United States District Court for the Southern District of New York
|United States District Court for the Southern District of New York|
|Location||Daniel Patrick Moynihan U.S. Courthouse|
|Appeals to||Second Circuit|
|Established||April 9, 1814|
|Chief Judge||Colleen McMahon|
|Officers of the court|
|U.S. Attorney||Geoffrey Berman|
The United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (in case citations, S.D.N.Y.), known informally as The Mother Court, is a federal district court. Appeals from the Southern District of New York are taken to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (except for patent claims and claims against the U.S. government under the Tucker Act, which are appealed to the Federal Circuit).
The Southern District is one of the most influential and active federal district courts in the United States, largely because of its jurisdiction over New York's major financial centers.
The Court's jurisdiction comprises the following counties: New York (Manhattan), Bronx, Westchester, Putnam, Rockland, Orange, Dutchess, and Sullivan. The United States Attorney's Office for the Southern District of New York represents the United States in civil and criminal litigation in the court. The current United States Attorney is Geoffrey Berman since January 5, 2018. The court sits in the Thurgood Marshall United States Courthouse and Daniel Patrick Moynihan United States Courthouse, both in Manhattan, and in the Charles L. Brieant Federal Building and Courthouse in White Plains.
The United States District Court for the District of New York was one of the original 13 courts established by the Judiciary Act of 1789, 1 Stat. 73, on September 24, 1789. It first sat at the old Merchants Exchange on Broad Street in November 1789, the first federal court to do so. The Act of April 9, 1814, 3 Stat. 120, divided the District of New York into Northern and Southern Districts. The subdivision of the district was reportedly instigated by Matthias Burnett Tallmadge, out of antipathy for fellow district judge William P. Van Ness. These Districts were later further subdivided with the creation of Eastern District on February 25, 1865 by 13 Stat. 438, and the Western District on May 12, 1900, by 31 Stat. 175.
For the first hundred years of its existence, the case load of the District was dominated first by admiralty cases, and then by a mix of admiralty and bankruptcy cases. The primary responsibility for hearing bankruptcy cases has since been transferred to the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York, with the District Court only reviewing cases already decided by a bankruptcy judge.
Since its creation, the Southern District of New York has had 149 judges, more than any other District. Nineteen judges from the Southern District of New York have been elevated to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit—Samuel Blatchford, Charles Merrill Hough, Learned Hand, Julius Marshuetz Mayer, Augustus Noble Hand, Martin Thomas Manton, Robert P. Patterson, Harold Medina, Irving Kaufman, Wilfred Feinberg, Walter R. Mansfield, Murray Gurfein, Lawrence W. Pierce, Pierre N. Leval, John M. Walker Jr., Sonia Sotomayor, Denny Chin, Barrington Daniels Parker Jr., and Gerard E. Lynch. Two judges, Samuel Blatchford and Sonia Sotomayor, were elevated from the Southern District of New York to serve as Circuit Judge for the Second Circuit and were later elevated to the Supreme Court of the United States. The longest serving judge, David Norton Edelstein, served as an active judge for 43 years to the day, and in senior status for an additional six years.
Judges of the court have gone on to other high governmental positions. Robert P. Patterson Sr. served as Under Secretary of War under President Franklin Roosevelt and the Secretary of War under President Harry S. Truman. Louis Freeh served as Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation from September 1993 to June 2001. Michael Mukasey served the 81st United States Attorney General under President George W. Bush.
The injury and loss of life claims from the sinking of the Titanic, the torpedo attack on the Lusitania and the fire aboard the General Slocum were heard in the S.D.N.Y. The espionage trial of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg and the perjury trial of Alger Hiss were also heard in the S.D.N.Y.
Judge John M. Woolsey of the S.D.N.Y. rejected government efforts to censor on obscenity grounds the distribution of James Joyce's Ulysses. Judge Murray Gurfein of the Court rejected government efforts to enjoin the New York Times from publishing the Pentagon Papers. Defamation suits were heard in the S.D.N.Y. against CBS and Time Magazine by General William Westmoreland and Israeli General Ariel Sharon.
Two former Attorneys General of the United States were indicted and tried in the S.D.N.Y. for crimes while in office – Harry Daugherty of the Teapot Dome era and John Mitchell of the Watergate era. Juries were unable to reach verdicts in the two trials against Daugherty and John Mitchell was acquitted.
The trials of those accused of the 1998 United States embassy bombings in East Africa, those alleged to have been responsible for the 1993 World Trade Center bombing and Omar Abdel Rahman, known in the press as "The Blind Sheikh," occurred in the District. More recently, the prosecution arising out of the 2010 Times Square car bombing attempt and the prosecution of Abduwali Muse, the so-called Somali Pirate, were heard in the Court.
The U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York has 28 authorized judgeships, filled by judges appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Eighteen judges who have taken senior status are eligible to continue hearing cases. As of June 1, 2016, the Chief Judge of the District is Judge Colleen McMahon, succeeding Judge Loretta Preska, whose seven-year term as Chief Judge expired. Senior Judge Charles S. Haight Jr. sits by designation with the United States District Court for the District of Connecticut.
The District Judges (active and senior) sitting are:
|#||Title||Judge||Duty station||Born||Term of service||Appointed by|
|119||Chief Judge||Colleen McMahon||New York City||1951||1998–present||2016–present||—||Clinton|
|110||District Judge||John G. Koeltl||New York City||1945||1994–present||—||—||Clinton|
|123||District Judge||George B. Daniels||New York City||1953||2000–present||—||—||Clinton|
|125||District Judge||Laura Taylor Swain||New York City||1958||2000–present||—||—||Clinton|
|129||District Judge||Kenneth M. Karas||White Plains||1964||2004–present||—||—||G.W. Bush|
|131||District Judge||Richard J. Sullivan||New York City||1964||2007–present||—||—||G.W. Bush|
|132||District Judge||Cathy Seibel||White Plains||1960||2008–present||—||—||G.W. Bush|
|133||District Judge||Paul G. Gardephe||New York City||1957||2008–present||—||—||G.W. Bush|
|134||District Judge||Vincent L. Briccetti||White Plains||1954||2011–present||—||—||Obama|
|135||District Judge||J. Paul Oetken||New York City||1965||2011–present||—||—||Obama|
|136||District Judge||Paul A. Engelmayer||New York City||1961||2011–present||—||—||Obama|
|138||District Judge||Alison J. Nathan||New York City||1972||2011–present||—||—||Obama|
|139||District Judge||Edgardo Ramos||New York City||1960||2011–present||—||—||Obama|
|140||District Judge||Andrew L. Carter Jr.||New York City||1969||2011–present||—||—||Obama|
|141||District Judge||Jesse M. Furman||New York City||1972||2012–present||—||—||Obama|
|142||District Judge||Ronnie Abrams||New York City||1968||2012–present||—||—||Obama|
|143||District Judge||Lorna G. Schofield||New York City||1956||2012–present||—||—||Obama|
|144||District Judge||Katherine Polk Failla||New York City||1969||2013–present||—||—||Obama|
|145||District Judge||Analisa Torres||New York City||1959||2013–present||—||—||Obama|
|146||District Judge||Nelson S. Roman||White Plains||1960||2013–present||—||—||Obama|
|147||District Judge||Vernon S. Broderick||New York City||1963||2013–present||—||—||Obama|
|148||District Judge||Gregory Howard Woods||New York City||1969||2013–present||—||—||Obama|
|149||District Judge||Valerie E. Caproni||New York City||1955||2013–present||—||—||Obama|
|79||Senior Judge||Charles S. Haight Jr.||New Haven, CT||1930||1976–1995||—||1995–present||Ford|
|83||Senior Judge||Robert W. Sweet||New York City||1922||1978–1991||—||1991–present||Carter|
|89||Senior Judge||John F. Keenan||New York City||1929||1983–1996||—||1996–present||Reagan|
|91||Senior Judge||Louis L. Stanton||New York City||1927||1985–1996||—||1996–present||Reagan|
|97||Senior Judge||Kimba Wood||New York City||1944||1988–2009||2006–2009||2009–present||Reagan|
|100||Senior Judge||Lawrence M. McKenna||inactive||1933||1990–2002||—||2002–present||G.H.W. Bush|
|102||Senior Judge||Loretta A. Preska||New York City||1949||1992–2017||2009–2016||2017–present||G.H.W. Bush|
|105||Senior Judge||Deborah A. Batts||New York City||1947||1994–2012||—||2012–present||Clinton|
|108||Senior Judge||Denise Cote||New York City||1946||1994–2011||—||2011–present||Clinton|
|109||Senior Judge||Lewis A. Kaplan||New York City||1944||1994–2011||—||2011–present||Clinton|
|113||Senior Judge||Sidney H. Stein||New York City||1945||1995–2010||—||2010–present||Clinton|
|115||Senior Judge||Jed S. Rakoff||New York City||1943||1996–2010||—||2010–present||Clinton|
|117||Senior Judge||Richard M. Berman||New York City||1943||1998–2011||—||2011–present||Clinton|
|118||Senior Judge||Alvin Hellerstein||New York City||1933||1998–2011||—||2011–present||Clinton|
|120||Senior Judge||William H. Pauley III||New York City||1952||1998–2018||—||2018–present||Clinton|
|121||Senior Judge||Naomi Reice Buchwald||New York City||1944||1999–2012||—||2012–present||Clinton|
|122||Senior Judge||Victor Marrero||New York City||1941||1999–2010||—||2010–present||Clinton|
|126||Senior Judge||P. Kevin Castel||New York City||1950||2003–2017||—||2017–present||G.W. Bush|
|130||Senior Judge||Paul A. Crotty||New York City||1941||2005–2015||—||2015–present||G.W. Bush|
Vacancies and pending nominations
|Seat||Seat last held by||Vacancy reason||Date of vacancy||Nominee||Date of nomination|
|25||Paul A. Crotty||Senior Status||August 1, 2015||Lewis J. Liman||May 15, 2018|
|1||Loretta A. Preska||March 1, 2017||Mary Kay Vyskocil|
|19||P. Kevin Castel||August 5, 2017||–||–|
|23||William H. Pauley III||March 1, 2018||–||–|
|9||Katherine B. Forrest||Resignation||September 11, 2018||–||–|
|16||Richard J. Sullivan||Elevation||TBD||–||–|
|#||Judge||State||Born–died||Active service||Chief Judge||Senior status||Appointed by||Reason for|
|1||William Peter Van Ness||NY||1778–1826||1812–1826||—||—||Madison||death|
|2||Samuel Rossiter Betts||NY||1786–1868||1826–1867||—||—||J.Q. Adams||resignation|
|3||Samuel Blatchford||NY||1820–1893||1867–1878||—||—||A. Johnson||appointment to 2d Cir.|
|4||William Gardner Choate||NY||1830–1920||1878–1881||—||—||Hayes||resignation|
|6||George Bethune Adams||NY||1845–1911||1901–1911||—||—||McKinley||death|
|7||George Chandler Holt||NY||1843–1931||1903–1914||—||—||T. Roosevelt||retirement|
|8||Charles Merrill Hough||NY||1858–1927||1906–1916||—||—||T. Roosevelt||appointment to 2d Cir.|
|9||Learned Hand||NY||1872–1961||1909–1924||—||—||Taft||appointment to 2d Cir.|
|10||Julius Marshuetz Mayer||NY||1865–1925||1912–1921||—||—||Taft||appointment to 2d Cir.|
|11||Augustus Noble Hand||NY||1869–1954||1914–1927||—||—||Wilson||appointment to 2d Cir.|
|12||Martin Thomas Manton||NY||1880–1946||1916–1918||—||—||Wilson||appointment to 2d Cir.|
|13||John C. Knox||NY||1881–1966||1918–1955||1948–1955||1955–1966||Wilson||death|
|14||Henry W. Goddard||NY||1876–1955||1923–1954||—||1954–1955||Harding||death|
|15||Francis A. Winslow||NY||1866–1932||1923–1929||—||—||Harding||resignation|
|17||Thomas D. Thacher||NY||1881–1950||1925–1930||—||—||Coolidge||resignation|
|18||Frank Joseph Coleman||NY||1886–1934||1927–1934||—||—||Coolidge||death|
|19||John M. Woolsey||NY||1877–1945||1929–1943||—||1943–1945||Hoover||death|
|20||Francis Gordon Caffey||NY||1868–1951||1929–1947||—||1947–1951||Hoover||death|
|21||Alfred Conkling Coxe Jr.||NY||1880–1957||1929–1951||—||1951–1957||Hoover||death|
|22||Robert P. Patterson||NY||1891–1952||1930–1939||—||—||Hoover||appointment to 2d Cir.|
|23||G. Murray Hulbert||NY||1881–1950||1934–1950||—||—||F. Roosevelt||death|
|24||Vincent L. Leibell||NY||1883–1968||1936–1954||—||1954–1968||F. Roosevelt||death|
|25||John William Clancy||NY||1899–1969||1936–1959||1956–1959||1959–1969||F. Roosevelt||death|
|26||Samuel Mandelbaum||NY||1884–1946||1936–1946||—||—||F. Roosevelt||death|
|27||Edward Conger||NY||1882–1963||1938–1954||—||1954–1963||F. Roosevelt||death|
|28||John Bright||NY||1884–1948||1941–1948||—||—||F. Roosevelt||death|
|29||Simon Hirsch Rifkind||NY||1901–1995||1941–1950||—||—||F. Roosevelt||resignation|
|30||Harold Medina||NY||1888–1990||1947–1951||—||—||Truman||appointment to 2d Cir.|
|31||Sylvester J. Ryan||NY||1896–1981||1947–1973||1959–1966||1973–1981||Truman||death|
|32||Samuel H. Kaufman||NY||1893–1960||1948–1955||—||1955–1960||Truman||death|
|33||Irving Kaufman||NY||1910–1992||1949–1961||—||—||Truman||appointment to 2d Cir.|
|34||John F. X. McGohey||NY||1894–1972||1949–1970||—||1970–1972||Truman||death|
|35||Gregory Francis Noonan||NY||1906–1964||1949–1964||—||—||Truman||death|
|38||Thomas Francis Murphy||NY||1905–1995||1951–1970||—||1970–1995||Truman||death|
|39||Edward Jordan Dimock||NY||1890–1986||1951–1961||—||1961–1986||Truman||death|
|40||David Norton Edelstein||NY||1910–2000||1951–1994||1971–1980||1994–2000||Truman||death|
|41||Archie Owen Dawson||NY||1898–1964||1954–1964||—||—||Eisenhower||death|
|42||Lawrence Edward Walsh||NY||1912–2014||1954–1957||—||—||Eisenhower||resignation|
|44||Edmund Louis Palmieri||NY||1907–1989||1954–1972||—||1972–1989||Eisenhower||death|
|45||William Bernard Herlands||NY||1905–1969||1955–1969||—||—||Eisenhower||death|
|46||John M. Cashin||NY||1892–1970||1955–1965||—||1965–1970||Eisenhower||death|
|47||Richard Harrington Levet||NY||1894–1980||1956–1966||—||1966–1976||Eisenhower||retirement|
|48||Frederick van Pelt Bryan||NY||1904–1978||1956–1972||—||1972–1978||Eisenhower||death|
|49||Lloyd Francis MacMahon||NY||1912–1989||1959–1982||1980–1982||1982–1989||Eisenhower||death|
|50||Charles Miller Metzner||NY||1912–2009||1959–1977||—||1977–2009||Eisenhower||death|
|51||Thomas Francis Croake||NY||1902–1978||1961–1972||—||1972–1978||Kennedy||death|
|52||Dudley Baldwin Bonsal||NY||1906–1995||1961–1976||—||1976–1995||Kennedy||death|
|53||Irving Ben Cooper||NY||1902–1996||1961–1972||—||1972–1996||Kennedy||death|
|54||Wilfred Feinberg||NY||1920–2014||1961–1966||—||—||Kennedy||appointment to 2d Cir.|
|55||Harold R. Tyler Jr.||NY||1922–2005||1962–1975||—||—||Kennedy||resignation|
|56||Edward Cochrane McLean||NY||1903–1972||1962–1972||—||—||Kennedy||death|
|57||Inzer Bass Wyatt||NY||1907–1990||1962–1977||—||1977–1990||Kennedy||death|
|58||John Matthew Cannella||NY||1908–1996||1963–1977||—||1977–1996||Kennedy||death|
|59||Charles Henry Tenney||NY||1911–1994||1963–1979||—||1979–1994||Kennedy||death|
|60||Marvin E. Frankel||NY||1920–2002||1965–1978||—||—||L. Johnson||resignation|
|61||Walter R. Mansfield||NY||1911–1987||1966–1971||—||—||L. Johnson||appointment to 2d Cir.|
|62||Constance Baker Motley||NY||1921–2005||1966–1986||1982–1986||1986–2005||L. Johnson||death|
|63||Milton Pollack||NY||1906–2004||1967–1983||—||1983–2004||L. Johnson||death|
|64||Morris E. Lasker||NY||1917–2009||1968–1983||—||1983–2009||L. Johnson||death|
|65||Murray Gurfein||NY||1907–1979||1971–1974||—||—||Nixon||appointment to 2d Cir.|
|66||Lawrence W. Pierce||NY||1924–present||1971–1981||—||—||Nixon||appointment to 2d Cir.|
|67||Charles L. Brieant||NY||1923–2008||1971–2007||1986–1993||2007–2008||Nixon||death|
|69||Lee Parsons Gagliardi||NY||1918–1998||1971–1985||—||1985–1998||Nixon||death|
|70||Thomas P. Griesa||NY||1930–2017||1972–2000||1993–2000||2000–2017||Nixon||death|
|72||Charles E. Stewart Jr.||NY||1916–1994||1972–1985||—||1985–1994||Nixon||death|
|73||Robert L. Carter||NY||1917–2012||1972–1986||—||1986–2012||Nixon||death|
|74||Kevin Thomas Duffy||NY||1933–present||1972–1998||—||1998–2016||Nixon||retirement|
|75||Robert Joseph Ward||NY||1926–2003||1972–1991||—||1991–2003||Nixon||death|
|76||William C. Conner||NY||1920–2009||1973–1987||—||1987–2009||Nixon||death|
|78||Henry Frederick Werker||NY||1920–1984||1974–1984||—||—||Nixon||death|
|80||Gerard Louis Goettel||NY||1928–2011||1976–1993||—||1993–2011||Ford||death|
|81||Vincent Lyons Broderick||NY||1920–1995||1976–1988||—||1988–1995||Ford||death|
|82||Pierre N. Leval||NY||1936–present||1977–1993||—||—||Carter||appointment to 2d Cir.|
|84||Leonard B. Sand||NY||1928–2016||1978–1993||—||1993–2016||Carter||death|
|85||Mary Johnson Lowe||NY||1924–1999||1978–1991||—||1991–1999||Carter||death|
|86||Abraham David Sofaer||NY||1938–present||1979–1985||—||—||Carter||resignation|
|87||John E. Sprizzo||NY||1934–2008||1981–2000||—||2000–2008||Reagan||death|
|88||Shirley Wohl Kram||NY||1922–2009||1983–1993||—||1993–2009||Reagan||death|
|90||Peter K. Leisure||NY||1929–2013||1984–1997||—||1997–2013||Reagan||death|
|92||John M. Walker Jr.||NY||1940–present||1985–1989||—||—||Reagan||appointment to 2d Cir.|
|93||Miriam Goldman Cedarbaum||NY||1929–2016||1986–1998||—||1998–2016||Reagan||death|
|94||Richard J. Daronco||NY||1931–1988||1987–1988||—||—||Reagan||death|
|98||Robert P. Patterson Jr.||NY||1923–2015||1988–1998||—||1998–2015||Reagan||death|
|99||John S. Martin Jr.||NY||1935–present||1990–2003||—||2003–2003||G.H.W. Bush||retirement|
|101||Louis Freeh||NY||1950–present||1991–1993||—||—||G.H.W. Bush||resignation|
|103||Sonia Sotomayor||NY||1954–present||1992–1998||—||—||G.H.W. Bush||appointment to 2d Cir.|
|104||Allen G. Schwartz||NY||1934–2003||1993–2003||—||—||Clinton||death|
|106||Harold Baer Jr.||NY||1933–2014||1994–2004||—||2004–2014||Clinton||death|
|107||Denny Chin||NY||1954–present||1994–2010||—||—||Clinton||appointment to 2d Cir.|
|111||Barrington Daniels Parker Jr.||NY||1944–present||1994–2001||—||—||Clinton||appointment to 2d Cir.|
|112||Shira A. Scheindlin||NY||1946–present||1994–2011||—||2011–2016||Clinton||retirement|
|114||Barbara S. Jones||NY||1947–present||1995–2012||—||—||Clinton||retirement|
|116||Richard C. Casey||NY||1933–2007||1997–2007||—||—||Clinton||death|
|124||Gerard E. Lynch||NY||1951–present||2000–2009||—||—||Clinton||appointment to 2d Cir.|
|127||Richard J. Holwell||NY||1946–present||2003–2012||—||—||G.W. Bush||resignation|
|128||Stephen C. Robinson||NY||1957–present||2003–2010||—||—||G.W. Bush||resignation|
|137||Katherine B. Forrest||NY||1964–present||2011–2018||—||—||Obama||resignation|
Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their district court. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is specifically nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the district court judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, and have not previously served as chief judge. A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority among the group of qualified judges. The chief judge serves for a term of seven years or until age 70, whichever occurs first. The age restrictions are waived if no members of the court would otherwise be qualified for the position.
When the office was created in 1948, the chief judge was the longest-serving judge who had not elected to retire on what has since 1958 been known as senior status or declined to serve as chief judge. After August 6, 1959, judges could not become or remain chief after turning 70 years old. The current rules have been in operation since October 1, 1982.
Succession of seats
- Courts of New York
- For the People, a 2018 television drama about a fictional representation of the lawyers and judges of the Southern District
- List of United States federal courthouses in New York
- List of judges of the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York
- "The Mother Court: A.K.A., the Southern District Court of New York". www.americanbar.org. Retrieved 2018-10-14.
- Asbury Dickens, A Synoptical Index to the Laws and Treaties of the United States of America (1852), p. 386.
- U.S. District Courts of New York, Legislative history, Federal Judicial Center.
- H. Paul Burak, History of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York (1962).
- Forrest, Katherine (August 23, 2017). "Matt Hosseinzadeh, Plaintiff, v. Ethan Klein and Hila Klein, Defendants". United States District Court, S.D. New York (cv-3081). Retrieved December 12, 2017.
- Future Judicial Vacancies
- Initially appointed to the United States District Court for the District of New York, reassigned by operation of law to the Southern District of New York on April 9, 1814.
- Recess appointment; formally nominated on July 13, 1867, confirmed by the United States Senate on July 16, 1867, and received commission on July 16, 1867.
- Recess appointment; formally nominated on October 12, 1881, confirmed by the United States Senate on October 14, 1881, and received commission on October 14, 1881.
- Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 5, 1901, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 17, 1901, and received commission on December 17, 1901.
- Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 6, 1927, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 19, 1927, and received commission on December 19, 1927.
- Recess appointment; formally nominated on November 24, 1947, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 18, 1947, and received commission on December 20, 1947.
- Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 13, 1949, confirmed by the United States Senate on January 31, 1949, and received commission on February 2, 1949.
- Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 5, 1950, confirmed by the United States Senate on April 4, 1950, and received commission on April 7, 1950.
- Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 5, 1950, confirmed by the United States Senate on March 8, 1950, and received commission on March 9, 1950.
- Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 5, 1950, confirmed by the United States Senate on April 25, 1950, and received commission on April 26, 1950.
- Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 5, 1950, confirmed by the United States Senate on April 28, 1950, and received commission on May 1, 1950.
- Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 30, 1952, confirmed by the United States Senate on April 7, 1952, and received commission on April 8, 1952.
- Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 12, 1956, confirmed by the United States Senate on June 26, 1956, and received commission on June 27, 1956.
- Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 12, 1956, confirmed by the United States Senate on March 1, 1956, and received commission on March 2, 1956.
- Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 15, 1962, confirmed by the United States Senate on March 16, 1962, and received commission on March 17, 1962.
- Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 15, 1962, confirmed by the United States Senate on September 20, 1962, and received commission on September 28, 1962.
- Official website for the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York
- Official website for the U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York
- Official website for the U.S. Attorney's Office for the Southern District of New York
- Official website of the Southern District Court Reporters