Columbia County, Florida
Columbia County county is on the northern border of the U. S. state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the population was 67,531, its county seat is Lake City. Columbia County comprises the Lake City, FL Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Gainesville-Lake City, FL Combined Statistical Area. Osceola National Forest is in Columbia County. After Florida became a territory of the United States in 1821, pioneer and immigrant settlers from the United States formed their own settlement adjacent to a Seminole village called Alligator Village, called it Alligator. Following the 1823 Treaty of Moultrie Creek, the residents of Alligator village relocated to the banks of Peace Creek in the newly established Seminole reservation, leaving Alligator Town on its own; when Columbia County was formed in 1832 from Duval and Alachua counties, Alligator Town was designated as the seat of the county government. It was renamed as the poetic form for the United States; the county was developed for agriculture and the timber industry, with products such as turpentine and plywood.
From 1832 to 1839, the county seat was Newnansville, but that town and area were returned to Alachua County. In November 1858 a railroad was completed connecting Jacksonville to Alligator, which opened the town to more commerce and passenger traffic. Alligator Town was incorporated and its name changed to Lake City in 1859. According to an urban legend, the name was changed because the mayor's wife Martha Jane, who had moved to the town, refused to hang her lace curtains in a town named Alligator. During the American Civil War, the railroad between Lake City and Jacksonville was used to send beef and salt to Confederate soldiers. In February 1864 Union troops under Truman Seymour advanced west from Jacksonville, his objective was to disrupt Confederate supplies, obtain African-American recruits and supplies. Confederate General Joseph Finnegan assembled troops and called for reinforcements from P. G. T. Beauregard in response to the Union threat. On February 11, 1864, Finnegan's troops defeated a Union cavalry raid in Lake City.
After the Union cavalry was repulsed, Finnegan moved his forces to Olustee Station about ten miles east of Lake City. The Confederate presence at Olustee Station was reinforced to prepare for the Union troops coming from Jacksonville. Union forces engaged the Confederates at the Battle of Olustee on February 20, 1864 near the Olustee Station, it was the only major battle in Florida during the war. Union casualties were 1,861 men wounded or missing; the Confederate dead were buried in Lake City. In 1928 a memorial for the Battle of Olustee was established in downtown Lake City. In 1874 Lake City's first newspaper was published in 1874, called the Lake City Reporter. In 1876 the Bigelow Building was completed; the first fire department was established in 1883 to complement the police department. In 1891 Lake City became the first city in Florida to have electric lights from a local power and light company. White violence rose against blacks in the late 19th century in a regionwide effort to establish and maintain white supremacy as Southern states disenfranchised most blacks and imposed Jim Crow.
Whites lynched 20 African Americans in Columbia County from 1877-1950 in the decades near the turn of the 20th century. It was tied with Polk County for the second-highest total of lynchings of any county in the state. Among these murders was the mass lynching on May 21, 1911, of six black men who were taken from the jail by a white mob in Lake City, they were being held on charges of murdering one white sawmill worker and wounding another in Leon County, after whites had attacked them at a private house following an earlier altercation between two men. A group of a dozen white men from Tallahassee, tricked the white youth guarding the jail by posing as officials and gained release of the suspects, they took the men outside town and shot them to death. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 801 square miles, of which 798 square miles is land and 3.8 square miles is water. Osceola National Forest is within the county. Osceola National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 56,513 people, 20,925 households, 14,919 families residing in the county.
The population density was 71 people per square mile. There were 23,579 housing units at an average density of 30 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 79.72% White, 17.03% Black or African American, 0.53% Native American, 0.67% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.60% from other races, 1.42% from two or more races. 2.74% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 20,925 households out of which 32.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.70% were married couples living together, 12.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.70% were non-families. 23.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.40% under the age of 18, 9.00% from 18 to 24, 27.70% from 25 to 44, 24.00% from 45 to 64, 14.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years.
For every 100 females there were 102.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,881, the median income for a family was $35,927. Males had a median income of $27,353 versus $21,738 for females
Polk County, Florida
Polk County is located in the U. S. state of Florida. The county population was 602,095, its county seat is Bartow, its largest city is Lakeland. Polk County comprises the Lakeland–Winter Haven Metropolitan Statistical Area; this MSA is the 87th-most populous metropolitan statistical area and the 89th-most populous primary statistical area of the United States as of July 1, 2012. The center of population of Florida is located near the city of Lake Wales. Polk County is home to one public university, one state college, four private universities. One Fortune 500 company, Publix Super Markets, has headquarters in the county; the first people to inhabit the area now called Polk County arrived close to 12,000 years ago during the last ice age as the first paleo-indians following big game southward reached the peninsula of Florida. By this time, the peninsula had gone through several expansions and contractions due to changing sea level; these first paleo-indians, nomadic hunter/gatherers who did not establish any permanent settlements gave way to the "archaic people".
These were ancestors of the historic Native Americans who came in contact with the Spaniards when they arrived on the peninsula. These Native Americans thrived on the peninsula, it is estimated. As was common elsewhere in the Americas, contact with Europeans had a devastating effect on the Native Americans. Smallpox and other diseases, to which the Native Americans had no immunity, caused widespread epidemic and death; those who had not succumbed to diseases such as these were either killed or enslaved as Spanish explorers and settlers arrived. Within a few hundred years, nearly the entire pre-Columbian population of Polk County had been wiped out. For around 250 years after Ponce De Leon arrived on the peninsula, the Spanish nominally ruled Florida but established few settlements. In the late 17th century, Florida went through an unstable period in which the French and British ruled the peninsula. By this time, the remnants of early Native Americans joined with refugee Creek Native Americans from Georgia and The Carolinas to form the Seminole Indian Tribe, through a process of ethnogenesis.
After the American Revolution, the peninsula reverted to Spanish rule. In 1819, Florida became a U. S. territory as a result of the Adams-Onis Treaty. From the 1830s until 1842, the US conducted the Seminole Wars in an effort to remove the Seminole from the territory; some were removed to Indian Territory. While Florida gained statehood in 1845, it was not until 1861 that Polk County was created from the eastern part of Hillsborough County, it was named in honor of former US President James K. Polk, whose 1845 inauguration was on the day after Florida became a state. Following the Civil War, the county commission established the county seat on 120 acres donated in the central part of the county. Bartow, the county seat, was named after Francis S. Bartow, a Confederate colonel from Georgia, the first Confederate brigade commander to die in battle. Colonel Bartow was buried in Savannah, Georgia with military honors, promoted posthumously to the rank of Brigadier General; the original name of the town was Fort Blount.
Several other towns and counties in the South changed their name to Bartow. The first courthouse built in Bartow was constructed in 1867, it was replaced twice, in 1884 and in 1908. As the third courthouse to stand on the site, the present structure houses the Polk County Historical Museum and Genealogical Library. After the Civil War, some 400 Confederate veterans settled here with families before the end of the century. In the post-Reconstruction period, black railway workers were among the first African Americans to settle in Polk County, in 1883 south of Lake Wire; the following year they founded St. John's Baptist Church, which served as the first school for freedmen's children. Other workers arrived for jobs in the phosphate industry; this area became the center of a predominately African-American community known as Moorehead, after Rev. H. K. Moorehead, called to St. John's in 1906; the community developed its own businesses, professional class, cultural institutions. Its students had to go to other cities for high school until 1928, when the first upper school to serve blacks was established here.
White violence rose against blacks in the late 19th century in a regionwide effort to establish and maintain white supremacy as Southern states disenfranchised most blacks and imposed Jim Crow. Whites lynched 20 African Americans in Polk County from 1895-1921. While others were killed for alleged crimes, one black man was lynched for insulting a white woman; the man, Henry Scott was a porter on a train from Lakeland to Bartow. While he was preparing a berth for one woman on May 20, 1920, another white woman became angry that he made her wait, she sent a telegram to the next station where he was met by a sherriff and turned over to a mob that shot him 40-t0 times. Columbia County had 20 such lynching murders. In the first few decades of the 1900s, thousands of acres of land around Bartow were purchased by the phosphate industry; the county seat became the hub of the largest phosphate industry in the United States, attracting both immigrants and African-American an
Union County, Florida
Union County is a county in the U. S. state of Florida, the smallest in the state. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,535; the county seat is Lake Butler. With a personal per capita income of $20,396, it is the fourth-poorest county in the United States. Union County was created in 1921 from part of Bradford County, it was named to honor the concept of unity. Union County is the location of the Reception and Medical Center. Union CI is home to part of Florida's Death Row; the death chamber is located at nearby Florida State Prison. Florida State Prison houses some death-row inmates. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 250 square miles, of which 244 square miles is land and 6.2 square miles is water. It is the smallest county by area in Florida. Bradford County, Florida – southeast Alachua County, Florida – south Columbia County, Florida – west Baker County, Florida – north At the 2000 census, there were 13,442 people, 3,367 households and 2,606 families residing in the county.
The population density was 56 per square mile. There were 3,736 housing units at an average density of 16 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 73.62% White, 22.84% Black or African American, 0.66% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.04% from other races, 1.50% from two or more races. 3.55% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 3,367 households, 41.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.70% were married couples living together, 15.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.60% were non-families. 19.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.76 and the average family size was 3.13. The age distribution was 21.80% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 39.80% from 25 to 44, 22.20% from 45 to 64, 7.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 183.00 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 215.20 males. This skewed gender distribution is the result of the county's male prison population; the median household income was $34,563, the median family income was $37,516. Males had a median income of $28,571 versus $22,083 for females; the county's per capita income was $12,333. About 10.50% of families and 14.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.60% of those under age 18 and 16.20% of those age 65 or over. The county suffers a death rate of about 1600 per the highest in the nation; the Florida Department of Corrections operates Region II Correctional Facility Office in an unincorporated area in Union County. FDOC maintains the Union Correctional Institution in an unincorporated area in the county. Union Correctional Institution houses one of two death rows for men in Florida. About a third of the county's population is imprisoned, compared to a statewide figure of one-half percent; the Union Juvenile Residential Facility of the Florida Department of Juvenile Justice is in an unincorporated area in Union County.
Union County School District serves the county. The Union County Public Library serves the county; the branch is at 250 SE 5th Avenue, Lake Butler, Florida 32054. Its director is Mary C. Brown; the branch is open Monday, Wednesday–Friday 9 am–6 pm, Tuesday 9 am–8 pm, Saturday 9 am–3 pm. Lake Butler Raiford Worthington Springs National Register of Historic Places listings in Union County, Florida Union County Times newspaper that serves Union County, Florida available in full-text with images in Florida Digital Newspaper Library Union County Public Library - Website for Union County's library with links to government services and the tri-county area's library catalog. Lake Butler Community Page a non-official'Community Page' created by a local resident to help share information about events and more occurring in the Union County/Lake Butler area. Union County Board of County Commissioners Union County Supervisor of Elections Union County Property Appraiser Union County Sheriff's Office Union County Tax Collector Union County School Board Suwannee River Water Management District Union County Clerk of Courts Office of the State Attorney, 8th Judicial Circuit of Florida serving Alachua, Bradford, Gilchrist and Union Counties Circuit and County Court for the 8th Judicial Circuit of Florida
Tampa is a major city in, the county seat of, Hillsborough County, United States. It is on the west coast of Florida on Tampa Bay, near the Gulf of Mexico, is the largest city in the Tampa Bay Area; the bay's port is the largest in near downtown's Channel District. Bayshore Boulevard runs along the bay, is east of the historic Hyde Park neighborhood. Today, Tampa is part of the metropolitan area most referred to as the "Tampa Bay Area". For U. S. Census purposes, Tampa is part of the Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area; the four-county area is composed of 3.1 million residents, making it the second largest metropolitan statistical area in the state, the fourth largest in the Southeastern United States, behind Washington, D. C. Miami, Atlanta; the Greater Tampa Bay area has over 4 million residents and includes the Tampa and Sarasota metro areas. The city had a population of 335,709 at the 2010 census, an estimated population of 385,430 in 2017; the Tampa Bay Partnership and U.
S. Census data showed an average annual growth of 2.47 percent, or a gain of 97,000 residents per year. Between 2000 and 2006, the Greater Tampa Bay Market experienced a combined growth rate of 14.8 percent, growing from 3.4 million to 3.9 million and hitting the 4 million population mark on April 1, 2007. A 2012 estimate shows the Tampa Bay area population to have 4,310,524 people and a 2017 projection of 4,536,854 people. Public Transportation in the area includes. There is the TECO Line Streetcar System; when the pioneer community living near the US Army outpost of Fort Brooke was incorporated in 1849, it was called "Tampa Town", the name was shortened to "Tampa" in 1855. The earliest instance of the name "Tampa", in the form "Tanpa", appears in the memoirs of Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda, who spent 17 years as a captive of the Calusa and traveled through much of peninsular Florida, he described Tanpa as an important Calusa town to the north of the Calusa domain under another chief. Archaeologist Jerald Milanich places the town of Tanpa at the mouth of Charlotte Harbor.
The entrances to Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor are obscured by barrier islands, their locations, the names applied to them, were a source of confusion to explorers and map-makers from the 16th century though the 18th century. Bahía Tampa and Bahía de Espíritu Santo were each used, at one time or another, for the modern Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor. Tampa Bay was labeled Bahía de Espíritu Santo in the earliest Spanish maps of Florida, but became known as Bahía Tampa as early as 1695. "B. Tampa", corresponding to Tampa Bay, appeared on a British map of 1705, with "Carlos Bay" for Charlotte Harbor to the south, while a 1748 British map had "B. del Spirito Santo" for Tampa Bay, again, "Carlos Bay" to the south. A Spanish map of 1757 renamed Tampa Bay as "San Fernando"; as late as 1774, Bernard Romans called Tampa Bay "Bay of Espiritu Santo", with "Tampa Bay" restricted to the Northwest arm, the northeast arm named "Hillsborough Bay". The name may have come from the Calusa language, or the Timucua language.
Some scholars have compared "Tampa" to "itimpi", which means "close to or nearby" in the Creek language, but its meaning is not known. People from Tampa are known as "Tampans" or "Tampanians". Local authorities consulted by Michael Kruse of the Tampa Bay Times suggest that "Tampan" was more common, while "Tampanian" became popular when the former term came to be seen as a potential insult. A mix of Cuban and Spanish immigrants began arriving in the late 1800s to found and work in the new communities of Ybor City and West Tampa. By about 1900, these newcomers came to be known as "Tampeños", a term, still sometimes used to refer to their descendants living in the area, to all residents of Tampa inconsiderate of their ethnic background; the shores of Tampa Bay have been inhabited for thousands of years. A variant of the Weeden Island culture developed in the area by about 2000 years ago, with archeological evidence suggesting that these residents relied on the sea for most of their resources, as a vast majority of inhabited sites have been found on or near the shoreline and there is little evidence of farming.
At the time of European contact in the early 16th century, the Safety Harbor culture dominated the area, with indigenous peoples organized into three or four chiefdoms around the shores of the bay. Early Spanish explorers to visit the area interacted extensively with the Tocobaga, whose principal town was located at the northern end of Old Tampa Bay near today's Safety Harbor in Pinellas County. While there is a substantial historical record of the Tocobaga, there is less surviving documentation describing the Pohoy chiefdom, which controlled the area near the mouth of the Hillsborough River near today's downtown Tampa. However, brief mentions by explorers along with surviving artifacts suggest that the Pohoy and other groups that once lived on Tampa Bay had similar cultures and lifestyles as the better-documented Tocobaga. Expeditions led by Pánfilo de Narváez and Hernando de Soto landed near Tampa, but neither conquistador stayed long. There is no natural gold or silver in Florida, the native inhabitants repulsed Spanish attempts to establish a permanent settlement or convert them to Catholicism.
The fighting resulted in a few deaths, but the many more deaths were caused by infectious diseases brought from Europe, which devastated the population of Native Americans across Florida and the entir
Duval County, Florida
Duval County is a county in the State of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the population was 864,263, with a 2017 estimate at 937,934, the seventh most populous in Florida, its county seat is Jacksonville, with which the Duval County government has been consolidated since 1968. Duval County was established in 1822, is named for William Pope Duval, Governor of Florida Territory from 1822 to 1834. Duval County is included in FL Metropolitan Statistical Area; this area had been settled by varying cultures of indigenous peoples for thousands of years before European contact. Within the Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve in Jacksonville, archeologists have excavated remains of some of the oldest pottery in the United States, dating to 2500 BCE. Prior to European contact, the area was inhabited by the Mocama, a Timucuan-speaking group who lived throughout the coastal areas of northern Florida. At the time Europeans arrived, much of what is now Duval County was controlled by the Saturiwa, one of the region's most powerful tribes.
The area that became Duval County was home to the 16th-century French colony of Fort Caroline, saw increased European settlement in the 18th century with the establishment of Cowford renamed Jacksonville. Duval County was created in 1822 from St. Johns County, it was named for William Pope Duval, Governor of Florida Territory from 1822 to 1834. When Duval County was created, it covered a massive area, from the Suwannee River on the west to the Atlantic Ocean on the east, north of a line from the mouth of the Suwannee River to Jacksonville on the St. Johns River. Alachua and Nassau counties were created out of parts of Duval County in 1824. Clay County was created from part of Duval County in 1858. Part of St. Johns County south and east of the lower reaches of the St. Johns River was transferred to Duval County in the 1840s. On October 1, 1968, the government of Duval County was consolidated with the government of the city of Jacksonville; the Duval County cities of Atlantic Beach, Jacksonville Beach, Neptune Beach, the town of Baldwin are not included in the corporate limits of Jacksonville, maintain their own municipal governments.
The city of Jacksonville provides all services that a county government would provide. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 918 square miles, of which 762 square miles is land and 156 square miles is water; the topography is coastal plain. Fort Caroline National Memorial Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve Nassau County - north St. Johns County - southeast Clay County - southwest Baker County - west U. S. Census Bureau 2010 Ethnic/Race Demographics: White: 56.6% Black: 28.9% Hispanic or Latino of any race: 7.6% Asian: 4.2% Two or more races: 2.9% American Indian and Alaska Native: 0.4% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: 0.1% Other Races: 2.1% In 2010, 6.7% of the population considered themselves to be of only "American" ancestry There were 342,450 households out of which 28.68% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.92% were married couples living together, 16.74% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.27% were non-families.
24.85% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.05% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.5% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 28.4% from 25 to 44, 26.4% from 45 to 64, 11.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.8 years. For every 100 females there were 94.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.6 males. The median income for a household in the county was $49,463, the median income for a family was $60,114. Males had a median income of $42,752 versus $34,512 for females; the per capita income for the county was $25,854. About 10.4% of families and 14.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.3% of those under age 18 and 9.6% of those aged 65 or over. In 2010, 9.0% of the county's population was foreign born, with 49.5% being naturalized American citizens. Of foreign-born residents, 38.2% were born in Latin America, 35.6% born in Asia, 17.9% were born in Europe, 5.8% born in Africa, 2.0% in North America, 0.5% were born in Oceania.
The racial makeup of the county is 65.80% White 27.83% African American or Black, 0.33% Native American, 2.71% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.31% from other races, 1.96% from two or more races. 4.10 % of the population are Latino of any race. There were 303,747 households out of which 33.30% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.50% were married couples living together, 15.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.60% were non-families. 26.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size is 3.06. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.30%
United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit
The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit is a United States court of appeals headquartered in Washington, D. C; the court was created by Congress with passage of the Federal Courts Improvement Act of 1982, which merged the United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals and the appellate division of the United States Court of Claims, making the judges of the former courts into circuit judges. The Federal Circuit is known for its decisions on patent law, as it is the only appellate-level court with the jurisdiction to hear patent case appeals; the court occupies the Howard T. Markey National Courts Building, the adjacent Benjamin Ogle Tayloe House, the former Cosmos Club, the Cutts-Madison House in Washington, D. C; the court sits from time to time in locations other than Washington, its judges can and do sit by designation on the benches of other courts of appeals and federal district courts. The Federal Circuit is unique among the courts of appeals as it is the only court that has its jurisdiction based wholly upon subject matter rather than geographic location.
The Federal Circuit is an appellate court with jurisdiction given in 28 U. S. C. § 1295. The court hears certain appeals from all of the United States District Courts, appeals from certain administrative agencies, appeals arising under certain statutes. Among other things, the Federal Circuit has exclusive jurisdiction over appeals from: Article I tribunals: United States Court of Federal Claims United States Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims United States Trademark Trial and Appeal Board United States Patent Trial and Appeal Board Boards of contract appeals: Armed Services Board of Contract Appeals Civilian Board of Contract Appeals Postal Service Board of Contract Appeals United States Merit Systems Protection Board United States International Trade Commission Article III tribunals: United States Court of International Trade United States district courts relating to: Patents, including appeals arising from an action against the Commissioner of Patents and Trademarks under 35 U. S. C. § 145 The Little Tucker Act, 28 U.
S. C. § 1346 Section 211 of the Economic Stabilization Act of 1970. Congress, overruled the Supreme Court in the America Invents Act of 2011; as a result, the Federal Circuit hears all appeals where the original action included a complaint or compulsory counterclaim arising under the patent laws. The decisions of the Federal Circuit in regard to patent cases, are unique in that they are binding precedent throughout the U. S. within the bounds of the court's subject-matter jurisdiction. This is unlike the other courts of appeals as the authority of their decisions is restricted by geographic location and thus there may be differing judicial standards depending on location. Decisions of the Federal Circuit are only superseded by decisions of the Supreme Court or by applicable changes in the law. Review by the Supreme Court is discretionary, so Federal Circuit decisions are the final word since there are no circuit splits given the Federal Circuit's exclusive subject-matter jurisdiction. In its first decision, the Federal Circuit incorporated as binding precedent the decisions of its predecessor courts, the United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals and the appellate division of the United States Court of Claims.
Because the Court is one of national jurisdiction, panels from the court may sit anywhere in the country. Once or twice a year, the court will hold oral arguments in a city outside of its native Washington D. C; the panels may sit in Federal courthouses, state courthouses, or at law schools. The Federal Circuit may have a total of 12 active circuit judges sitting at any given time, who are required to reside within 50 miles of the District of Columbia, as set by 28 U. S. C. § 44. Judges on senior status are not subject to this restriction; as with other federal judges, they are nominated by the President and must be confirmed by the Senate. Their terms last during the "good behavior" of the judges, which results in life tenure; when eligible, judges may elect to take senior status. This allows a senior judge to continue to serve on the court while handling fewer cases than an active service judge; each judge in active service employs a judicial assistant and up to four law clerks, while each judge in senior status employs a judicial assistant and one law clerk.
As of July 8, 2015, the judges on the court are as follows: Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their circuits, preside over any panel on which they serve unless the circuit justice is on the panel. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the circuit judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, have not served as chief judge. A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority am
Bryan Simpson United States Courthouse
The Bryan Simpson United States Courthouse is a courthouse and U. S. federal government facility in Jacksonville, Florida. It houses: The United States District Court for the Middle District of Florida, Jacksonville Division, corresponding offices of the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Middle District of Florida, United States Attorney for the Middle District of Florida A satellite office of the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit U. S. Probation and Pretrial Services System, United States Marshals Service, United States Trustee Program officesThe courthouse was completed in late 2002 at a cost of $84 million and opened in early 2003, it replaced the old former courthouse, built in 1933 and had many indoor air quality problems, including illness-inducing mold and mildew. The new courthouse comprises 492,000 square feet over 14 floors, with a secure parking facility in the basement, it was named after John Milton Bryan Simpson after an act of Congress introduced by Florida U.
S. Senator Bill Nelson was passed; the courthouse was dedicated on August 11, 2008. List of tallest buildings in Jacksonville Bryan Simpson United States Courthouse, Jacksonville Division, US District Court for the Middle District of Florida