Frances Perkins was an American sociologist and workers-rights advocate who served as the U. S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, the longest serving in that position, the first woman appointed to the U. S. Cabinet; as a loyal supporter of her friend, Franklin D. Roosevelt, she helped pull the labor movement into the New Deal coalition, she and Interior Secretary Harold L. Ickes were the only original members of the Roosevelt cabinet to remain in office for his entire presidency. During her term as Secretary of Labor, Perkins executed many aspects of the New Deal, including the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Public Works Administration and its successor the Federal Works Agency, the labor portion of the National Industrial Recovery Act. With the Social Security Act she established unemployment benefits, pensions for the many uncovered elderly Americans, welfare for the poorest Americans, she helped craft laws against child labor. Through the Fair Labor Standards Act, she established the first minimum wage and overtime laws for American workers, defined the standard forty-hour work week.
She formed governmental policy for working with labor unions and helped to alleviate strikes by way of the United States Conciliation Service. Perkins dealt with many labor questions during World War II, when skilled labor was vital and women were moving into male jobs. Fannie Coralie Perkins was born in Boston, Massachusetts, to Susan Bean Perkins and Frederick W. Perkins, the owner of a stationer's business. Fannie Perkins had Ethel Perkins Harrington; the family could trace their roots to colonial America, the women had a tradition of work in education. She spent much of her childhood in Massachusetts. Frederick loved Greek literature, passed that love on to Fannie. Perkins attended the Classical High School in Worcester, she graduated from Mount Holyoke College with a Bachelor of Arts degree in chemistry and physics in 1902. While attending Mount Holyoke, Perkins discovered the suffrage movement, she was named class president. After college, she held a variety of teaching positions including a position teaching chemistry from 1904 to 1906 at Ferry Hall School, an all girls school in Lake Forest, Illinois.
In Chicago, she volunteered at settlement houses, including Hull House where she worked with Jane Addams. She changed her name from Fannie to Frances when she joined the Episcopal church in 1905. In 1907, she moved to Philadelphia and enrolled at University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School to learn economics. After two years in Philadelphia, Perkins moved to Greenwich Village, where she attended Columbia University and became active in the suffrage movement. In support of the suffrage movement, Perkins attending protests, advocated for the cause on street corners, she obtained a master's degree in political science from Columbia in 1910. She achieved statewide prominence as head of the New York Consumers League in 1910 and lobbied with vigor for better working hours and conditions. Perkins taught as a professor of sociology at Adelphi College; the next year, she witnessed the tragic Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, a pivotal event in her life. The factory employed hundreds of workers young women, but lacked fire escapes.
When the building caught fire, many workers tried unsuccessfully to escape through the windows. Just a year before these same women and girls had fought for and won the 54 hour work week and other benefits that Perkins had championed. One hundred forty-six workers died, it was because of this fire Frances Perkins would leave her office at the New York Consumers League and, on the recommendation of Theodore Roosevelt, become the executive secretary for the Committee on Safety of the City of New York. In 1913, Perkins was instrumental in getting New York to pass a "fifty-four-hour" bill capping the number of hours women could work. Perkins pressed for votes for the legislation, encouraging proponents including legislator Franklin Delano Roosevelt to filibuster while Perkins called state senators to make sure they could be present for the final vote. In 1912, Perkins resigned as New York secretary of the Consumers League to take the position of executive secretary with the Committee on Safety; the Committee on Safety was formed to increase fire safety following the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire.
As part of the Committee on Safety, Perkins investigated the fire at the Freeman plant in Birmingham, New York in which 63 people died. Perkins blamed lax the loss. In 1913, Perkins married New York economist Paul Caldwell Wilson, she kept her maiden name because she did not want her activities in Albany to affect her husband the secretary to the New York City mayor. She defended her right to keep her maiden name in court; the couple had a daughter, born in December 1916. Less than two years Wilson began to show signs of mental illness, he would be institutionalized for mental illness for the remainder of their marriage. Perkins had retreated from public life following the birth of her daughter, but returned after her husband's illness in order to provide for her family. According to biographer Kirstin Downey, Susanna displayed "manic-depressive symptoms," as well. Perkins had a romantic and intimate relationship with Mary Harriman Rumsey, founder of The Junior League; the women lived together in Washington, D.
C. until Rumsey's death in 1934. Prior to moving to Washington, D. C. Perkins held various positions in the New York State government, she had gained respect from the political leaders
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, some have Native American ancestry. According to U. S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants do not self-identify as African American; the overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities. Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America.
After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, the last four million black slaves were only liberated after the Civil War in 1865. Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens; the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, only white men of property could vote. These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States; the first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine, is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.
The ill-fated colony was immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned; the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence. The first recorded Africans in British North America were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants; as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. An indentured servant would work for several years without wages; the status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", a small cash payment called "freedom dues".
Africans could raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom. They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away. In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism.
Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683. One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case; the popular conception of a race-based slave system did not develop until the 18th century. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam. All the colony's slaves, were freed upon its surrender to the British. Massachusetts was the first British colony to recognize slavery in 1641. In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under English common law; this principle was called partus sequitur ventrum. By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the c
Public employment service
A public employment service is a government's organization which matches employers to employees. One of the oldest references to a public employment agency was in 1650, when Henry Robinson proposed an "Office of Addresses and Encounters" that would link employers to workers; the British Parliament rejected the proposal, but he himself opened such a business, although it was short-lived. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, every developed country has created a public employment agency as a way to combat unemployment and help people find work. In 1988, public employment services from six countries founded the World Association of Public Employment Services; as of 2016, 85 PES from all over the world have joined the association. In the United Kingdom the first agency began in London, through the Labour Bureau Act 1902, subsequently went nationwide, a movement prompted by the Liberal government through the Labour Exchanges Act 1909; the present public provider of job search help is called Jobcentre Plus.
In the United States, a federal programme of employment services was rolled out in the New Deal. The initial legislation was called the Wagner-Peyser Act of 1933. More job services happen through one-stop centers established by the Workforce Investment Act of 1998, reformed by the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act of 2013. Pôle emploi, France's Public employment service Hello Work PESO Lithuanian Labour Exchange AMS, Austria BA, Germany PSZ, Poland Employment agency UK agency worker law DE Balducchi, RW Eberts, CJ O'Leary, Labour Exchange Policy in the United States P Craig, M Freedland, C Jacqueson and N Kountouris, Public Employment Services and European Law International Labour Office, The role of private employment agencies in the functioning of labour markets International Labour Conference 81st Session R Kellogg, The United States Employment Service T Martinez, The Human Marketplace: An Examination of Private Employment Agencies JB Seymour, The British Employment Exchange Official Website of the World Association of Public Employment Services
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign is a public research university in Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System. Founded in 1867 as a land-grant institution, its campus is located in the twin cities of Champaign and Urbana; the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified as a R1 Doctoral Research University under the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, which denotes the highest research activity. In fiscal year 2017, research expenditures at Illinois totaled $642 million; the campus library system possesses the second-largest university library in the United States by holdings after Harvard University. The university hosts the National Center for Supercomputing Applications and is home to the fastest supercomputer on a university campus; the university contains 16 schools and colleges and offers more than 150 undergraduate and over 100 graduate programs of study.
The university holds 651 buildings on 6,370 acres and its annual operating budget in 2016 was over $2 billion. The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign operates a Research Park home to innovation centers for over 90 start-up companies and multinational corporations, including Abbott, AbbVie, Capital One, State Farm, Yahoo, among others; as of October 2018, 30 Nobel laureates, 2 Turing Award winners, 1 Fields medalist have been affiliated with the university as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. The University of Illinois named "Illinois Industrial University", was one of the 37 universities created under the first Morrill Land-Grant Act, which provided public land for the creation of agricultural and industrial colleges and universities across the United States. Among several cities, Urbana was selected in 1867 as the site for the new school. From the beginning, President John Milton Gregory's desire to establish an institution grounded in the liberal arts tradition was at odds with many state residents and lawmakers who wanted the university to offer classes based around "industrial education".
The university opened for classes on March 2, 1868, had two faculty members and 77 students. The Library, which opened with the school in 1868, started with 1,039 volumes. Subsequently, President Edmund J. James, in a speech to the board of trustees in 1912, proposed to create a research library, it is now one of the world's largest public academic collections. In 1870, the Mumford House was constructed as a model farmhouse for the school's experimental farm; the Mumford House remains the oldest structure on campus. The original University Hall was the fourth building built. In 1885, the Illinois Industrial University changed its name to the "University of Illinois", reflecting its agricultural and liberal arts curriculum. During his presidency, Edmund J. James is credited for building the foundation for the large Chinese international student population on campus. James established ties with China through the Chinese Minister to the United States Wu Ting-Fang. In addition, during James's presidency, class rivalries and Bob Zuppke's winning football teams contributed to campus morale.
Alma Mater, a prominent statue on campus created by alumnus Lorado Taft, was unveiled on June 11, 1929. It was established from donations by the Alumni Fund and the classes of 1923–1929. Like many Universities, the economic depression slowed expansion on the campus; the university replaced the original university hall with the Illini Union. After World War II, the university experienced rapid growth; the enrollment doubled and the academic standing improved. This period was marked by large growth in the Graduate College and increased federal support of scientific and technological research. During the 1950s and 1960s the university experienced the turmoil common on many American campuses. Among these were the water fights of the fifties and sixties. By 1967 the University of Illinois system consisted of a main campus in Champaign-Urbana and two Chicago campuses, Chicago Circle and Medical Center, people began using "Urbana–Champaign" or the reverse to refer to the main campus specifically; the university name changed to the "University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign" around 1982, using the reverse of the used designation for the metropolitan area, "Champaign-Urbana".
The name change established a separate identity for the main campus within the University of Illinois system, which today includes campuses in Springfield and Chicago. In 1998, the Hallene Gateway Plaza was dedicated; the Plaza features the original sandstone portal of University Hall, the fourth building on campus. In recent years, state support has declined from 4.5% of the state's tax appropriations in 1980 to 2.28% in 2011, a nearly 50% decline. As a result, the university's budget has shifted away from relying on state support with nearly 84% of the budget now coming from other sources. On March 12, 2015, the Board of Trustees approved the creation of a medical school, being the first college created at Urbana–Champaign in over 60 years; the Carle-Illinois College of Medicine began classes in 2018. The main research and academic facilities are divided evenly between the twin cities of Urbana and Champaign, which form part of the Champaign–Urbana metropolitan area; the College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences' research fields stretch south from Urbana and Champaign into Savoy and Champaign County.
United States home front during World War II
The home front of the United States in World War II supported the war effort in many ways, including a wide range of volunteer efforts and submitting to government-managed rationing and price controls. There was a general feeling of agreement that the sacrifices were for the national good "for the duration." The labor market changed radically. Peacetime conflicts with respect to race and labor took on a special dimension because of the pressure for national unity; the Hollywood film industry was important for propaganda. Every aspect of life from politics to personal savings changed; this was achieved by tens of millions of workers moving from low to high productivity jobs in industrial centers. Millions of students, retirees and unemployed moved into the active labor force; the hours they had to work increased as time for leisure activities declined sharply. Gasoline and clothing were rationed. Most families were allocated 3 US gallons of gasoline a week, which curtailed driving for any purpose.
Production of most durable goods, like cars, new housing, vacuum cleaners, kitchen appliances, was banned until the war ended. In industrial areas housing was in short supply as people lived in cramped quarters. Prices and wages were controlled. Americans saved a high portion of their incomes. Federal tax policy was contentious during the war, with President Franklin D. Roosevelt opposing a conservative coalition in Congress. However, both sides agreed on the need for high taxes to pay for the war: top marginal tax rates ranged from 81%-94% for the duration of the war, the income level subject to the highest rate was lowered from $5,000,000 to $200,000. Roosevelt tried unsuccessfully, by executive order 9250, to impose a 100% surtax on after-tax incomes over $25,000. However, Roosevelt did manage to impose this cap on executive pay in corporations with government contracts. Congress enlarged the tax base by lowering the minimum income to pay taxes, by reducing personal exemptions and deductions.
By 1944 nearly every employed person was paying federal income taxes. Many controls were put on the economy; the most important were price controls, imposed on most products and monitored by the Office of Price Administration. Wages were controlled. Corporations dealt with numerous agencies the War Production Board, the War and Navy departments, which had the purchasing power and priorities that reshaped and expanded industrial production. In 1942 a rationing system was begun to guarantee minimum amounts of necessities to everyone and prevent inflation. Tires were the first item to be rationed in January 1942 because supplies of natural rubber were interrupted. Gasoline rationing proved an better way to allocate scarce rubber. In June 1942 the Combined Food Board was set up to coordinate the worldwide supply of food to the Allies, with special attention to flows from the U. S. and Canada to Britain. By 1943 one needed government issued ration coupons to purchase coffee, meat, butter, margarine, canned foods, dried fruits, gasoline, fuel oil, silk or nylon stockings and many other items.
Some items, like automobiles and home appliances, were no longer made. The rationing system did not apply to used goods like clothes or cars, but they became more expensive since they were not subject to price controls. To get a classification and a book of rationing stamps, one had to appear before a local rationing board; each person in a household received a ration book, including children. When purchasing gasoline, a driver had to present a gas card along with cash. Ration stamps were valid only for a set period to forestall hoarding. All forms of automobile racing were banned, including the Indianapolis 500, cancelled from 1942 to 1945. Sightseeing driving was banned. Personal income was at an all-time high, more dollars were chasing fewer goods to purchase; this was a recipe for economic disaster, avoided because Americans—persuaded daily by their government to do so—were saving money at an all-time high rate in War Bonds but in private savings accounts and insurance policies. Consumer saving was encouraged through investment in war bonds that would mature after the war.
Most workers had an automatic payroll deduction. Bond rallies were held throughout the U. S. with famous celebrities Hollywood film stars, to enhance the bond advertising effectiveness. Several stars were responsible for personal appearance tours that netted multiple millions of dollars in bond pledges—an astonishing amount in 1943; the public paid ¾ of the face value of a war bond and received the full face value back after a set number of years. This shifted their consumption from the war to postwar, allowed over 40% of GDP to go to military spending, with moderate inflation. Americans were challenged to put "at least 10% of every paycheck into Bonds". Compliance was high, with entire factories of workers earning a special "Minuteman" flag to fly over their plant if all workers belonged to the "Ten Percent Club". There were seven major War Loan drives; the unemployment problem ended with the mobilization for war. Out of a labor force of 54 million, unemployment fell in half from 7.7 million in spring 1940 to 3.4 million in fall 1941 and fell in half again to 1.5 million in fall 1942, hitting an all-ti
Prisoner of war
A prisoner of war is a person, whether a combatant or a non-combatant, held in custody by a belligerent power during or after an armed conflict. The earliest recorded usage of the phrase "prisoner of war" dates back to 1660. Belligerents hold prisoners of war in custody for a range of legitimate and illegitimate reasons, such as isolating them from enemy combatants still in the field, demonstrating military victory, punishing them, prosecuting them for war crimes, exploiting them for their labour, recruiting or conscripting them as their own combatants, collecting military and political intelligence from them, or indoctrinating them in new political or religious beliefs. For most of human history, depending on the culture of the victors, enemy combatants on the losing side in a battle who had surrendered and been taken as a prisoner of war could expect to be either slaughtered or enslaved; the first Roman gladiators were prisoners of war and were named according to their ethnic roots such as Samnite and the Gaul.
Homer's Iliad describes Greek and Trojan soldiers offering rewards of wealth to opposing forces who have defeated them on the battlefield in exchange for mercy, but their offers are not always accepted. Little distinction was made between enemy combatants and enemy civilians, although women and children were more to be spared. Sometimes, the purpose of a battle, if not a war, was to capture a practice known as raptio. Women had no rights, were held as chattel. In the fourth century AD, Bishop Acacius of Amida, touched by the plight of Persian prisoners captured in a recent war with the Roman Empire, who were held in his town under appalling conditions and destined for a life of slavery, took the initiative of ransoming them, by selling his church's precious gold and silver vessels, letting them return to their country. For this he was canonized. During Childeric's siege and blockade of Paris in 464, the nun Geneviève pleaded with the Frankish king for the welfare of prisoners of war and met with a favourable response.
Clovis I liberated captives after Genevieve urged him to do so. Many French prisoners of war were killed during the Battle of Agincourt in 1415; this was done in retaliation for the French killing of the boys and other non-combatants handling the baggage and equipment of the army, because the French were attacking again and Henry was afraid that they would break through and free the prisoners to fight again. In the Middle Ages, a number of religious wars aimed to not only defeat but eliminate their enemies. In Christian Europe, the extermination of heretics was considered desirable. Examples include the Northern Crusades; when asked by a Crusader how to distinguish between the Catholics and Cathars once they'd taken the city of Béziers, the Papal Legate Arnaud Amalric famously replied, "Kill them all, God will know His own". The inhabitants of conquered cities were massacred during the Crusades against the Muslims in the 11th and 12th centuries. Noblemen could hope to be ransomed. In feudal Japan, there was no custom of ransoming prisoners of war, who were for the most part summarily executed.
The expanding Mongol Empire was famous for distinguishing between cities or towns that surrendered, where the population were spared but required to support the conquering Mongol army, those that resisted, where their city was ransacked and destroyed, all the population killed. In Termez, on the Oxus: "all the people, both men and women, were driven out onto the plain, divided in accordance with their usual custom they were all slain"; the Aztecs were at war with neighbouring tribes and groups, with the goal of this constant warfare being to collect live prisoners for sacrifice. For the re-consecration of Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan in 1487, "between 10,000 and 80,400 persons" were sacrificed. During the early Muslim conquests, Muslims captured large number of prisoners. Aside from those who converted, most were enslaved. Christians who were captured during the Crusades, were either killed or sold into slavery if they could not pay a ransom. During his lifetime, Muhammad made it the responsibility of the Islamic government to provide food and clothing, on a reasonable basis, to captives, regardless of their religion.
The freeing of prisoners was recommended as a charitable act. On certain occasions where Muhammad felt the enemy had broken a treaty with the Muslims, he ordered the mass execution of male prisoners, such as the Banu Qurayza. Females and children of this tribe were divided up as spoils of war by Muhammad; the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years' War, established the rule that prisoners of war should be released without ransom at the end of hostilities and that they should be allowed to return to their homelands. There evolved the right of parole, French for "discourse", in which a captured officer surrendered his sword and gave his word as a gentleman in exchange for privileges. If he swore not to escape, he could gain the freedom of the prison. If he swore to cease hostilities against the nation who held him captive, he could be repatriated or exchanged but could not serve against his former captors in a military capacity. Ea
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A Democrat, he won a record four presidential elections and became a central figure in world events during the first half of the 20th century. Roosevelt directed the federal government during most of the Great Depression, implementing his New Deal domestic agenda in response to the worst economic crisis in U. S. history. As a dominant leader of his party, he built the New Deal Coalition, which realigned American politics into the Fifth Party System and defined American liberalism throughout the middle third of the 20th century, his third and fourth terms were dominated by World War II. Roosevelt is considered to be one of the most important figures in American history, as well as among the most influential figures of the 20th century. Though he has been subject to much criticism, he is rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U.
S. presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln. Roosevelt was born in Hyde Park, New York, to a Dutch American family made well known by Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th president of the United States and William Henry Aspinwall. FDR attended Groton School, Harvard College, Columbia Law School, went on to practice law in New York City. In 1905, he married his fifth cousin once removed, Eleanor Roosevelt, they had six children. He won election to the New York State Senate in 1910, served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President Woodrow Wilson during World War I. Roosevelt was James M. Cox's running mate on the Democratic Party's 1920 national ticket, but Cox was defeated by Warren G. Harding. In 1921, Roosevelt contracted a paralytic illness, believed at the time to be polio, his legs became permanently paralyzed. While attempting to recover from his condition, Roosevelt founded the treatment center in Warm Springs, for people with poliomyelitis. In spite of being unable to walk unaided, Roosevelt returned to public office by winning election as Governor of New York in 1928.
He was in office from 1929 to 1933 and served as a reform Governor, promoting programs to combat the economic crisis besetting the United States at the time. In the 1932 presidential election, Roosevelt defeated Republican President Herbert Hoover in a landslide. Roosevelt took office while the United States was in the midst of the Great Depression, the worst economic crisis in the country's history. During the first 100 days of the 73rd United States Congress, Roosevelt spearheaded unprecedented federal legislation and issued a profusion of executive orders that instituted the New Deal—a variety of programs designed to produce relief and reform, he created numerous programs to provide relief to the unemployed and farmers while seeking economic recovery with the National Recovery Administration and other programs. He instituted major regulatory reforms related to finance and labor, presided over the end of Prohibition, he harnessed radio to speak directly to the American people, giving 30 "fireside chat" radio addresses during his presidency and becoming the first American president to be televised.
The economy having improved from 1933 to 1936, Roosevelt won a landslide reelection in 1936. However, the economy relapsed into a deep recession in 1937 and 1938. After the 1936 election, Roosevelt sought passage of the Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937, which would have expanded the size of the Supreme Court of the United States; the bipartisan Conservative Coalition that formed in 1937 prevented passage of the bill and blocked the implementation of further New Deal programs and reforms. Major surviving programs and legislation implemented under Roosevelt include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the National Labor Relations Act, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Social Security. Roosevelt ran for reelection in 1940, his victory made him the only U. S. President to serve for more than two terms. With World War II looming after 1938, Roosevelt gave strong diplomatic and financial support to China as well as the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union while the U. S. remained neutral.
Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, an event he famously called "a date which will live in infamy", Roosevelt obtained a declaration of war on Japan the next day, a few days on Germany and Italy. Assisted by his top aide Harry Hopkins and with strong national support, he worked with British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in leading the Allied Powers against the Axis Powers. Roosevelt supervised the mobilization of the U. S. economy to support the war effort and implemented a Europe first strategy, making the defeat of Germany a priority over that of Japan. He initiated the development of the world's first atomic bomb and worked with the other Allied leaders to lay the groundwork for the United Nations and other post-war institutions. Roosevelt won reelection in 1944 but with his physical health declining during the war years, he died in April 1945, just 11 weeks into his fourth term; the Axis Powers surrendered to the Allies in the months following Roosevelt's death, during the presidency of Roosevelt's successor, Harry S. Truman.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882, in the Hudson Valley town of Hyde Park, New York, to businessman James Roosevelt I and his second wife, Sara Ann Delano. Roosevelt's parents, who were sixth cousins, both came from wealthy old New York families, the Roosevelts, the Aspinwalls and the Delanos, respectively. Roo