United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal Government of the United States. The legislature consists of two chambers: the House of the Senate; the Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C.. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 senators; the House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U. S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members. Although they cannot vote in the full house, these members can address the house and vote in congressional committees, introduce legislation; the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a "district". Congressional districts are apportioned to states by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative.
Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators. There are 100 senators representing the 50 states; each senator is elected at-large in their state for a six-year term, with terms staggered, so every two years one-third of the Senate is up for election. To be eligible for election, a candidate must be aged at least 25 or 30, have been a citizen of the United States for seven or nine years, be an inhabitant of the state which they represent; the Congress was created by the Constitution of the United States and first met in 1789, replacing in its legislative function the Congress of the Confederation. Although not mandated, in practice since the 19th century, Congress members are affiliated with the Republican Party or with the Democratic Party and only with a third party or independents. Article One of the United States Constitution states, "All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives."
The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers. However, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers; the Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills. The House initiates impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before an impeached person can be forcibly removed from office; the term Congress can refer to a particular meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years; the Congress ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators. Scholar and representative Lee H. Hamilton asserted that the "historic mission of Congress has been to maintain freedom" and insisted it was a "driving force in American government" and a "remarkably resilient institution". Congress is the "heart and soul of our democracy", according to this view though legislators achieve the prestige or name recognition of presidents or Supreme Court justices.
One analyst argues that it is not a reactive institution but has played an active role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure. Several academics described Congress: Congress reflects us in all our strengths and all our weaknesses, it reflects our regional idiosyncrasies, our ethnic and racial diversity, our multitude of professions, our shadings of opinion on everything from the value of war to the war over values. Congress is the government's most representative body... Congress is charged with reconciling our many points of view on the great public policy issues of the day. Congress is changing and is in flux. In recent times, the American south and west have gained House seats according to demographic changes recorded by the census and includes more minorities and women although both groups are still underrepresented. While power balances among the different parts of government continue to change, the internal structure of Congress is important to understand along with its interactions with so-called intermediary institutions such as political parties, civic associations, interest groups, the mass media.
The Congress of the United States serves two distinct purposes that overlap: local representation to the federal government of a congressional district by representatives and a state's at-large representation to the federal government by senators. Most incumbents seek re-election, their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent; the historical records of the House of Representatives and the Senate are maintained by the Center for Legislative Archives, a part of the National Archives and Records Administration. Congress is directly responsible for the governing of the District of Columbia, the current seat of the federal government; the First Continental Congress was a gathering of representatives from twelve of the thirteen British Colonies in North America. On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, referring to the new nation as the "United States of America"; the Articles of Confederation in 1781 created the Congress of the Confederation, a
Case citation is a system used by legal professionals to identify past court case decisions, either in series of books called reporters or law reports, or in a neutral style that identifies a decision regardless of where it is reported. Case citations are formatted differently in different jurisdictions, but contain the same key information. A legal citation is a "reference to a legal precedent or authority, such as a case, statute, or treatise, that either substantiates or contradicts a given position." Where cases are published on paper, the citation contains the following information: Court that issued the decision Report title Volume number Page, section, or paragraph number Publication yearIn some report series, for example in England and some in Canada, volumes are not numbered independently of the year: thus the year and volume number are required to identify which book of the series has the case reported within its covers. In such citations, it is usual in these jurisdictions to apply square brackets "" to the year.
The Internet brought with it the opportunity for courts to publish their decisions on websites and most published court decisions now appear in that way. They can be found through many national and other websites, such as WorldLII, that are operated by members of the Free Access to Law Movement; the resulting flood of unpaginated information has led to numbering of paragraphs and the adoption of a medium-neutral citation system. This contains the following information: Year of decision Abbreviated title of the court Decision number Rather than utilizing page numbers for pinpoint references, which would depend upon particular printers and browsers, pinpoint quotations refer to paragraph numbers; the conjunction "versus" is abbreviated to "v" in Commonwealth countries and to "v." in the United States. In common law countries with an adversarial system of justice, the names of the opposing parties are separated in the case title by the abbreviation v—usually written as v in Commonwealth countries and always as v. in the US.
The abbreviation represents the Latin word versus. When case titles are read out loud, the v can be pronounced, depending on the context, as and, versus, or vee. Commonwealth countries follow English legal style: Civil cases are pronounced with and. For example, Smith v Jones would be pronounced "Smith and Jones". Criminal cases are pronounced with against. For example, R v Smith would be pronounced "the Crown against Smith"; the Latin words Rex and versus are all rendered into English. Versus and vee are incorrect. In the United States, there is no consensus on the pronunciation of the abbreviation v; this has led to much confusion about the pronunciation and spelling of court cases: Versus is most used, leading some newspapers to use the common abbreviation vs. in place of the legal abbreviation v. Vee is heard but is not as common. Against is a matter of personal style. For example, Warren E. Burger and John Paul Stevens preferred to announce cases at the Supreme Court with against, and is used by some law professors, but other law professors regard it as an affectation.
During oral arguments in Planned Parenthood v. Casey, the participants demonstrated the lack of consensus by using different pronunciations of v. Solicitor General Ken Starr managed to use all three of the most common American pronunciations interchangeably: Kenneth W. Starr: This is the process of analysis, quite familiar to the Court lengthily laid out by Justice Harlan in his dissent in Poe versus Ullman, adumbrated in his concurring opinion in Griswold against Connecticut.... Well, I think that, the necessary consequence of Roe vee Wade. Legal citation in Australia mirrors the methods of citation used in England. A used guide to Australian legal citation is the Australian Guide to Legal Citation, published jointly by the Melbourne University Law Review and the Melbourne Journal of International Law; the standard case citation format in Australia is: As in Canada, there has been divergence among citation styles. There exist commercial citation guides published by Butterworths and other legal publishing companies, academic citation styles and court citation styles.
Each court in Australia may cite the same case differently. There is presently a movement in convergence to the comprehensive academic citation style of the Australian Guide to Legal Citation published jointly by the Melbourne University Law Review and the Melbourne Journal of International Law. Australian courts and tribunals have now adopted a neutral citation standard for case law; the format provides a naming system that does not depend on the publication of the case in a law report. Most cases are now published on AustLII using neutral citations; the standard format looks like this: So the above-mentioned Mabo case would be cited like this: Mabo v Queensland HCA 23. There is a unique court identifier code for most courts; the court and tribunal identifiers include: Australian Guide to Legal Citation There are a number of citation standards in Canada. Many legal publishing companies and schools have their own standard for citation. Since the late 1990s, much of the legal community has converged to a single standard—formulated in The Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation known as the "McGill Guide" after the McGill Law Journal, which first published it.
The following format reflects this standard: Hunter v Southam, 2 SCR 145. Broken into its component parts, the format is: The Style of Cause is i
Indianapolis shortened to Indy, is the state capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the consolidated population of Indianapolis and Marion County was 872,680; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-autonomous municipalities in Marion County, was 863,002. It is the 16th most populous city in the U. S; the Indianapolis metropolitan area is the 34th most populous metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. with 2,028,614 residents. Its combined statistical area ranks 27th, with a population of 2,411,086. Indianapolis covers 368 square miles, making it the 16th largest city by land area in the U. S. Indigenous peoples inhabited the area dating to 2000 BC. In 1818, the Delaware relinquished their tribal lands in the Treaty of St. Mary's. In 1821, Indianapolis was founded as a planned city for the new seat of Indiana's state government; the city was platted by Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham on a 1 square mile grid next to the White River.
Completion of the National and Michigan roads and arrival of rail solidified the city's position as a manufacturing and transportation hub. Two of the city's nicknames reflect its historical ties to transportation—the "Crossroads of America" and "Railroad City". Since the 1970 city-county consolidation, known as Unigov, local government administration operates under the direction of an elected 25-member city-county council headed by the mayor. Indianapolis anchors the 27th largest economic region in the U. S. based on the sectors of finance and insurance, manufacturing and business services and health care and wholesale trade. The city has notable niche markets in auto racing; the Fortune 500 companies of Anthem, Eli Lilly and Company and Simon Property Group are headquartered in Indianapolis. The city has hosted international multi-sport events, such as the 1987 Pan American Games and 2001 World Police and Fire Games, but is best known for annually hosting the world's largest single-day sporting event, the Indianapolis 500.
Indianapolis is home to two major league sports clubs, the Indiana Pacers of the National Basketball Association and the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League. It is home to a number of educational institutions, such as the University of Indianapolis, Butler University, Marian University, Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis; the city's robust philanthropic community has supported several cultural assets, including the world's largest children's museum, one of the nation's largest funded zoos, historic buildings and sites, public art. The city is home to the largest collection of monuments dedicated to veterans and war casualties in the U. S. outside of Washington, D. C; the name Indianapolis is derived from the state's name and polis, the Greek word for city. Jeremiah Sullivan, justice of the Indiana Supreme Court, is credited with coining the name. Other names considered were Concord and Tecumseh. In 1816, the year Indiana gained statehood, the U. S. Congress donated four sections of federal land to establish a permanent seat of state government.
Two years under the Treaty of St. Mary's, the Delaware relinquished title to their tribal lands in central Indiana, agreeing to leave the area by 1821; this tract of land, called the New Purchase, included the site selected for the new state capital in 1820. The availability of new federal lands for purchase in central Indiana attracted settlers, many of them descendants of families from northwestern Europe. Although many of these first European and American settlers were Protestants, a large proportion of the early Irish and German immigrants were Catholics. Few African Americans lived in central Indiana before 1840; the first European Americans to permanently settle in the area that became Indianapolis were either the McCormick or Pogue families. The McCormicks are considered to be the first permanent settlers. Other historians have argued as early as 1822 that John Wesley McCormick, his family, employees became the area's first European American settlers, settling near the White River in February 1820.
On January 11, 1820, the Indiana General Assembly authorized a committee to select a site in central Indiana for the new state capital. The state legislature approved the site, adopting the name Indianapolis on January 6, 1821. In April, Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham were appointed to survey and design a town plan for the new settlement. Indianapolis became a seat of county government on December 31, 1821, when Marion County, was established. A combined county and town government continued until 1832. Indianapolis became an incorporated city effective March 30, 1847. Samuel Henderson, the city's first mayor, led the new city government, which included a seven-member city council. In 1853, voters approved a new city charter that provided for an elected mayor and a fourteen-member city council; the city charter continued to be revised. Effective January 1, 1825, the seat of state government moved to Indianapolis from Indiana. In addition to state government offices, a U. S. district court was established at Indianapolis in 1825.
Growth occurred with the opening of the National Road through the town in 1827, the first major federally funded highway in the United States. A small segment of the failed Indiana Central
Birch Bayh Federal Building and United States Courthouse
The Birch Bayh Federal Building and U. S. Courthouse known as the U. S. Courthouse and Post Office and as the Federal Building, is a courthouse of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Indiana, located in Indianapolis, it is a distinguished example of Beaux-Arts architecture, was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. Constructed from 1902 to 1905, the United States District Court for the District of Indiana met here until it was subdivided in 1928, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as "U. S. Courthouse and Post Office" in 1974; the courthouse was renamed in honor of Senator Birch Bayh in 2003. The building was one of only 35 federal buildings constructed under the Tarsney Act of 1893; the United States Treasury Department sought designs for the new federal building from private architectural firms through an open competition allowed under the Act. John Hall Rankin and Thomas Kellogg, noted Philadelphia architects, secured the design contract, the Treasury Department accepted the New York-based John Pierce Company's low construction bid of $1,300,000.
Begun in 1902 and completed in 1905, the new federal building was massive. Accommodating 925 federal employees, the U-shaped, Beaux Arts structure occupied an entire block, rose four stories, housed federal courts and the main post office. Beaux Arts classicism reflected in federal buildings of this era, was popularized by the majestic buildings of the Chicago World's Fair in 1893. Monumental design and formal planning of spaces are hallmarks of the style; the Federal Building and U. S. Courthouse inspired Beaux Arts designs for other public buildings in Indianapolis, including Indianapolis City Hall, the Indianapolis Public Library, buildings in the Indiana World War Memorial Plaza. Resting on a gray granite foundation, the Neo-Classic building is a steel-framed, flat-roofed structure clad with Indiana limestone; the south elevation has eleven bays, separated by three-story Ionic engaged columns and flanked by entry pavilions. Each pavilion has a central cast-bronze and glass doorway, reached by a wide, shallow gray granite stair flanked by pedestals with heroic allegorical sculptures by John Massey Rhind entitled Industry, Science and Literature.
Completed in 1905, the new federal building was U-shaped. The symmetrical facade features evenly spaced Ionic terraces with stone balusters. A heavy classical cornice tops the building. A five-story addition, completed in 1938, enclosed the original U-shaped plan, creating an interior courtyard; the addition is compatible with the original building, featuring classical ornamentation mixed with modern details such as the stylized relief over the entrances. The original impressive scale and richly ornamented interior design elements remain intact. Mosaic tile ceilings, cantilevered marble staircases, much of the original decorative artwork and furnishings are still in place; the major interior spaces of the building are the first-floor lobbies and connecting corridor and the original courtrooms at the southeast and southwest corners of the second floor. The exterior entry doors at the southeast and southwest corners of the first floor open into barrel-vaulted corridors with white marble walls and brown and green marble pilasters and columns.
The corridors lead to vaulted octagonal vestibules that feature red marble walls and gray Tuscan columns, as well as Roman-style mosaics on the ceilings. Arched openings of the octagonal vestibules lead to lobbies with elevators and grand staircases, to the quadripart vaulted connecting corridor; the semicircular marble staircases are among the finest examples of cantilevered stone stairs in the United States. Among the most impressive interior features of the building are the Depression-era murals. Working under the Treasury Relief Art Project, which aimed to restore faith in the country through patriotic and themed art, master artist Grant Christian painted murals that depict the history of transportation and delivery of mail in Indianapolis. Christian was paid $1.55 per hour while his assistant, Reynolds Selfridge receive half that much. The courtrooms feature handsome marble floors, colored marble and plaster wall finishes, elaborately ornamented and painted plaster beam and panel ceilings with skylights.
Bronzed railings, stained-glass windows, heavy wrought-iron gates provide detail to these rooms, which still have their original furniture. Allegorical representations of the Appeal to Justice and Justice and Mercy by William B. Van Ingen placed above each judge's bench symbolize the seriousness of their responsibility. Depression-era interior modifications were cosmetic in nature; these included replacement of open metal grillwork doors on the elevators with polished metal doors, installation of dark green marble-faced walls at elevator entrances. Modern translucent panels replaced the original stained-glass skylights in the second-floor courtrooms; the first-floor east-west corridor is no longer used as a post office. The postal service windows and mailboxes were removed when these functions were shifted to dispersed annexes. Replicas of the service windows were added during the course of restoration, returning the space to its original appearance. In recent years, the General Services Administration has reversed some past modifications made in the name of modernization, has begun conserving important elements of the building.
GSA has replaced modern lighting with appropriate period features, repa
Union County, Indiana
Union County is a county located in the U. S. state of Indiana. As of 2010, the population was 7,516; the county seat is Liberty. Union County was formed in 1821, it was so named because it is the product of a union of parts of Fayette and Wayne counties. The first settlers were from South Carolina. John Templeton was the first settler to enter land at the Cincinnati land office in what would become Harmony Township, Union County Indiana; the first county seat was Brownsville, a small town located on the East Fork of the Whitewater River. The seat was moved in 1824 to a central location; the primary industry of Union County is farming. Union County is the birthplace of Thomas Warren Bennett, Mary Alice Smith, Cincinnatus Hiner "Joaquin" Miller, Jay Hall Connaway, Major General Frederick Leroy Martin and Ambrose Burnside. According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 165.18 square miles, of which 161.22 square miles is land and 3.95 square miles is water. Wayne County Preble County, Ohio Butler County, Ohio Franklin County Fayette County Liberty West College Corner Brownsville Center Harmony Harrison Liberty Union U.
S. Route 27 Indiana State Road 44 Indiana State Road 101 Indiana State Road 227 In recent years, average temperatures in Liberty have ranged from a low of 17 °F in January to a high of 87 °F in July, although a record low of −31 °F was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 104 °F was recorded in September 1951. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.68 inches in September to 4.90 inches in May. The county government is a constitutional body, is granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana, by the Indiana Code. County Council: The county council is the legislative branch of the county government and controls all the spending and revenue collection in the county. Representatives are elected from county districts; the council members serve four-year terms. They are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget, special spending; the council has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax, subject to state level approval, excise taxes, service taxes.
Board of Commissioners: The executive body of the county is made of a board of commissioners. The commissioners are elected county-wide, in staggered terms, each serves a four-year term. One of the commissioners the most senior, serves as president; the commissioners are charged with executing the acts legislated by the council, collecting revenue, managing the day-to-day functions of the county government. Court: The county maintains a circuit court that can handle all case types; the judge on the court is elected to a term of four years and must be a member of the Indiana Bar Association. In some cases, court decisions can be appealed to the state level appeals court. County Officials: The county has several other elected offices, including sheriff, auditor, recorder and circuit court clerk; each of these elected officers serves a term of four years and oversees a different part of county government. People elected to county government positions are required to be residents of the county; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 7,516 people, 2,938 households, 2,117 families residing in the county.
The population density was 46.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,239 housing units at an average density of 20.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.5% white, 0.4% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 0.3% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 26.2% were German, 16.0% were Irish, 11.9% were English, 11.6% were American. Of the 2,938 households, 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.0% were married couples living together, 11.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.9% were non-families, 23.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 2.99. The median age was 40.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $47,697 and the median income for a family was $49,815. Males had a median income of $39,603 versus $27,394 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $19,243. About 8.2% of families and 11.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.2% of those under age 18 and 10.0% of those age 65 or over. Union County is served by the Union County–College Corner Joint School District, the only joint state school district in the state. Ambrose Everett Burnside, American soldier, railroad executive, inventor and politician Thomas W. Bennett, governor of Idaho Territory 1871-1875. Hiram Rhodes Revels, first African-American member of the US Senate, representing Mississippi 1870-1871. Bill Bartlett, Former Guitarist for Ram Jam Jay Hall Connaway, Realist Painter Mary Alice Smith, aka Little Orphant Annie Bob Jenkins, former television and radio sports announcer for ESPN/ABC Sports National Register of Historic Places listings in Union County, Indiana Edward E. Moore, Indiana state senator and Los Angeles City Council member
Tipton County, Indiana
Tipton County is located in central Indiana, north of the state capital of Indianapolis. According to the 2010 census, the population was 15,936, a decrease of 3.9% from the 2000 population of 16,577. The county seat is Tipton; the county has four incorporated towns with a total population of about 7,000, as well as many small unincorporated communities. It is divided into six townships. Three Indiana state roads and one U. S. Route cross the county. Before the arrival of non-indigenous settlers in the early 19th century, the area was inhabited by several Native American tribes; the county was established in 1844, one of the last Indiana counties to be settled. Tipton and Howard Counties were established by the same legislative action on January 15. Prior to the arrival of non-indigenous settlers in the 1830s, the area of Tipton County was inhabited by the Miami and Delaware tribes. Tipton County was formed in 1844, it was named for John Tipton, a soldier of the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Tipton served as United States Senator for Indiana from 1831 until shortly before his death in 1839.
The first murder in the county occurred in October 1851. Harvey Moon killed Andrew Hornbeck with a knife. Moon was tried in Indianapolis, he was sentenced to five years in prison. He was not recaptured; the first Tipton County Courthouse was a two-story frame building. It was planned in early 1845 and was completed by the end of the year at a cost of about $1200, it was expanded the following year. By 1858 a new courthouse was needed, the brick building was completed by 1859 at a cost of $15,000; the present courthouse was designed by Adolph Sherrer. He had taken over the Indiana Statehouse project when architect Edwin May died in 1880, it was built 1893-94 by Pierce and Morgan of Indianapolis at a cost of $170,988. It is one of several Romanesque courthouses dating from the 1890s. Tipton County falls near the center of Indiana. Most of the county consists of level till plain with elevations from 850 feet to 900 feet above sea level. Prior to settlement by non-indigenous people, it was covered with dense forests consisting of oak, maple, hickory and tulip trees.
The southern part of the county has better natural drainage, this area was first cleared for agriculture. Much of the rest of the county tended to be swampy due to the level ground and lack of sufficient natural waterways, so drainage channels had to be dug to make the land suitable for farming. According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 260.57 square miles, of which 260.54 square miles is land and 0.03 square miles is water. Clinton County – west Grant County - northeast Hamilton County – south Howard County – north and northwest Madison County – east and southeast Tipton – the county seat, near the county center, its 2010 population was 5,106. Kempton – near the western border, in Jefferson Township, its 2010 population was 335. Sharpsville – near the northern border, in Liberty Township, its 2010 population was 607. Windfall City - in northeast corner of the county, in Wildcat Township, its 2010 population was 708. The city of Elwood lies in Madison County to the east and extends over the border.
Tipton County is in the humid continental climate region of the United States along with most of Indiana. Its Köppen climate classification is Dfa, meaning that it is cold, has no dry season, has a hot summer. In recent years, average temperatures in Tipton have ranged from a low of 15 °F in January to a high of 83 °F in July, although a record low of −25 °F was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 98 °F was recorded in July 1999. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.67 inches in February to 4.24 inches in June. From 1950 through 2009, 13 tornadoes were reported in Tipton County, resulting in two deaths and several injuries; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 15,936 people, 6,376 households, 4,517 families residing in the county. The population density was 61.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 6,998 housing units at an average density of 26.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.6% white, 0.4% Asian, 0.2% black or African American, 0.1% American Indian, 0.7% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 28.5% were German, 14.5% were American, 12.3% were English, 9.6% were Irish. Of the 6,376 households, 30.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.1% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.2% were non-families, 25.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 2.93. The median age was 42.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $47,697 and the median income for a family was $61,115. Males had a median income of $42,763 versus $29,832 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,499. About 3.3% of families and 6.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.7% of those under age 18 and 5.5% of those age 65 or over. Tipton County's economy is supported by a labor force of about 7700 wo
Gibson County, Indiana
Gibson County is a county in the southwestern part of the U. S. state of Indiana. As of 2010, the population was 33,503; the county seat is Princeton. Gibson County is included in Indiana -- Kentucky Metropolitan Statistical Area. From 1790 to 1813, this area was part of Indiana; the first white settler of what became Gibson County was John Severns, a native of Wales who had come with his parents to North America several years before the Revolutionary War. He settled in Gibson County in 1789–90 on the south bank of the Patoka River at a place now known as Severns Bridge. Another early Gibson County settler was William Hargrove, who came from Kentucky by pack mule in 1803; the Rev. Joseph Milburn and his son Robert arrived in 1803, they settled between the Patoka and White Rivers. The Milburns were from the area of Kentucky. Rev. Milburn, a Baptist, established the first church. In 1805, Jacob Warrick arrived, along with Thomas Montgomery, they burned out the last Native American village in 1807, chasing the inhabitants into the Illinois Territory.
Captain Warrick was killed at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Gibson and Warrick Counties were organized in 1813 out of Knox County. Gibson County was named for John Gibson, an officer in the French and Indian War and the Revolutionary War. Gibson was Secretary of the Indiana Territory, serving as acting Governor on two occasions; the two counties of Gibson County and Warrick County, separated by Rector's Base Line, were formed March 9, 1813 and organized on April 1, 1813. Gibson County occupied everything from the Wabash River and from the White River's extension to the Paoli Base Line down the 2d Principal Meridian to the Rector's Base Line; the area south of this line became Warrick County, which covered the area from the 2d Principal Meridian west to the Wabash River and down the Wabash River and with meanders up the Ohio River back to the 2d Principal Meridian. Orange County, Spencer County, Pike County, Dubois County, Crawford County all came from the 2,000-square-mile area occupied by the original Gibson County, as well as small portions of Lawrence County, Perry County, Posey County, the current Warrick County, Vanderburgh County.
When the county was organized, Patoka was intended to be the county seat. However, Patoka's low-lying location along the Patoka River gave rise to a malaria epidemic. However, although Princeton contends it was the only county seat, some contend county records indicate Owensville was a temporary county seat since Princeton was not laid out until late 1814, at least a year after Gibson County's organization. Although Indiana was technically a "free state," those assisting runaway slaves were guilty of breaking the law and could be prosecuted and jailed. Despite the legal threats, the Abolitionist movement was strong in Gibson County where many were active in the Underground Railroad, some known as Abolitionists such as David Stormont and his wife who maintained a station at their home three miles northwest of Princeton, along with John Carithers who aided runaway slaves at his home east of Princeton, Sarah Merrick, was jailed in Gibson County for helping a runaway slave and her children from nearby Henderson, where slavery was legal, escape to free territory after she was unable or unwilling to pay her $500 bail.
One individual, a Presbyterian minister, the Reverend Thomas B. McCormick, was so well known as an Abolitionist that he fled to Canada after the Kentucky governor requested his extradition. Joseph Hartin, politically identified as an Abolitionist. James Washington Cockrum from North Carolina, maintained a station at his home in Oakland City, first hiding runaways in a root cellar of their log cabin, his son William, who authored History of the Underground railroad as it was conducted by the Anti-slavery league. The family home in Oakland City, known as Cockrum Hall, is recognized as a prominent station on the Underground Railroad. Gibson County is the northern third of the Evansville, Indiana–Kentucky Metropolitan Statistical Area. Nearly 90% of the county exists within the Ohio River Valley American Viticultural Area along with all of neighboring Posey and Warrick counties and a portion of Pike County. Despite being close to Evansville and experiencing a large growth of population in the central areas, Gibson County still remains a rural county with half of the ten townships having populations less than 2,000.
Less than 7 percent of the county's 500 square miles lies within incorporated settlements, or 10 percent if subdivisions are included. The western part of the county consists of spread-out flood-prone farms with spotty marshes along the Wabash and White Rivers. There are rolling hills around Owensville, large forest and marshland tracts lie near the Gibson Generating Station and the three river settlements of Crawleyville, East Mount Carmel, Skelton; the northern part is more given to hills and forest. The eastern part contains many hills and is dotted with strip pits and active coal mines; the southern part is more given to valley and marshland, drained by the Pigeon Creek which flows south through Evansville