appointments are for life, that, once in office, justices' tenure ends only when they die, resign, or are removed from office through the impeachment process.
Since 1789, 15 presidents have made a total of 22 official nominations to the position. The salary of the chief justice is set by Congress; the practice of appointing an individual to serve as chief justice is grounded in tradition. There is no specific constitutional prohibition against using another method to select the chief justice from among those justices properly appointed and confirmed to the Supreme Court. Constitutional law scholar Todd Pettys has proposed that presidential appointment of chief justices should be done away with, replaced by a process that permits the Justices to select their own chief justice. Three incumbent associate justices have been nominated by the president and confirmed by the Senate as chief justice: Edward Douglass White in 1910, Harlan Fiske Stone in 1941, William Rehnquist in 1986. A fourth, Abe Fortas, was not confirmed; as an associate justice does not have to resign his or her seat on the Court in order to be nominated as chief justice, Fortas remained an associate justice.
When associate justice William Cushing was nominated and confirmed as chief justice in January 1796, but declined the office, he too remained on the Court. Two former associate justices subsequently returned to service on the Court as chief justice. John Rutledge was the first. President Washington gave him a recess appointment in 1795. However, his subsequent nomination to the office was not confirmed by the Senate, he left office and the Court. In 1933, former associate justice Charles Evans Hughes was confirmed as chief justice. Additionally, in December 1800, former chief justice John Jay was nominated and confirmed to the position a second time, but declined it, opening the way for the appointment of John Marshall. Along with his general responsibilities as a member of the Supreme Court, the Chief Justice has several unique duties to fulfill. Article I, section 3 of the U. S. Constitution stipulates that the Chief Justice shall preside over impeachment trials of the President of the United States in the U.
S. Senate. Two Chief Justices, Salmon P. Chase and William Rehnquist, have presided over the trial in the Senate that follows an impeachment of the president – Chase in 1868 over the proceedings against President Andrew Johnson and Rehnquist in
United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan
The United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan is the Federal district court with jurisdiction over of the eastern portion of the state of Michigan. The Court is based in Detroit, with courthouses located in Ann Arbor, Bay City and Port Huron; the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit has appellate jurisdiction over the court. The current United States Attorney is Matthew J. Schneider, since January 5, 2018; the United States District Court for the District of Michigan was established on July 1, 1836, by 5 Stat. 61, with a single judgeship. The district court was not assigned to a judicial circuit, but was granted the same jurisdiction as United States circuit courts, except in appeals and writs of error, which were the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. Due to the so-called "Toledo War", a boundary dispute with Ohio, Michigan did not become a state of the Union until January 26, 1837. On March 3, 1837, Congress passed an act that repealed the circuit court jurisdiction of the U.
S. District Court for the District of Michigan, assigned the District of Michigan to the Seventh Circuit, established a U. S. circuit court for the district, 5 Stat. 176. On July 15, 1862, Congress reorganized the circuits and assigned Michigan to the Eighth Circuit by 12 Stat. 576, on January 28, 1863, the Congress again reorganized Seventh and Eight Circuits and assigned Michigan to the Seventh Circuit, by 12 Stat. 637. On February 24, 1863, Congress divided the District of Michigan into the Eastern and the Western Districts, with one judgeship authorized for each district, by 12 Stat. 660. Ross Wilkins, the only district judge to serve the District of Michigan, was reassigned to the Eastern District. On July 23, 1866, by 14 Stat. 209, Congress assigned the two Districts in Michigan to the Sixth Circuit, where they remain. The Eastern District comprises two divisions; the Northern Division comprises the counties of Alcona, Arenac, Cheboygan, Crawford, Gratiot, Iosco, Midland, Ogemaw, Otsego, Presque Isle, Roscommon and Tuscola.
Court for the Northern Division is held in Bay City. The Southern Division comprises the counties of Genesee, Lapeer, Livingston, Monroe, Saint Clair, Shiawassee and Wayne. Court for the Southern Division is held in Ann Arbor, Detroit and Port Huron; some of the notable cases that have come before the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan include: As of November 4, 2017 Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their district court. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the district court judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, have not served as chief judge. A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority among the group of qualified judges; the chief judge serves until age 70, whichever occurs first. The age restrictions are waived if no members of the court would otherwise be qualified for the position.
When the office was created in 1948, the chief judge was the longest-serving judge who had not elected to retire on what has since 1958 been known as senior status or declined to serve as chief judge. After August 6, 1959, judges could not remain chief after turning 70 years old; the current rules have been in operation since October 1, 1982. Courts of Michigan List of United States federal courthouses in Michigan United States District Court for the Western District of Michigan Category:Judges of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan Official Website United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Michigan Official Website
Traverse City, Michigan
Traverse City is a city in the U. S. state of Michigan. It is the county seat of Grand Traverse County, although a small portion extends into Leelanau County, it is the largest city in the 21-county Northern Michigan region. The population was 14,674 at the 2010 census, with 143,372 in the Traverse City micropolitan area; the Traverse City area is the largest producer of tart cherries in the United States. Near the time of cherry harvest, the city hosts the annual week-long National Cherry Festival in the first full week of July, attracting 500,000 visitors annually; the surrounding countryside produces grapes, is one of the centers of wine production in the Midwest. Tourism, both summer and winter, is another key industry; the Traverse City area features varied natural attractions, including freshwater beaches, vineyards, a National Lakeshore, downhill skiing areas, numerous forests. In 2009, TripAdvisor named Traverse City the number two small town travel destination in the United States. In 2012, the city was listed among the 10 best places to retire in the country by U.
S. News & World Report. Before European colonists and the Northwest Territory, Traverse City was occupied by the Ojibwe and Ottawa people. Many locations in the Michigan area used to have native names. Traverse City was called "wequetong" which means "at the head of the bay" This area was an Indian camp near what is now Clinch Park in downtown Traverse City. Over time, this camp was abandoned. After the colonists came in, they discovered the Grand Traverse Bay; the bay earned its name from 18th-century French voyageurs who made la grande traverse, or "the long crossing", across the mouth of bay. The area was owned by the French, followed by Great Britain as the Province of Quebec. After 1776, the area was owned by the Americans. On Old Mission peninsula, Rev Peter Doughtery started the first permanent settlement in 1839; this was called "Grand Traverse" In 1847, Captain Boardman of Naperville, purchased the land at the mouth of the Boardman River at the head of the west arm of the bay, where the Indian camp was.
During that year the captain, his son, their employees built a dwelling and sawmill near the mouth of the river. In 1851 the Boardmans sold the sawmill to Lay & Co, who improved the mill greatly; the increased investment in the mill attracted additional settlers to the new community. Perry Hannah today is known as the founding father of Traverse City As of 1853, the only operating post office in the Grand Traverse Bay region was the one located at Old Mission, known as "Grand Traverse". While in Washington, D. C. in 1852, Mr. Lay had succeeded in getting the U. S. Post Office to authorize a new post office at his newer settlement; as the newer settlement had become known as "Grand Traverse City", after the Grand Traverse Bay, Lay proposed this name for its post office, but the Post Office Department clerk suggested dropping the "Grand" from the name, as to limit confusion between this new office and the one at nearby Old Mission. Mr. Lay agreed to the new, shortened name of "Traverse City" for the post office, the village took on this name.
Around this time, the first cherry trees were being planted on the Old Mission Peninsula, something the peninsula is known for today. In December 1872, rail service arrived in Traverse City via a Traverse City Railroad Company spur from the Grand Rapids and Indiana Railroad line at Walton Junction; this opened up the area to settlement and industrial development. Many more people started living here, in 1881, Traverse City was incorporated as a village; this began the major commercial growth of the town. In 1895, Traverse City was incorporated as a city. 1925 was the year of the first National Cherry Festival called "Blessing of the Blossoms". This tradition has carried on in Traverse City since, has become a popular gathering around the state. During the week the festival takes place, the population of Traverse City rises from about 15,000 to about 500,000. In 1929, Traverse City's first airport, Ransom Field, opened in what is today Memorial Gardens Cemetery on US 31; the airport offered flights to Grand Rapids.
The half of the 20th century saw many older things from the area close. Ransom Field renamed Traverse City Airport, closed in 1969, when Cherry County Airport was opened. Two drive in theaters in the vicinity closed, as well as three normal theaters in the area. With this, the Cherryland Mall and Grand Traverse Mall opened in these years. In 2005, the first Traverse City Film Festival was held in downtown Traverse City by Michael Moore. In 2015 and 2016, Traverse City was called the best small town in America by Livability.com. Traverse City is a part of the greater Northern Michigan region; the city is the main inland port of the Grand Traverse Bay—a long, natural harbor separated from the waters of Lake Michigan by the Leelanau Peninsula, divided longitudinally evenly by a narrow peninsula of tiered hillsides and farmland called Old Mission Peninsula. The most prominent of the city's waterways is the Boardman River. Along with Boardman Lake, the river is part of the Boardman River Watershed; the Boardman's 287-square-mile watershed contributes one-third of the water volume to the bay and is one of Michigan's top-ten fisheries, with more than 36 miles of its 179 miles designated as a Blue Ribbon trout fishery.
It is a state-designated "Natural River". A large project was finished on the Boardman. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.66 square miles, of which, 8.33 square miles of it is land and 0
United States District Court for the Western District of Kentucky
The United States District Court for the Western District of Kentucky is the federal district court for the western part of the state of Kentucky. Appeals from the Western District of Kentucky are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit. Jurisdiction includes the following Kentucky counties: Adair, Ballard, Breckinridge, Butler, Calloway, Casey, Clinton, Cumberland, Edmonson, Graves, Green, Hardin, Henderson, Hopkins, Jefferson, LaRue, Logan, Marion, Marshall, McCracken, McLean, Metcalfe, Muhlenberg, Ohio, Russell, Spencer, Todd, Union, Warren and Webster; the following counties are in the Louisville Division: Breckinridge, Hardin, Jefferson, LaRue, Meade, Oldham and Washington. The following counties are in the Bowling Green Division: Adair, Barren, Casey, Cumberland, Green, Logan, Monroe, Simpson, Taylor and Warren; the following counties are in the Owensboro Division: Daviess, Hancock, Hopkins, McLean, Ohio and Webster. The following counties are in the Paducah Division: Ballard, Calloway, Christian, Fulton, Hickman, Lyon, McCracken and Trigg.
The United States District Court for the District of Kentucky was one of the original 13 courts established by the Judiciary Act of 1789, 1 Stat. 73, on September 24, 1789. At the time, Kentucky was within the territory of the state of Virginia; the District was unchanged when Kentucky became a state on June 1, 1792. On February 13, 1801 the Judiciary Act of 1801, 2 Stat. 89, abolished the U. S. district court in Kentucky, but the repeal of this Act restored the District on March 8, 1802, 2 Stat. 132. The District was subdivided into Eastern and Western Districts on February 12, 1901, by 31 Stat. 781. The court is based in Louisville and holds sessions in federal courthouses in Bowling Green and Paducah; the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit in Cincinnati, Ohio maintains appellate jurisdiction over the district. Its court in Louisville is located at the Gene Snyder U. S. Courthouse; the United States Attorney's Office for the Western District of Kentucky represents the United States in civil and criminal litigation in the court.
The current United States Attorney is Russell Coleman. As of November 15, 2018 Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their district court. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the district court judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, have not served as chief judge. A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority among the group of qualified judges; the chief judge serves until age 70, whichever occurs first. The age restrictions are waived if no members of the court would otherwise be qualified for the position; when the office was created in 1948, the chief judge was the longest-serving judge who had not elected to retire on what has since 1958 been known as senior status or declined to serve as chief judge. After August 6, 1959, judges could not remain chief after turning 70 years old; the current rules have been in operation since October 1, 1982.
Courts of Kentucky List of United States federal courthouses in Kentucky U. S. District Court for the Western District of Kentucky, Official website
Cleveland is a major city in the U. S. state of Ohio, the county seat of Cuyahoga County. The city proper has a population of 385,525, making it the 51st-largest city in the United States, the second-largest city in Ohio. Greater Cleveland is ranked as the 32nd-largest metropolitan area in the U. S. with 2,055,612 people in 2016. The city anchors the Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area, which had a population of 3,515,646 in 2010 and is ranked 15th in the United States; the city is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie 60 miles west of the Ohio-Pennsylvania state border. It was founded in 1796 near the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, it became a manufacturing center due to its location on both the river and the lake shore, as well as being connected to numerous canals and railroad lines. Cleveland's economy relies on diversified sectors such as manufacturing, financial services and biomedicals. Cleveland is home to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Cleveland residents are called "Clevelanders".
The city has many nicknames, the oldest of which in contemporary use being "The Forest City". Cleveland was named on July 22, 1796, when surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company laid out Connecticut's Western Reserve into townships and a capital city, they named it "Cleaveland" after General Moses Cleaveland. Cleaveland oversaw design of the plan for what would become the modern downtown area, centered on Public Square, before returning home, never again to visit Ohio; the first settler in Cleaveland was Lorenzo Carter, who built a cabin on the banks of the Cuyahoga River. The Village of Cleaveland was incorporated on December 23, 1814. In spite of the nearby swampy lowlands and harsh winters, its waterfront location proved to be an advantage, giving access to Great Lakes trade; the area began rapid growth after the 1832 completion of the Erie Canal. This key link between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes connected the city to the Atlantic Ocean via the Erie Canal and Hudson River, via the St. Lawrence Seaway.
Its products could reach markets on the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River. Growth continued with added railroad links. Cleveland incorporated as a city in 1836. In 1836, the city located only on the eastern banks of the Cuyahoga River, nearly erupted into open warfare with neighboring Ohio City over a bridge connecting the two. Ohio City remained an independent municipality until its annexation by Cleveland in 1854; the city's prime geographic location as a transportation hub on the Great Lakes has played an important role in its development as a commercial center. Cleveland serves as a destination for iron ore shipped from Minnesota, along with coal transported by rail. In 1870, John D. Rockefeller founded Standard Oil in Cleveland. In 1885, he moved its headquarters to New York City, which had become a center of finance and business. Cleveland emerged in the early 20th century as an important American manufacturing center, its businesses included automotive companies such as Peerless, People's, Jordan and Winton, maker of the first car driven across the U.
S. Other manufacturers located in Cleveland produced steam-powered cars, which included White and Gaeth, as well as the electric car company Baker; because of its significant growth, Cleveland was known as the "Sixth City" of the US during this period. By 1920, due in large part to the city's economic prosperity, Cleveland became the nation's fifth-largest city; the city counted Progressive Era politicians such as the populist Mayor Tom L. Johnson among its leaders, its industrial jobs had attracted waves of European immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, as well as both black and white migrants from the rural South. In commemoration of the centennial of Cleveland's incorporation as a city, the Great Lakes Exposition debuted in June 1936 along the Lake Erie shore north of downtown. Conceived as a way to energize the city after the Great Depression, it drew four million visitors in its first season, seven million by the end of its second and final season in September 1937; the exposition was housed on grounds that are now used by the Great Lakes Science Center, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Burke Lakefront Airport, among others.
Following World War II, Cleveland continued to enjoy a prosperous economy. In sports, the Indians won the 1948 World Series, the hockey team, the Barons, became champions of the American Hockey League, the Browns dominated professional football in the 1950s; as a result, along with track and boxing champions produced, Cleveland was dubbed "City of Champions" in sports at this time. Businesses proclaimed that Cleveland was the "best location in the nation". In 1940, non-Hispanic whites represented 90.2% of Cleveland's population. Wealthy patrons supported development of the city's cultural institutions, such as the art museum and orchestra; the city's population reached its peak of 914,808, in 1949 Cleveland was named an All-America City for the first time. By the 1960s, the economy slowed, residents sought new housing in the suburbs, reflecting the national trends of suburban growth following the subsidized highways. In the 1950s and 1960s, African Americans worked in numerous cities to gain constitutional rights and relief from racial discrimination.
As change lagged despite federal laws to enforce rights and racial unrest occurred in Cleveland and numerous other industrial cities. In Cleveland, the Hough Riots erupted from July 18 to 23, 1966; the Glenville Shootout took place from July 23 to 25, 1968. In November 1967, Cleveland became the first major American city to elect a black mayor, Carl Stokes. Industrial restructuring in the railroad and steel industries, resulted in the loss of numerous