Chief Scientist of the U.S. Air Force
The Chief Scientist of the U. S. Air Force is a three-star equivalent civilian member of Headquarters Air Force and in this role is the most senior Science & Technology representative in the United States Air Force; the current Chief Scientist of the United States Air Force is Dr. Richard Joseph; the Chief Scientist of the United States Air Force has several roles and responsibilities, including: Serves as chief science and technology adviser to the Chief of Staff of the Air Force and Secretary of the U. S. Air Force Provides assessments on a wide range of scientific and technical issues affecting the Air Force mission Identifies and analyzes technical issues and brings them to the attention of Air Force leaders, interacts with other Air Staff principals, operational commanders, combatant commands and science and technology communities to address cross-organizational technical issues and solutions Interacts with other services and the Office of the Secretary of Defense on issues affecting the Air Force in-house technical enterprise Serves on the Steering Committee and Senior Review Group of the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board.
Principal science and technology representative of the Air Force to the civilian scientific and engineering community and to the public at large The Office of the Chief Scientist has conducted several strategic studies including: Technology Horizons Energy Horizons Cyber Vision 2025, summarized in the Armed Forces Journal Global Horizons "Biography of Mark T. Maybury". United States Air Force. October 2010. Retrieved 8 November 2010
General Counsel of the Air Force
The General Counsel of the Air Force is the chief legal officer of the U. S. Department of the Air Force. By U. S. law, the General Counsel of the Air Force is appointed from civilian life by the President of the United States upon the advice and consent of the United States Senate, performs such duties as the Secretary of the Air Force specifies. According to Secretary of the Air Force Order No. 111.5, dated July 14, 2005, "The General Counsel is the chief legal officer and chief ethics official of the Department of the Air Force. Legal opinions issued by the Office of the General Counsel shall be the controlling opinions of the Department of the Air Force; the General Counsel provides advice in accordance with applicable statues on any legal subject and on other matters as directed by the Secretary." In other words, the General Counsel of the Air Force advises the Secretary of the Air Force, the Under Secretary of the Air Force, the Assistant Secretaries of the Air Force, as well as the Chief of Staff of the Air Force and other military leaders of the United States Air Force on legal matters, other than those statutory duties under the Uniform Code of Military Justice performed by the Judge Advocate General of the Air Force.
General Counsel of the Department of Defense General Counsel of the Army General Counsel of the Navy Official website
United States Space Force
The United States Space Force is the proposed space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces, intended to have control over military space operations. It would be the sixth branch of the United States Armed Forces and the eighth American uniformed service. If established, it would be organized as a military service branch within the Department of the Air Force, one of the three military departments within the Department of Defense; the Space Force, through the Department of the Air Force, would be headed by the civilian Undersecretary of the Air Force for Space and the Secretary of the Air Force, who reports to the Secretary of Defense, is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation. The highest-ranking military officer in the Space Force would be the Chief of Staff of the Space Force, who would exercise supervision over Space Force units and serve as one of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Space Force components would be assigned, as directed by the Secretary of Defense, to the combatant commands, neither the Secretary of the Air Force nor the Chief of Staff of the Space Force would have operational command authority over them.
Along with performing independent space operations, the Space Force would be responsible for providing space support to land, air and cyber forces. According to a report prepared by the Center for Strategic and International Studies, they identified three major organizational issues with space, identified by a number of studies and congressional commissions, that would be addressed by a space force; the responsibility for space acquisitions is fragmented among 60 different organizations within the Department of Defense and Intelligence Community. Within the military services 80% of the space budget is invested in the Air Force, but other components are located within the Army and Navy, including satellites and space personnel. Moreover it is reported that the classified military intelligence space budget of the National Reconnaissance Office and other intelligence agencies may rival that of the Air Force; this split of acquisitions and budgetary authorities between 60 different organizations results in no organization having overall authority or leadership for space, which results in slower decision making, uncoordinated acquisitions efforts, a lack of accountability for over-budget or over-schedule programs.
Space personnel, much like space acquisitions, are scattered across the military and intelligence community, with too small a number of individuals to create a viable career track for space professionals. This is compounded by the common movement of personnel in and out of space billets every few years, which prevents individuals from becoming familiar with the space domain; the traditional role of a military service is to organize individuals into domain-focused communities to develop domain-focused doctrine and policies. This is done by the Army for land domain, the Navy for the maritime domain, the Air Force for the air domain; the current services organize personnel and doctrine around their respective domains. There is no such organization for space, which leaves the domain split and unstable; the current military services, the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, Coast Guard, are all organized and aligned to prosecute war in their native domains of the land and air, with space being seen as a secondary support function.
This conflict of interest has stymied the growth of space professionals. For instance the Air Force has long been vocal about the fact that the other services place requirements upon the space systems that the Air Force operates without providing any of the funding. It, does not take this approach to air assets that support the other services; when the military services are forced to choose between space and their primary domain, it has been proven that they always chose their primary domain, whether it be the land, maritime, or air. For instance, between FY 2010 and 2014, the Air Force budget for aircraft and space systems both decreased by 1/3, but when the budget began to rise again, aircraft procurement rose by 50%, while space procurement continued to decline by another 17% in an environment of rising budgets, it has been noted that the most powerful institutions in national security are the military services, yet there is no military service dedicated to promote outer space activities.
Once established, the U. S. Space Force is intended to become the lead military service for space operations, responsible for space doctrine, training, matériel and education, personnel and policy; the Space Force would be organized with the missions of: Protecting the United States' interests in space and the peaceful use of space for all responsible, consistent with all applicable law, to include international law. S. allies. S.'s interests. The Space Force would develop forces for: space situational awareness.
Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force
The Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force is a unique non-commissioned rank in the United States Air Force. The holder of this rank and position of office represents the highest enlisted level of leadership in the Air Force, as such, provides direction for the enlisted corps and represents their interests, as appropriate, to the American public, to those in all levels of government; the one exception to the status of the CMSAF as the highest-ranking enlisted member of the Air Force, which has yet to occur, is when an Air Force chief is serving as the Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. In this instance, the SEAC would outrank the CMSAF; the CMSAF is appointed by the Air Force Chief of Staff and serves as the senior enlisted advisor to the Air Force Chief of Staff and the Secretary of the Air Force on all issues regarding the welfare, readiness and proper utilization and progress of the enlisted force. While the CMSAF is a non-commissioned officer, the billet is protocol equivalent to a lieutenant general.
The current Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force is Chief Kaleth O. Wright. On February 17, 2017, Chief Kaleth O. Wright succeeded Chief James A. Cody, to become the 18th Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force. On November 1, 2004, the CMSAF's rank insignia was updated to include the Great Seal of the United States of America and two stars in the upper field; this puts the insignia in line with those of the Army and Marine Corps which have similar insignia to denote their senior enlisted servicemen. The laurel wreath around the star in the lower field remained unchanged, to retain the legacy of the Chief Master Sergeants of the Air Force; the CMSAF wears distinctive collar insignia. Traditionally, enlisted airmen's collar insignia was silver-colored "U. S." within a ring. The CMSAF's collar brass replaced the standard ring with a silver laurel wreath; the CMSAF wears a distinctive cap device. Enlisted airmen's cap device is the Coat of Arms of the United States, surrounded by a ring, all struck from silver-colored metal.
Much as with the position's distinctive collar brass, the ring is replaced with a laurel wreath for the CMSAF. The Sergeant Major of the Army wears an identical cap device, albeit of gold-colored metal; the Sergeant Major of the Army, Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force and the Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman are the only members of the United States armed forces below the rank of brigadier general/rear admiral, lower half to be authorized a positional color. First considered in 1992, the SMA's color has been authorized since 22 March 1999; the Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force colors were authorized in January 2013. The official term of address for the CMSAF is "Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force" or "Chief." CMSAF insignia timeline Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Sergeant Major of the Army Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy Master Chief Petty Officer of the Coast Guard Senior Enlisted Advisor for the National Guard Bureau
Mark Thomas Esper is an American politician and corporate executive serving as the 23rd and current United States Secretary of the Army since 2017. Prior to his current position, he served as vice president of government relations at Raytheon. Esper graduated from Laurel Highlands High School in 1982, he received his Bachelor of Science in engineering from the United States Military Academy in 1986. Esper was a Dean's List student at West Point and recipient of the Douglas MacArthur Award for Leadership, he received a master's degree in public administration from the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard in 1995 and a Doctor of Philosophy from George Washington University in 2008. Esper served as an Infantry Officer with the 101st Airborne Division and deployed with the "Screaming Eagles" for the 1990-91 Gulf War, his battalion was part of the famous "left hook". For his actions, Esper was awarded a Bronze Star, the Combat Infantryman's Badge, various service medals, he led an Airborne Rifle Company in Europe and served as an Army Fellow at the Pentagon.
Esper was on active duty for over ten years before transitioning to the District of Columbia Army National Guard and the Army Reserve, rising to the rank of lieutenant colonel. Esper was chief of staff at the Heritage Foundation, a conservative think tank, from 1996-1998. From 1998 to 2002, Esper served as a senior professional staffer for the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee, he was a senior policy advisor and legislative director for U. S. Senator Chuck Hagel, he was policy director for the House Armed Services Committee from 2001 to 2002. From 2002 to 2004, Esper served in the George W. Bush administration as Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Negotiations Policy, where he was responsible for a broad range of nonproliferation, arms control, international security issues, he was Director for National Security Affairs for the U. S. Senate under Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist from 2004 to 2006. Esper was executive vice president at the Aerospace Industries Association in 2006 and 2007.
From September 2007 to February 2008, Esper served as national policy director to Senator Fred Thompson in his 2008 presidential campaign. From 2008 to 2010, Esper served as executive vice president of the Global Intellectual Property Center and vice president for Europe and Eurasia at the U. S. Chamber of Commerce, he was hired as vice president of government relations at defense contractor Raytheon in July 2010. Esper was recognized as a top corporate lobbyist by The Hill in 2015 and 2016. President Trump announced his intention to nominate Esper as United States Secretary of the Army on July 19, 2017, he was Trump's third nominee for the position, following the withdrawals of Vincent Viola and Mark E. Green, he was confirmed to this post by an 89–6 vote of the U. S. Senate on November 15, 2017 and sworn in on November 20, 2017. Official biography
Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force
The Chief of Staff of the Air Force is a statutory office held by a four-star general in the United States Air Force, is the most senior uniformed officer assigned to serve in the Department of the Air Force, as such is the principal military advisor and a deputy to the Secretary of the Air Force. The Chief of Staff is the highest-ranking officer on active duty in the Air Force unless the Chairman and/or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff are Air Force officers; the Chief of Staff of the Air Force is an administrative position based in the Pentagon, while the Chief of Staff does not have operational command authority over Air Force forces, the Chief of Staff does exercise supervision of Air Force units and organizations as the designee of the Secretary of the Air Force. The current Chief of Staff of the Air Force is General David L. Goldfein. Under the authority and control of the Secretary of the Air Force, the Chief of Staff presides over the Air Staff, acts as the Secretary's executive agent in carrying out approved plans, exercises supervision, consistent with authority assigned to Commanders of the Combatant Commands, over organizations and members of the Air Force as determined by the Secretary.
The Chief of Staff may perform other duties as assigned by either the President, the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary of the Air Force. The Vice Chief of Staff of the Air Force a four-star general, is the Chief of Staff's principal deputy; the Chief of Staff of the Air Force is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff as prescribed by 10 U. S. C. § 151. When performing his JCS duties the Chief of Staff is responsible directly to the Secretary of Defense. Like the other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the CSAF is an administrative position, with no operational command authority over the United States Air Force; the CSAF is nominated for appointment by the President and must be confirmed via majority vote by the Senate. By statute, the CSAF is appointed as a four-star general; the Chief of Staff is authorized to wear a special service cap with clouds and lightning bolts around the band of the hat. This cap is different from those worn by other general officers of the Air Force and it is for use by the Chief of Staff and Air Force officers serving as Chairman or Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Prior to the creation of this position, General Henry H. Arnold was designated first Chief of the Army Air Forces and Commanding General of the Army Air Forces during World War II. *Three former chiefs of staff would serve as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff: Twining served as the Chairman from August 1957 to September 1960. Brown served as the Chairman from July 1974 to June 1978. Jones served as the Chairman from June 1978 to June 1982; the fourth Air Force officer to have served as the Chairman, General Richard B. Myers, did not serve as Chief of Staff of the Air Force. McPeak is the only Chief of Staff of the Air Force to date who has served as Acting Secretary of the Air Force, thus being the only uniformed Air Force officer to have been the "head of the Air Force". Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force Department of Defense Key Officials 1947–2015. Washington, D. C.: Office of the Secretary of Defense, Historical Office. 2015. HAF MISSION DIRECTIVE 1-4 - CHIEF OF STAFF OF THE AIR FORCE.
Washington, D. C.: Secretary of the Air Force. 7 March 2012. Headquarters United States Air Force Key Personnel. Washington, D. C.: Air Force Historical Studies Office. January 2013. Air Force History Support Office: Air Force Chiefs of Staff
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ