Tobacco is the agricultural product of the leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. All species of Nicotiana contain the addictive drug nicotine—a stimulant and sedative contained in all parts of the plants except the seeds—which occurs in varying amounts depending on the species and variety cultivated. See types of tobacco and curing of tobacco for more information; the vast majority of commercially available tobacco is derived from the species Nicotiana tabacum, although it is produced from Nicotiana alata, to a lesser extent Nicotiana clevelandii, Nicotiana longiflora, Nicotiana rustica, among others. Once tobacco has been grown, harvested and processed, it is used to produce a number of different products; these are most consumable. Tobacco products can be divided into two types: smoked tobacco and smokeless tobacco. An expert in tobacco and tobacco products — pipes, pipe tobacco, cigars—including their procurement and sale, is called a tobacconist; the health effects of tobacco consumption are discussed in health effects of tobacco.
Chewing is one of the oldest methods of consuming tobacco leaves. Native Americans in both North and South America chewed the fresh leaves of the tobacco plant mixed with lime. Modern chewing tobacco is produced from cured and fermented tobacco dampened and mixed with some type of sweetener. Twist tobacco may be an exception in this case. In using chewing tobacco—at least types other than tobacco pellets—the consumer deposits the tobacco between the cheek and teeth and macerates and sucks the tobacco to allow its juices to flow, thus when chewing, it is common to spit and discard excess saliva caused by the release of juices from the tobacco, justifying the existence of the spittoon, or cuspidor. The popularity of chewing tobacco and the associated spittoon reached its height in the American Midwest during the late 19th century. While spittoons are a rarity in modern society, loose leaf chewing tobacco can still be purchased at many convenience stores or from tobacconists throughout the United States and Canada.
Chewing tobacco is manufactured in several forms: Loose leaf chewing tobacco known as scrap, is the most common contemporary form of chewing tobacco. It consists of cut or shredded strips of tobacco leaf, is sold in sealed pouches or bags lined with foil. Sweetened, loose leaf chew may have a tacky texture. Popular, modern brands of scrap sold in North America include Red Man, Levi Garrett, Jackson's Apple Jack, Beech-Nut, Stoker's. Pellets or bits consist of tobacco rolled into small pellets, they are packaged in portable tins. Tobacco pellets are used in the same manner as snus, in that they are placed between the lip and gum, that spitting is unnecessary, it is suggested that the user may periodically chew the pellets in order to release additional juice, and/or nicotine. Tobacco bits are exclusively produced under the Northern European Oliver Twist and Piccanell brands, they are thus—like snus—preponderant in the Scandinavian region. Plug tobacco is made up of tobacco leaves that have been pressed together and bound by some type of sweetener, resulting in a dense, square tobacco mass.
One can bite directly from the mass or slice the tobacco into portions. Some types of plug may either be chewed or smoked in a tobacco pipe, some are exclusive to one method of consumption or the other. Plug tobacco was once a much more common product, available to many American consumers during the 19th century. Two tobacco companies that manufactured plug are Liggett and Lorillard. Modern brands of chewing plug include "rustic" and simple packaging, as is the case with popular plugs like Apple Sun Cured, Brown's Mule, Cannon Ball, Days Work, Days O Work; some well-known loose leaf chewing tobacco brands, such as Red Man and Levi Garrett, have their own versions of plug tobacco, as well. Twist or rope tobacco is made up of rope-like strands of tobacco that have been twisted together and cured in that position, afterwards being cut; some types of twist may either be chewed or smoked in a tobacco pipe, some are exclusive to one method or the other. Unlike other types of chewing tobacco, twist tobacco isn't always a sweetened product, may be devoid of molasses.
A cigar is a rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco, ignited so that its smoke may be drawn into the smoker's mouth and expelled. The cigar is one of the oldest methods of preparing tobacco for consumption, some of the first cigars being introduced to Europeans as rolls of tobacco smoked by the Taíno of 15th century Cuba. There are numerous varieties of cigar, differentiated by their respective size, shape and composition; some products developed from the cigar are, markedly different from the traditional product. Cigarettes may be the most notable example of this deviation, although they do, in a sense, repre
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibers. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, cotton, hemp, or other materials to produce long strands. Textiles are formed by weaving, crocheting, knotting or tatting, felting, or braiding; the related words "fabric" and "cloth" and "material" are used in textile assembly trades as synonyms for textile. However, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. A textile is any material made of interlacing fibres, including carpeting and geotextiles. A fabric is a material made through weaving, spreading, crocheting, or bonding that may be used in production of further goods. Cloth may be used synonymously with fabric but is a piece of fabric, processed; the word'textile' is from Latin, from the adjective textilis, meaning'woven', from textus, the past participle of the verb texere,'to weave'. The word'fabric' derives from Latin, most from the Middle French fabrique, or'building, thing made', earlier as the Latin fabrica'workshop.
The word'cloth' derives from the Old English clað, meaning a cloth, woven or felted material to wrap around one, from Proto-Germanic kalithaz. The first clothes, worn at least 70,000 years ago and much earlier, were made of animal skins and helped protect early humans from the ice ages. At some point people learned to weave plant fibers into textiles; the discovery of dyed flax fibres in a cave in the Republic of Georgia dated to 34,000 BCE suggests textile-like materials were made in prehistoric times. The production of textiles is a craft whose speed and scale of production has been altered beyond recognition by industrialization and the introduction of modern manufacturing techniques. However, for the main types of textiles, plain weave, twill, or satin weave, there is little difference between the ancient and modern methods. Textiles have an assortment of uses, the most common of which are for clothing and for containers such as bags and baskets. In the household they are used in carpeting, upholstered furnishings, window shades, coverings for tables and other flat surfaces, in art.
In the workplace they are used in scientific processes such as filtering. Miscellaneous uses include flags, tents, handkerchiefs, cleaning rags, transportation devices such as balloons, kites and parachutes. Textiles are used in many traditional crafts such as sewing and embroidery. Textiles for industrial purposes, chosen for characteristics other than their appearance, are referred to as technical textiles. Technical textiles include textile structures for automotive applications, medical textiles, agrotextiles, protective clothing. In all these applications stringent performance requirements must be met. Woven of threads coated with zinc oxide nanowires, laboratory fabric has been shown capable of "self-powering nanosystems" using vibrations created by everyday actions like wind or body movements. Textiles are made from many materials, with four main sources: animal, plant and synthetic; the first three are natural. In the 20th century, they were supplemented by artificial fibres made from petroleum.
Textiles are made in various strengths and degrees of durability, from the finest microfibre made of strands thinner than one denier to the sturdiest canvas. Textile manufacturing terminology has a wealth of descriptive terms, from light gauze-like gossamer to heavy grosgrain cloth and beyond. Animal textiles are made from hair, skin or silk. Wool refers to the hair of the domestic sheep or goat, distinguished from other types of animal hair in that the individual strands are coated with scales and crimped, the wool as a whole is coated with a wax mixture known as lanolin, waterproof and dirtproof. Woollen refers to a bulkier yarn produced from carded, non-parallel fibre, while worsted refers to a finer yarn spun from longer fibres which have been combed to be parallel. Wool is used for warm clothing. Cashmere, the hair of the Indian cashmere goat, mohair, the hair of the North African angora goat, are types of wool known for their softness. Other animal textiles which are made from hair or fur are alpaca wool, vicuña wool, llama wool, camel hair used in the production of coats, ponchos and other warm coverings.
Angora refers to the long, soft hair of the angora rabbit. Qiviut is the fine inner wool of the muskox. Wadmal is a coarse cloth made of wool, produced in Scandinavia 1000~1500 CE. Sea silk is an fine and valuable fabric, made from the silky filaments or byssus secreted by a gland in the foot of pen shells. Silk is an animal textile made from the fibres of the cocoon of the Chinese silkworm, spun into a smooth fabric prized for its softness. There are two main ty
Six World Trade Center
Six World Trade Center was an eight-story building in Lower Manhattan in New York City. It opened in 1973 and was the building in the World Trade Center complex that had the fewest stories; the building served as the U. S. Customs House for New York, it was destroyed in 2001 due to the collapse of the North Tower during the September 11 attacks. Six World Trade Center was first proposed in 1968 as part of the original World Trade Center complex; the building was designed by Emery Sons, along with Yamasaki Associates. Construction was completed in 1973; the original Six World Trade Center was home to the U. S. Customs Service for the state of New York, from 1974 to 2001, it was the shortest in the World Trade Center complex. From the Austin J. Tobin Plaza level, on which the main structure was built, it had a height of 92 feet but was 105 feet above the actual ground level, it was demolished following the destruction of the World Trade Center during the September 11 attacks, when 10 al-Qaeda participants hijacked American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, crashing them into the Twin Towers.
After burning for less than two hours, both 110-story towers collapsed. The collapse of the North Tower destroyed Six World Trade Center beyond repair, the remnants of the building were pulled down using cables. Internal Revenue Service Inspection Service United States Customs Service United States Department of Commerce Bureau of Alcohol and Firearms United States Department of Agriculture – Administrator and Plant Health Inspection Service United States Department of Labor The Peace Corps Export-Import Bank of the United States Eastco Building Services The building's ruins were demolished to make way for reconstruction of the current World Trade Center site. AMEC Construction handled the demolition, in which the building was weakened and pulled down with cables; the new One World Trade Center stands at the site where Six World Trade Center stood. Marriott World Trade Center Emporis entry on this building Tenants of 6 World Trade Center via CNN
In common usage, theft is the taking of another person's property or services without that person's permission or consent with the intent to deprive the rightful owner of it. The word is used as an informal shorthand term for some crimes against property, such as burglary, larceny, robbery, library theft, fraud. In some jurisdictions, theft is considered to be synonymous with larceny. Someone who carries out an act of or makes a career of theft is known as a thief; the act of theft is known by other terms such as stealing and filching. Theft is the name of a statutory offence in California, Canada and Wales, Hong Kong, Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, the Australian states of South Australia, Victoria; the actus reus of theft is defined as an unauthorized taking, keeping, or using of another's property which must be accompanied by a mens rea of dishonesty and the intent permanently to deprive the owner or rightful possessor of that property or its use. For example, if X goes to a restaurant and, by mistake, takes Y's scarf instead of her own, she has physically deprived Y of the use of the property but the mistake prevents X from forming the mens rea so no crime has been committed at this point.
But if she realises the mistake when she gets home and could return the scarf to Y, she will steal the scarf if she dishonestly keeps it. Note that there may be civil liability for the torts of trespass to chattels or conversion in either eventuality. Section 322 of the Criminal Code provides the general definition for theft in Canada: 322; every one commits theft who fraudulently and without colour of right takes, or fraudulently and without colour of right converts to his/her use or to the use of another person, whether animate or inanimate, with intent to deprive, temporarily or the owner of it, or a person who has a special property or interest in it, of the thing or of his property or interest in it. Sections 323 to 333 provide for more specific instances and exclusions: theft from oyster beds theft by bailee of things under seizure exception when agent is pledging goods theft of telecommunications service possession of device to obtain telecommunication facility or service theft by or from person having special property or interest theft by person required to account theft by person holding power of attorney misappropriation of money held under direction exception for ore taken for exploration or scientific research In the general definition above, the Supreme Court of Canada has construed "anything" broadly, stating that it is not restricted to tangibles, but includes intangibles.
To be the subject of theft it must, however: be property of some sort. Because of this, confidential information cannot be the subject of theft, as it is not capable of being taken as only tangibles can be taken, it cannot be converted, not because it is an intangible, but because, save in exceptional far‑fetched circumstances, the owner would never be deprived of it. However, the theft of trade secrets in certain circumstances does constitute part of the offence of economic espionage, which can be prosecuted under s. 19 of the Security of Information Act. For the purposes of punishment, Section 334 divides theft into two separate offences, according to the value and nature of the goods stolen: If the thing stolen is worth more than $5000 or is a testamentary instrument the offence is referred to as Theft Over $5000 and is an indictable offence with a maximum punishment of 10 years imprisonment. Where the stolen item is not a testamentary instrument and is not worth more than $5000 it is known as Theft Under $5000 and is a hybrid offence, meaning that it can be treated either as an indictable offence or a less serious summary conviction offence, depending on the choice of the prosecutor.if dealt with as an indictable offence, it is punishable by imprisonment for not more than 2 years, and, if treated as a summary conviction offence, it is punishable by 6 months imprisonment, a fine of $2000 or both.
Where a motor vehicle is stolen, Section 333.1 provides for a maximum punishment of 10 years for an indictable offence, a maximum sentence of 18 months on summary conviction. Article 2 of the Theft Ordinance provides the general definition of theft in Hong Kong: A person commits theft if he dishonestly appropriates property belonging to another with the intention of permanently depriving the other of it, it is immaterial whether the appropriation is made with a view to gain, or is made for the thief’s own benefit. Theft is a crime with related articles in the Wetboek van Strafrecht. Article 310 prohibits theft, defined as taking away any object that belongs to someone else, with the intention to appropriate it illegally. Maximum imprisonment is 4 years or a fine o
Money is any item or verifiable record, accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts, such as taxes, in a particular country or socio-economic context. The main functions of money are distinguished as: a medium of exchange, a unit of account, a store of value and sometimes, a standard of deferred payment. Any item or verifiable record that fulfils these functions can be considered as money. Money is an emergent market phenomenon establishing a commodity money, but nearly all contemporary money systems are based on fiat money. Fiat money, like any note of debt, is without use value as a physical commodity, it derives its value by being declared by a government to be legal tender. Counterfeit money can cause good money to lose its value; the money supply of a country consists of currency and, depending on the particular definition used, one or more types of bank money. Bank money, which consists only of records, forms by far the largest part of broad money in developed countries.
The word "money" is believed to originate from a temple of Juno, on Capitoline, one of Rome's seven hills. In the ancient world Juno was associated with money; the temple of Juno Moneta at Rome was the place. The name "Juno" may derive from the Etruscan goddess Uni and "Moneta" either from the Latin word "monere" or the Greek word "moneres". In the Western world, a prevalent term for coin-money has been specie, stemming from Latin in specie, meaning'in kind'; the use of barter-like methods may date back to at least 100,000 years ago, though there is no evidence of a society or economy that relied on barter. Instead, non-monetary societies operated along the principles of gift economy and debt; when barter did in fact occur, it was between either complete strangers or potential enemies. Many cultures around the world developed the use of commodity money; the Mesopotamian shekel was a unit of weight, relied on the mass of something like 160 grains of barley. The first usage of the term came from Mesopotamia circa 3000 BC.
Societies in the Americas, Asia and Australia used shell money – the shells of the cowry. According to Herodotus, the Lydians were the first people to introduce the use of gold and silver coins, it is thought by modern scholars that these first stamped coins were minted around 650–600 BC. The system of commodity money evolved into a system of representative money; this occurred because gold and silver merchants or banks would issue receipts to their depositors – redeemable for the commodity money deposited. These receipts became accepted as a means of payment and were used as money. Paper money or banknotes were first used in China during the Song dynasty; these banknotes, known as "jiaozi", evolved from promissory notes, used since the 7th century. However, they did not displace commodity money, were used alongside coins. In the 13th century, paper money became known in Europe through the accounts of travelers, such as Marco Polo and William of Rubruck. Marco Polo's account of paper money during the Yuan dynasty is the subject of a chapter of his book, The Travels of Marco Polo, titled "How the Great Kaan Causeth the Bark of Trees, Made Into Something Like Paper, to Pass for Money All Over his Country."
Banknotes were first issued in Europe by Stockholms Banco in 1661, were again used alongside coins. The gold standard, a monetary system where the medium of exchange are paper notes that are convertible into pre-set, fixed quantities of gold, replaced the use of gold coins as currency in the 17th–19th centuries in Europe; these gold standard notes were made legal tender, redemption into gold coins was discouraged. By the beginning of the 20th century all countries had adopted the gold standard, backing their legal tender notes with fixed amounts of gold. After World War II and the Bretton Woods Conference, most countries adopted fiat currencies that were fixed to the U. S. dollar. The U. S. dollar was in turn fixed to gold. In 1971 the U. S. government suspended the convertibility of the U. S. dollar to gold. After this many countries de-pegged their currencies from the U. S. dollar, most of the world's currencies became unbacked by anything except the governments' fiat of legal tender and the ability to convert the money into goods via payment.
According to proponents of modern money theory, fiat money is backed by taxes. By imposing taxes, states create demand for the currency. In Money and the Mechanism of Exchange, William Stanley Jevons famously analyzed money in terms of four functions: a medium of exchange, a common measure of value, a standard of value, a store of value. By 1919, Jevons's four functions of money were summarized in the couplet: Money's a matter of functions four, A Medium, a Measure, a Standard, a Store; this couplet would become popular in macroeconomics textbooks. Most modern textbooks now list only three functions, that of medium of exchange, unit of account, store of value, not considering a standard of deferred payment as a distinguished function, but rather subsuming it in the others. There have been many historical disputes regarding the combination of money's functions, some arguing that they need more separation and that a s
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.
Militia forces besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.
In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis Cowpens, he retreated to Yorktown, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war.
French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War. Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766, but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies.
From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread. Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in 1768 on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre. In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor, so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter, taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Additionally, t
The Louisiana Purchase was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory of New France by the United States from France in 1803. The U. S. paid fifty million francs and a cancellation of debts worth eighteen million francs for a total of sixty-eight million francs. The Louisiana territory included land from fifteen present U. S. states and two Canadian provinces. The territory contained land that forms Arkansas, Iowa, Oklahoma and Nebraska, its non-native population was around 60,000 inhabitants. The Kingdom of France controlled the Louisiana territory from 1699 until it was ceded to Spain in 1762. In 1800, Napoleon the First Consul of the French Republic, hoping to re-establish an empire in North America, regained ownership of Louisiana. However, France's failure to put down the revolt in Saint-Domingue, coupled with the prospect of renewed warfare with the United Kingdom, prompted Napoleon to sell Louisiana to the United States to fund his military; the Americans sought to purchase only the port city of New Orleans and its adjacent coastal lands, but accepted the bargain.
The Louisiana Purchase occurred during the term of the third President of the United States, Thomas Jefferson. Before the purchase was finalized, the decision faced Federalist Party opposition. Jefferson agreed that the U. S. Constitution did not contain explicit provisions for acquiring territory, but he asserted that his constitutional power to negotiate treaties was sufficient. Throughout the second half of the 18th century, Louisiana was a pawn on the chessboard of European politics, it was controlled by the French, who had a few small settlements along the Mississippi and other main rivers. France ceded the territory to Spain in the secret Treaty of Fontainebleau. Following French defeat in the Seven Years' War, Spain gained control of the territory west of the Mississippi and the British the territory to the east of the river. Following the establishment of the United States, the Americans controlled the area east of the Mississippi and north of New Orleans; the main issue for the Americans was free transit of the Mississippi to the sea.
As the lands were being settled by a few American migrants, many Americans, including Jefferson, assumed that the territory would be acquired "piece by piece." The risk of another power taking it from a weakened Spain made a "profound reconsideration" of this policy necessary. New Orleans was important for shipping agricultural goods to and from the areas of the United States west of the Appalachian Mountains. Pinckney's Treaty, signed with Spain on October 27, 1795, gave American merchants "right of deposit" in New Orleans, granting them use of the port to store goods for export. Americans used this right to transport products such as flour, pork, lard, cider and cheese; the treaty recognized American rights to navigate the entire Mississippi, which had become vital to the growing trade of the western territories. In 1798, Spain revoked the treaty allowing American use of New Orleans upsetting Americans. In 1801, Spanish Governor Don Juan Manuel de Salcedo took over from the Marquess of Casa Calvo, restored the American right to deposit goods.
However, in 1800 Spain had ceded the Louisiana territory back to France as part of Napoleon's secret Third Treaty of San Ildefonso. The territory nominally remained under Spanish control, until a transfer of power to France on November 30, 1803, just three weeks before the formal cession of the territory to the United States on December 20, 1803. A further ceremony was held in Upper Louisiana regarding the New Orleans formalities; the March 9–10, 1804 event is remembered as Three Flags Day. James Monroe and Robert R. Livingston had traveled to Paris to negotiate the purchase of New Orleans in January 1803, their instructions were to purchase control of New Orleans and its environs. The Louisiana Purchase was by far the largest territorial gain in U. S. history. Stretching from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains, the purchase doubled the size of the United States. Before 1803, Louisiana had been under Spanish control for forty years. Although Spain aided the rebels in the American Revolutionary War, the Spanish didn't want the Americans to settle in their territory.
Although the purchase was thought of by some as unjust and unconstitutional, Jefferson determined that his constitutional power to negotiate treaties allowed the purchase of what became fifteen states. In hindsight, the Louisiana Purchase could be considered one of his greatest contributions to the United States. On April 18, 1802, Jefferson penned a letter to United States Ambassador to France Robert Livingston, it was an intentional exhortation to make this mild diplomat warn the French of their perilous course. The letter began: The cession of Louisiana and the Floridas by Spain to France works most sorely on the U. S. On this subject the Secretary of State has written to you fully, yet I cannot forbear recurring to it s