Commandant of the Marine Corps
The Commandant of the Marine Corps is normally the highest-ranking officer in the United States Marine Corps and is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Under the authority of the Secretary of the Navy, the CMC designates Marine personnel, as with the other joint chiefs, the Commandant is an administrative position and has no operational command authority over United States Marine Corps forces. The Commandant is nominated by the President for a term of office. By statute, the Commandant is appointed as a general while serving in office. The Commandant is directly responsible to the Secretary of the Navy for the performance of the Marine Corps. This includes the administration, internal organization, requirements, the Commandant is responsible for the operation of the Marine Corps material support system. Since 1801, the residence of the Commandant has been located in the Marine Barracks in Washington, D. C. and his main offices are in Arlington County. The responsibilities of the Commandant are outlined in Title 10, Section 5043 the United States Code and the position is subject to the authority, direction, as stated in the U. S.
Thirty-seven men have served as the Commandant of the Marine Corps. The longest-serving was Archibald Henderson, sometimes referred to as the Grand old man of the Marine Corps due to his thirty-nine-year tenure. In the 236-year history of the United States Marine Corps, only one Commandant has ever been fired from the job, Anthony Gale, as a result of a court-martial in 1820. Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Marine Corps, allan Reed Millett and Jack Shulimson, eds. CS1 maint, Uses editors parameter Ulbrich, David J. Preparing for Victory, Thomas Holcomb and the Making of the Modern Marine Corps, 1936-183
James McHenry was an Irish-born American military surgeon and statesman. McHenry was a signer of the United States Constitution from Maryland and he was a delegate to the Continental Congress from Maryland, and the third United States Secretary of War, under the first and second presidents, George Washington and John Adams. McHenry was born into a Scots-Irish family in Ballymena, County Antrim, alarmed that he became sick from excessive studying, his family in 1771 sent him at 17 to North America to recuperate. Recent scholarship suggests that the family may have sent him to the colonies as an advanced scout to see if the entire family would wish to relocate. Upon arrival, McHenry lived with a friend in Philadelphia before deciding to finish his preparatory education at Newark Academy. Returning to Philadelphia, McHenry apprenticed under Benjamin Rush and became a physician, McHenry practiced medicine and became a surgeon. McHenry served as a skilled and dedicated surgeon during the American Revolutionary War, on August 10,1776 he was appointed surgeon at the age of 23 of the Fifth Pennsylvania Battalion stationed at Fort Washington.
He was taken prisoner the following November when the fort was taken by Sir William Howe, while there, he observed that prisoners were given very poor medical attention and initiated reports to that effect, to no avail. He was paroled in January 1777, and released from parole in March 1778, having sufficiently impressed George Washington, he was appointed aide as secretary to the commander-in-chief in May 1779. McHenry was present at the Battle of Monmouth, in August 1780 he was transferred to major-general Lafayettes staff, where he remained until he retired from the army in the autumn of 1781. Following the war, McHenry was one of three physicians who participated in the Constitutional Convention to create the new Constitution of the United States. He was elected by the legislature to the Maryland Senate on September 17,1781, after a controversial campaign, he was elected to the Maryland House of Delegates on October 10,1788. Two years he retired from life and spent a year actively engaged in mercantile business.
On November 15,1791 he accepted a second term in the Maryland Senate, Washington had difficulties with his second administration, as his cabinet officers Hamilton and General Knox resigned. In addition, he had a vacancy after appointing Timothy Pickering to the State Department, after a few of Washingtons preferred choices declined the position, the name of his friend, McHenry, surfaced. McHenry advised the Senate committee against reducing military forces and he was instrumental in reorganizing the United States Army into one of four regiments of infantry, a troop of dragoons, and a battery of artillery. He is credited with establishing the United States Department of the Navy, during President John Adamss administration, he appointed McHenry as his Secretary of War, as he had decided to keep the newly established institution of the presidential cabinet intact. There was no precedent to follow in the new constitutional government, Adams gradually found that three members of the cabinet repeatedly opposed him, McHenry and Oliver Wolcott, Jr
United States Department of Homeland Security
Its stated missions involve anti-terrorism, border security and customs, cyber security, and disaster prevention and management. It was created in response to the September 11 attacks, in fiscal year 2017, it was allocated a net discretionary budget of $40.6 billion. With more than 240,000 employees, DHS is the third largest Cabinet department, after the Departments of Defense, Homeland security policy is coordinated at the White House by the Homeland Security Council. Other agencies with significant homeland security responsibilities include the Departments of Health and Human Services and its stated goal is to prepare for and respond to domestic emergencies, particularly terrorism. On March 1,2003, DHS absorbed the Immigration and Naturalization Service, in doing so, it divided the enforcement and services functions into two separate and new agencies and Customs Enforcement and Citizenship and Immigration Services. The investigative divisions and intelligence gathering units of the INS and Customs Service were merged forming Homeland Security Investigations, the border enforcement functions of the INS, including the U. S.
Border Patrol, the U. S. Customs Service, the Federal Protective Service falls under the National Protection and Programs Directorate. The Department of Homeland Security is headed by the Secretary of Homeland Security with the assistance of the Deputy Secretary, the Department contains the components listed below. Agencies, United States Citizenship and Immigration Services and examines citizenship, residency, U. S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Law enforcement agency divided into two bureaus, An agency that enforces U. S. It investigates crimes against the U. S. monetary system including the crime of counterfeiting U. S. currency, Federal Emergency Management Agency, agency that oversees the federal governments response to natural disasters like earthquakes, tornadoes, forest fires, etc. National Protection and Programs Directorate, risk-reduction, encompassing both physical and virtual threats and their associated human elements, Federal Protective Service, Federal law enforcement and security agency that protects and investigates crimes against U. S. federal buildings, properties and federal government interests.
National Cybersecurity Center In an August 5,2002 speech, President Bush said, to secure freedom in the homeland. Prior to the creation of DHS, American presidents had referred to the U. S. as the nation or the republic, unprecedented was the use, from 2002, of the phrase the homeland by White House spokespeople. In 2011 the Department of Homeland Security phased out the old Homeland Security Advisory System with a two-level National Terrorism Advisory System, the system has two types of advisories and Bulletins. Alerts are issued when there is specific and credible information of a terrorist threat against the United States, Alerts themselves have two levels and Imminent. An Elevated Alert is issued when there is information about an attack. An Imminent Alert is issued when the threat is very specific, many procedures at government facilities are tied in to the alert level, for example a facility may search all entering vehicles when the alert is above a certain level. After resigning, Tom Ridge stated that he did not always agree with the threat level adjustments pushed by other government agencies
United States Secretary of the Navy
The Secretary of the Navy is a statutory office and the head of the Department of the Navy, a military department within the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Department of the Navy consists of two Uniformed Services, the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps. In effect, all authority within the Navy and Marine Corps, specifically enumerated responsibilities of the SECNAV in beforementioned section are, organizing, equipping, training and demobilizing. The Secretary oversees the construction and repair of ships, equipment. The Secretary of the Navy is a member of the Defense Acquisition Board, chaired by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, the CNO and the Commandant act as the principal executive agents of the SECNAV within their respective services to implement the orders of the Secretary. The United States Navy Regulations is the principal regulatory document of the Department of the Navy, the Chief of Naval Operations and the Commandant of the Marine Corps have their own separate staffs, the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and Headquarters Marine Corps
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U. S. Navy is the largest, most capable navy in the world, the U. S. Navy has the worlds largest aircraft carrier fleet, with ten in service, two in the reserve fleet, and three new carriers under construction. The service has 323,792 personnel on duty and 108,515 in the Navy Reserve. It has 274 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of October 2016, the U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, which was established during the American Revolutionary War and was effectively disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter. It played a role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy. It played the role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, which is headed by the Secretary of Defense.
The Chief of Naval Operations is an admiral and the senior naval officer of the Department of the Navy. The CNO may not be the highest ranking officer in the armed forces if the Chairman or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression, the United States Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States. The Navys three primary areas of responsibility, The preparation of naval forces necessary for the prosecution of war. The development of aircraft, tactics, organization, U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is to prepare and conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest, as part of that establishment, the U. S. Navys functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to sealift duties. It follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, the Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders.
In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia, the establishment of a national navy was an issue of debate among the members of the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy, the worlds preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships, and reported the captures to the Congress
Virginia is a state located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, as well as in the historic Southeast. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond, Virginia Beach is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision. The Commonwealths estimated population as of 2014 is over 8.3 million, the areas history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony, slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colonys early politics and plantation economy. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008 and it is unique in how it treats cities and counties equally, manages local roads, and prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms.
Virginias economy changed from agricultural to industrial during the 1960s and 1970s. Virginia has an area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water. Virginias boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court. The Chesapeake Bay separates the portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginias Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the river valleys of the Susquehanna River. Many of Virginias rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the Atlantic coast and the fall line. It includes the Eastern Shore and major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay, the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era.
The region, known for its clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville. The Blue Ridge Mountains are a province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state. The Ridge and Valley region is west of the mountains and includes the Great Appalachian Valley, the region is carbonate rock based and includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, in this region, rivers flow northwest, with a dendritic drainage system, into the Ohio River basin
National Security Act of 1947
The National Security Act of 1947 was a major restructuring of the United States governments military and intelligence agencies following World War II. The majority of the provisions of the Act took effect on September 18,1947, the Act merged the Department of War and the Department of the Navy into the National Military Establishment, headed by the Secretary of Defense. It created the Department of the Air Force, which separated the Army Air Forces into its own service and it protected the Marine Corps as an independent service, under the Department of the Navy, prohibiting it from ever being absorbed into the Army. Aside from the reorganization, the act established the National Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency. The National Security Act of 1947 was a restructuring of the United States governments military. The act and its changes, along with the Truman Doctrine, the bill signing took place aboard Trumans VC-54C presidential aircraft Sacred Cow, the first aircraft used for the role of Air Force One.
The majority of the provisions of the Act took effect on September 18,1947 and his power was initially limited and it was difficult for him to exercise the authority to make his office effective. This was changed in the amendment to the act in 1949, the Act merged the Department of War and the Department of the Navy into the National Military Establishment, headed by the Secretary of Defense. It created the Department of the Air Force, which separated the Army Air Forces into its own service and it protected the Marine Corps as an independent service, under the Department of the Navy, prohibiting it from ever being absorbed into the Army. Initially, each of the three service secretaries maintained quasi-cabinet status, but the act was amended on August 10,1949, at the same time, the NME was renamed as the Department of Defense. The purpose was to unify the Army and Air Force into a federated structure. S. s first peacetime intelligence agency. The councils function was to advise the president on domestic and military policies, the 1949 Revolt of the Admirals.
The Story Behind the National Security Act of 1947, underlying assumptions of the National Security Act of 1947. The National Security Act of 1947, Its Thirtieth Anniversary, enrolled Acts and Resolutions of Congress, compiled 1789 -2008. U. S. National Archives and Records Administration
Assistant Secretary of the Navy
Assistant Secretary of the Navy is the title given to certain civilian senior officials in the United States Department of the Navy. From 1861 to 1954, the Assistant Secretary of the Navy was the second highest civilian office in the Department of the Navy and that role has since been supplanted by the office of Under Secretary of the Navy and the office of Assistant Secretary of the Navy has been abolished. There have, been a number of bearing the phrase Assistant Secretary of the Navy in their title. The Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Navy was established in 1861, the Assistant Secretary was responsible for the Navys civilian personnel, as well as for administration of shore facilities. Gustavus Fox was the first to hold the post, serving throughout the Civil War, the office was disestablished in 1869, during Reconstruction, but was reestablished by Congress on July 11,1890. James R. Soley was the first to be appointed to the reestablished position. James V. Forrestal, Secretary of Defense, was the first to serve as Under Secretary, he held the post until 1944, during the 20th century, the responsibilities of the Assistant Secretary were divided among several officials.
During the 1920s, for example, to reflect the importance of naval aviation. The office of Assistant Secretary of the Navy was disestablished in 1954, U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy from 1897–1898, during the William McKinley administration. U. S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy from 1913 until 1920, and helped to implement Navy policies during World War I. Source for papers and photos of various Assistant Secretaries of the Navy Navy Organization – The Secretariat An organizational chart for the Office of the Secretary of the Navy, Dept. of the Navy
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two chambers, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D. C, both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Members are usually affiliated to the Republican Party or to the Democratic Party, Congress has 535 voting members,435 Representatives and 100 Senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members in addition to its 435 voting members and these members can, sit on congressional committees and introduce legislation. Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a district. Congressional districts are apportioned to states by using the United States Census results. Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators, there are 100 senators representing the 50 states.
Each senator is elected at-large in their state for a term, with terms staggered. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers. The Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills, the House initiates impeachment cases, while the Senate decides impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before a person can be forcibly removed from office. The term Congress can refer to a meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years, the current one, the 115th Congress, began on January 3,2017, the Congress starts and ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators, members of the House of Representatives are referred to as representatives, congressmen, or congresswomen. One analyst argues that it is not a solely reactive institution but has played a role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure.
Several academics described Congress, Congress reflects us in all our strengths, Congress is the governments most representative body. Congress is essentially charged with reconciling our many points of view on the public policy issues of the day. —Smith and Wielen Congress is constantly changing and is constantly in flux, most incumbents seek re-election, and their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent
Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps
The Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps is the second highest-ranking officer in the United States Marine Corps, and serves as a deputy for the Commandant of the Marine Corps. Before 1946, the title was known as Assistant to the Commandant, the Assistant Commandant is nominated for appointment by the President and must be confirmed via majority vote by the Senate. In the event that the Commandant is absent or is unable to perform his duties, additionally, he may perform other duties that the CMC assigns to him. Historically, the Assistant Comandant has served for two to three years, in recent decades, the Assistant Commandant has frequently been a Marine aviator. James F. Amos is the first aviator to serve as Assistant Commandant, the 34th and current Assistant Commandant is Glenn M. Walters, who took office on 4 August 2016, when John M. Paxton Jr. retired. The first Marine to hold the billet as Assistant to the Commandant was Eli K. Cole, while Lemuel C, shepherd Jr. was the first to hold it as the Assistant Commandant.
On 7 June 2016 Lieutenant General Glenn M. Walters was nominated to succeed Paxton as Assistant Commandant, he is serving as Deputy Commandant for Programs. No records exist before the outbreak of World War I about this position, possibly because the Commandant likely had only administrative staff, the first Assistant to the Commandant was Lieutenant Colonel Eli K. Cole, who assumed the position on April 29,1911. From April 29,1911 to October 16,1946,19 men were assigned to assist the commandant, including five that went on to become Commandant themselves, John A. Lejeune, Wendell C. Neville, Ben H. Fuller, John H. Russell Jr. in 1946, Congress established the position of Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps and since then,31 men have held the position. The duties of the Assistant Commandant include such authority and duties as the Commandant and, with the approval of the Secretary of the Navy, orders issued by the Assistant Commandant in performing such duties have the same effect as those issued by the Commandant.
The Assistant Commandants of the Marine Corps, the Marine Corps Book of Lists. Allan Reed Millett and Jack Shulimson, eds, cS1 maint, Uses editors parameter Specific
United States Department of the Air Force
The Department of the Air Force is one of the three Military Departments within the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Department of the Air Force was formed on September 18,1947, per the National Security Act of 1947, the Secretary of the Air Forces principal deputy is the Under Secretary of the Air Force. Only the Secretary of Defense has the authority to transfer of forces between Combatant Commands. The department has suffered many problems in aircraft acquisition over the years,2003, Darleen Druyun rigged plan to lease Boeing tankers. 2011, Department sends KC-X evaluations to wrong companies,2012, Error in paperwork requires Light Attack/Armed Reconnaissance to be rebid. Department of the Air Force Airman Magazine, The Book 2010 – Personnel Facts, Airman Magazine, Volume 54 Number 3. Official site Department of the Air Force in the Federal Register