Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the South-Atlantic or Southern region. It is bordered to the south and west by Maryland, north by Pennsylvania, east by New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean; the state takes its name from Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, an English nobleman and Virginia's first colonial governor. Delaware occupies the northeastern portion of the Delmarva Peninsula. It's the sixth most densely populated. Delaware's largest city is Wilmington; the state is divided into the lowest number of any state. From north to south, they are New Castle County, Kent County, Sussex County. While the southern two counties have been predominantly agricultural, New Castle County is more industrialized. Before its coastline was explored by Europeans in the 16th century, Delaware was inhabited by several groups of Native Americans, including the Lenape in the north and Nanticoke in the south, it was colonized by Dutch traders at Zwaanendael, near the present town of Lewes, in 1631.
Delaware was one of the 13 colonies participating in the American Revolution. On December 7, 1787, Delaware became the first state to ratify the Constitution of the United States, has since been known as "The First State"; the state was named after the Delaware River, which in turn derived its name from Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, the ruling governor of the Colony of Virginia at the time Europeans first explored the river. The Delaware Indians, a name used by Europeans for Lenape people indigenous to the Delaware Valley derive their name from the same source; the surname de La Warr is of Anglo-Norman origin. It came from a Norman lieu-dit La Guerre; this toponymic could derive from the Latin word ager, from the Breton gwern or from the Late Latin varectum. The toponyms Gara, Gaire appear in old texts cited by Lucien Musset, where the word gara means gore, it could be linked with a patronymic from the Old Norse verr. Delaware is 96 miles long and ranges from 9 miles to 35 miles across, totaling 1,954 square miles, making it the second-smallest state in the United States after Rhode Island.
Delaware is bounded to the north by Pennsylvania. Small portions of Delaware are situated on the eastern side of the Delaware River sharing land boundaries with New Jersey; the state of Delaware, together with the Eastern Shore counties of Maryland and two counties of Virginia, form the Delmarva Peninsula, which stretches down the Mid-Atlantic Coast. The definition of the northern boundary of the state is unusual. Most of the boundary between Delaware and Pennsylvania was defined by an arc extending 12 miles from the cupola of the courthouse in the city of New Castle; this boundary is referred to as the Twelve-Mile Circle. Although the Twelve-Mile Circle is claimed to be the only territorial boundary in the United States, a true arc, the Mexican boundary with Texas includes several arcs, many cities in the South have circular boundaries; this border extends all the way east to the low-tide mark on the New Jersey shore continues south along the shoreline until it again reaches the 12-mile arc in the south.
To the west, a portion of the arc extends past the easternmost edge of Maryland. The remaining western border runs east of due south from its intersection with the arc; the Wedge of land between the northwest part of the arc and the Maryland border was claimed by both Delaware and Pennsylvania until 1921, when Delaware's claim was confirmed. Delaware is with the lowest mean elevation of any state in the nation, its highest elevation, located at Ebright Azimuth, near Concord High School, is less than 450 feet above sea level. The northernmost part of the state is part of the Piedmont Plateau with rolling surfaces; the Atlantic Seaboard fall line follows the Robert Kirkwood Highway between Newark and Wilmington. A ridge about 75 to 80 feet in elevation extends along the western boundary of the state and separates the watersheds that feed Delaware River and Bay to the east and the Chesapeake Bay to the west. Since all of Delaware is a part of the Atlantic coastal plain, the effects of the ocean moderate its climate.
The state lies in the humid subtropical climate zone. Despite its small size, there is significant variation in mean temperature and amount of snowfall between Sussex County and New Castle County. Moderated by the Atlantic Ocean and Delaware Bay, the southern portion of the state has a milder climate and a longer growing season than the northern portion of the state. Delaware's all-time record high of 110 °F was recorded at Millsboro on July 21, 1930; the all-time record low of −17 °F was recorded at Millsboro on January 17, 1893. The transitional climate of Delaware supports a wide variety of vegetation. In the northern third of the state are found Northeastern coastal forests and mixed oak forests typical of the northeastern United States. In the southern two-thirds of the state are found Middle Atlantic coastal forests. Trap Pond State Park, along with areas in other parts of Sussex County, for example, support
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, is the county seat of Allegheny County. As of 2018, a population of 308,144 lives within the city limits, making it the 63rd-largest city in the U. S; the metropolitan population of 2,362,453, is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, the 26th-largest in the U. S. Pittsburgh is located in the south west of the state, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges; the city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Whiskey Rebels, Civil War raiders. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, shipbuilding, foods, transportation, computing and electronics.
For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment. S. stockholders per capita. America's 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out; this heritage left the area with renowned museums, medical centers, research centers, a diverse cultural district. Today, Apple Inc. Bosch, Uber, Autodesk, Microsoft and IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, energy research and the nuclear navy; the area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. The nation's eighth-largest bank, eight Fortune 500 companies, six of the top 300 U. S. law firms make their global headquarters in the area, while RAND, BNY Mellon, FedEx, Bayer and NIOSH have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.
S. job growth. In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world"; the region is a hub for Environmental Design and energy extraction. In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed “Food City of the Year” by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co. Many restaurants were mentioned favorable, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield and Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield. Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham; as Forbes was a Scot, he pronounced the name PITS-bər-ə. Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act: "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."
From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations. After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed; the area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans. The first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers. During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off; the French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims.
The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne; the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes took the forks in 1758. Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough". During Pontiac's Rebellion, native tribes conducted a siege of Fort Pitt for two months until Colonel Henry Bouquet relieved it after the Battle of Bushy Run. Fort Pitt is notable as the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare. Lord Jeffery Amherst ordered blankets contaminated from smallpox victims to be distributed in 1763 to the tribes surrounding the fort; the disease spread into other areas, infected other tribes, killed hundreds of thousands. During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes.
By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of
Cheryl Ann Krause
Cheryl Ann Krause is a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. Krause was born in St. Louis and grew up outside Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, she received her Bachelor of Arts summa cum laude, from the University of Pennsylvania in 1989 and her Juris Doctor with highest honors from Stanford Law School in 1993. After graduating from law school, Krause clerked for Judge Alex Kozinski of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit from 1993 to 1994, for Justice Anthony M. Kennedy of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1994 to 1995. From 1995 to 1996, Krause worked as a lecturer and visiting scholar at Stanford Law School, as well as a law clerk at Heller Ehrman in San Francisco, California. Krause was an associate at Davis Polk & Wardwell in New York City from 1996 to 1997, served as an Assistant United States Attorney in the Southern District of New York from 1997 to 2002. Krause returned to Philadelphia in 2003, where she joined Hangley Aronchick Segal & Pudlin as a shareholder.
In 2006, she became a partner at Dechert, where she specialized in white-collar criminal defense and government investigations. Since 2003, she has taught courses at the University of Pennsylvania Law School, where she founded and leads an appellate litigation externship program, she founded the Philadelphia Project in 2011, a partnership between Dechert and The Public Interest Law Center of Philadelphia to improve the quality of education for children with disabilities. Since 2007, Krause has served as outside counsel for the City of Philadelphia's Board of Ethics and on the Board of Directors of the Committee of Seventy, a non-partisan civic organization focused on fair elections and government integrity. On February 6, 2014, President Obama nominated Krause to serve as a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, to the seat vacated by Judge Dolores Sloviter, who took senior status on June 21, 2013, she received a hearing before the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary on March 12, 2014.
On April 3, 2014 her nomination was reported out of committee by voice vote. On June 24, 2014, Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid filed for cloture on the nomination. On June 26, 2014, cloture was invoked by a vote of 57–39. On July 7, 2014 the Senate voted 93–0 in favor of final confirmation, she received her judicial commission on July 9, 2014. Cheryl Ann Krause at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. Cheryl Ann Krause at Ballotpedia
United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania
The United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania sits in Pittsburgh and Johnstown, Pennsylvania. It is composed of ten judges as authorized by federal law. Appeals from this court are heard by the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit; the United States District Court for the District of Pennsylvania was one of the original 13 courts established by the Judiciary Act of 1789, 1 Stat. 73, on September 24, 1789. It was subdivided on April 1818, by 3 Stat. 462, into the Eastern and Western Districts to be headquartered in Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, respectively. The court began its first session on December 1818 at the Old County Courthouse in Pittsburgh. Portions of these districts were subsequently subdivided into the Middle District on March 2, 1901, by 31 Stat. 880. At the time of its initial subdivision, presiding judge Richard Peters, Jr. was reassigned to only the Eastern District. This made it possible for President James Monroe to appoint Jonathan Hoge Walker as the first judge of the Western District of Pennsylvania.
The Erie courthouse and division was split from Pittsburgh for initial actions in January 1867, with the Johnstown courthouse and division being split from Pittsburgh for initial actions in 1989. As of December 7, 2018 Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their district court. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the district court judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, have not served as chief judge. A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority among the group of qualified judges; the chief judge serves until age 70, whichever occurs first. The age restrictions are waived if no members of the court would otherwise be qualified for the position; when the office was created in 1948, the chief judge was the longest-serving judge who had not elected to retire on what has since 1958 been known as senior status or declined to serve as chief judge.
After August 6, 1959, judges could not remain chief after turning 70 years old. The current rules have been in operation since October 1, 1982. Former United States Attorneys for the district have included: James Hamilton March 11, 1801 Andrew Stewart April 20, 1818 Alexander Brackenridge March 3, 1821 George W. Buchanan October 22, 1830 Benjamin Patton, Jr. October 22, 1832 John P. Anderson June 12, 1839 Cornelius Darragh March 25, 1841 William O'Hara Robinson March 29, 1844 John L. Dawson July 22, 1845 J. Bowman Sweitzer August 27, 1850 Charles Shaler April 19, 1853 Richard Biddle Roberts April 21, 1857 Robert B. Carnahan April 12, 1861 Henry B. Swope January 24, 1870 David Reed March 24, 1874 Henry H. McCormick June 29, 1876 William A. Stone July 6, 1880 George A. Allen December 4, 1886 Walter Lyon June 21, 1889 Stephen C. McCandless April 26, 1893 Harry Alvan Hall June 8, 1893 B. Heiner September 14, 1897 James S. Young February 10, 1902 John W. Dunkle March 17, 1905 John H. Jordan April 15, 1909 Edwin Lowry Humes September 10, 1913 R. Lindsay Crawford September 2, 1918 Edwin Lowry Humes August 20, 1919 Robert J. Dodds June 1, 1920 D. J. Driscoll August 19, 1920 Walter Lyon March 11, 1921 John D. Meyer July 18, 1925 Louis Edward Graham October 31, 1929 Horatio S. Dumbauld August 17, 1933 Charles F. Uhl May 12, 1941 Owen McIntosh Burns May 16, 1947 Edward C. Boyle November 3, 1949 John W. McIlvaine July 16, 1953 D. Malcolm Anderson, Jr. August 19, 1955 Hubert I.
Teitelbaum March 17, 1958 Joseph S. Ammerman June 5, 1961 Gustave Diamond February 2, 1963 Richard L. Thornburgh June 4, 1969 Blair A. Griffith July 7, 1975 Robert J. Cindrich September 29, 1978 J. Alan Johnson July 31, 1981 Charles D. Sheehy January 15, 1989 Thomas W. Corbett November 30, 1989 Frederick W. Thieman August 16, 1993 Linda L. Kelly August 1, 1997 Harry Litman October 22, 1998 Linda L. Kelly April 28, 2001 Mary Beth Buchanan – September 18, 2001 Robert S. Cessar – November 17, 2009 David J. Hickton – August 12, 2010 Soo C. Song – November 29, 2016 Scott Brady – December 22, 2017 Courts of Pennsylvania List of United States federal courthouses in Pennsylvania Official site
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
D. Brooks Smith
David Brookman Smith, known professionally as D. Brooks Smith, is the Chief United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, he was Chief Judge of the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania. Smith was born in Pennsylvania. After graduating from Dickinson School of Law, Smith began his legal career in Altoona, becoming managing partner of Jubelirer, Krier and Smith. From 1977 to 1979, Smith served as an Assistant District Attorney for Pennsylvania. Smith served as a special prosecutor, conducting a grand jury investigation from 1981 to 1983 into organized criminal activity in central Pennsylvania. From 1983 to 1984, Smith served as the Blair County District Attorney. In December 1984, Governor Dick Thornburgh appointed Smith to a judgeship on the Court of Common Pleas of Blair County; the next year, Smith received the nominations of both the Republican and Democratic Parties for a ten-year term as judge on the same court. In 1987, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania Robert N. C.
Nix Jr. appointed Smith Administrative Judge of the Blair County Courts, charging him with responsibility to address that court's chronic backlog. In 1988, President Ronald Reagan, with the advice of Senators Arlen Specter and H. John Heinz III, appointed Smith to the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania, he served as Chief Judge from 2001 until his elevation to the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. Smith was nominated to the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit by President George W. Bush on September 10, 2001. Having been unanimously rated "well qualified" by the Standing Committee of the American Bar Association, his nomination was confirmed by the U. S. Senate on July 31, 2002, he became Chief Judge of the Third Circuit on October 2016, succeeding Theodore McKee. Smith's confirmation process is detailed in Jeffrey Lord's The Borking Rebellion. Chief Justice John Roberts appointed Judge Smith to chair the Committee on Space and Facilities of the Judicial Conference of the United States for a three-year term beginning October 2013.
In that capacity, he has led a national space reduction initiative which ranks as the federal judiciary's major cost containment measure. Smith has served as a member of the Committee on Space and Facilities since 2006. Smith served on the Criminal Rules Advisory Committee of the United States Judicial Conference from 1993 to 1999. In addition, Smith is a member of the American Law Institute, the Federal Judges Association, the American Judicature Society, the Allegheny County Bar Association and the Pennsylvania Bar Association. Petruska v. Gannon Univ, 462 F.3d 294, 307, cited with approval in Hosanna-Tabor Evangelical Lutheran Church and School v. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 132 S. Ct. 694, 705 n.2, 709 n.4: Smith adopted the ministerial exception, which "operates to bar any claim, which would have limited the religious institution's right to select who will perform particular spiritual functions." Washington v. Klem, 497 F.3d 272: Smith held that under the Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act a "substantial burden" to a prisoner's religious practice exists when one is forced to choose between following his religious principles or giving up benefits otherwise available to other inmates versus abandoning one of the religious principles in order to receive a benefit.
United States v. Stevens, 533 F.3d 218, en banc: affirmed 130 S. Ct. 1577: Smith held that 18 U. S. C. § 48, which makes it illegal to create or sell pictures of animal cruelty, is unconstitutional because it infringes on the First Amendment right to free speech. Bruesewitz v. Wyeth, Inc. 561 F.3d 233, affirmed 131 S. Ct. 1068: Smith held that plaintiff's negligent design defect claim was preempted by the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act. United States v. Tomko, 562 F.3d 558, 568: Smith used the abuse of discretion standard and held that "if the district court's sentence is procedurally sound, we will affirm it unless no reasonable sentencing court would have imposed the same sentence on that particular defendant for the reasons the district court provided." Greene v. Palakovich, 606 F.3d 85, aff'd sub nom. Greene v. Fisher, 132 S. Ct. 38: Smith held that the phrase "clearly established Federal law" in 28 U. S. C. § 2254 refers to Supreme Court decisions which existed at the time of the relevant state-court decision.
J. S. ex rel. Snyder v. Blue Mountain Sch. Dist. 659 F.3d 915, cert. denied, 132 S. Ct. 1097: Smith would hold that Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, 393 U. S. 503, does not apply to J. S.'s speech. NLRB v. New Vista Nursing and Rehabilitation, 719 F.3d 203, abrogated by Noel Canning v. NLRB, 134 S. Ct. 2550, rehearing granted: Smith held that the phrase “Recess of the Senate” in the Recess Appointments Clause “refers to only intersession breaks” and that one NLRB member was invalidly appointed during an intrasession break. B. H. ex rel. Hawk v. Easton Area Sch. Dist. 725 F.3d 293: Smith, writing for the en banc majority, held that school district’s ban on wearing a bracelet that could plausibly be commenting upon political or social issues violated the First Amendment rights of the students. King v. Governor of the State of New Jersey, 767 F.3d 216: Smith held that New Jersey’s prohibition on counselors engaging in sexual orientation change efforts therapy did not violate the First Amendment or
Case citation is a system used by legal professionals to identify past court case decisions, either in series of books called reporters or law reports, or in a neutral style that identifies a decision regardless of where it is reported. Case citations are formatted differently in different jurisdictions, but contain the same key information. A legal citation is a "reference to a legal precedent or authority, such as a case, statute, or treatise, that either substantiates or contradicts a given position." Where cases are published on paper, the citation contains the following information: Court that issued the decision Report title Volume number Page, section, or paragraph number Publication yearIn some report series, for example in England and some in Canada, volumes are not numbered independently of the year: thus the year and volume number are required to identify which book of the series has the case reported within its covers. In such citations, it is usual in these jurisdictions to apply square brackets "" to the year.
The Internet brought with it the opportunity for courts to publish their decisions on websites and most published court decisions now appear in that way. They can be found through many national and other websites, such as WorldLII, that are operated by members of the Free Access to Law Movement; the resulting flood of unpaginated information has led to numbering of paragraphs and the adoption of a medium-neutral citation system. This contains the following information: Year of decision Abbreviated title of the court Decision number Rather than utilizing page numbers for pinpoint references, which would depend upon particular printers and browsers, pinpoint quotations refer to paragraph numbers; the conjunction "versus" is abbreviated to "v" in Commonwealth countries and to "v." in the United States. In common law countries with an adversarial system of justice, the names of the opposing parties are separated in the case title by the abbreviation v—usually written as v in Commonwealth countries and always as v. in the US.
The abbreviation represents the Latin word versus. When case titles are read out loud, the v can be pronounced, depending on the context, as and, versus, or vee. Commonwealth countries follow English legal style: Civil cases are pronounced with and. For example, Smith v Jones would be pronounced "Smith and Jones". Criminal cases are pronounced with against. For example, R v Smith would be pronounced "the Crown against Smith"; the Latin words Rex and versus are all rendered into English. Versus and vee are incorrect. In the United States, there is no consensus on the pronunciation of the abbreviation v; this has led to much confusion about the pronunciation and spelling of court cases: Versus is most used, leading some newspapers to use the common abbreviation vs. in place of the legal abbreviation v. Vee is heard but is not as common. Against is a matter of personal style. For example, Warren E. Burger and John Paul Stevens preferred to announce cases at the Supreme Court with against, and is used by some law professors, but other law professors regard it as an affectation.
During oral arguments in Planned Parenthood v. Casey, the participants demonstrated the lack of consensus by using different pronunciations of v. Solicitor General Ken Starr managed to use all three of the most common American pronunciations interchangeably: Kenneth W. Starr: This is the process of analysis, quite familiar to the Court lengthily laid out by Justice Harlan in his dissent in Poe versus Ullman, adumbrated in his concurring opinion in Griswold against Connecticut.... Well, I think that, the necessary consequence of Roe vee Wade. Legal citation in Australia mirrors the methods of citation used in England. A used guide to Australian legal citation is the Australian Guide to Legal Citation, published jointly by the Melbourne University Law Review and the Melbourne Journal of International Law; the standard case citation format in Australia is: As in Canada, there has been divergence among citation styles. There exist commercial citation guides published by Butterworths and other legal publishing companies, academic citation styles and court citation styles.
Each court in Australia may cite the same case differently. There is presently a movement in convergence to the comprehensive academic citation style of the Australian Guide to Legal Citation published jointly by the Melbourne University Law Review and the Melbourne Journal of International Law. Australian courts and tribunals have now adopted a neutral citation standard for case law; the format provides a naming system that does not depend on the publication of the case in a law report. Most cases are now published on AustLII using neutral citations; the standard format looks like this: So the above-mentioned Mabo case would be cited like this: Mabo v Queensland HCA 23. There is a unique court identifier code for most courts; the court and tribunal identifiers include: Australian Guide to Legal Citation There are a number of citation standards in Canada. Many legal publishing companies and schools have their own standard for citation. Since the late 1990s, much of the legal community has converged to a single standard—formulated in The Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation known as the "McGill Guide" after the McGill Law Journal, which first published it.
The following format reflects this standard: Hunter v Southam, 2 SCR 145. Broken into its component parts, the format is: The Style of Cause is i