Horace Mann Towner
Horace Mann Towner served over six terms as a Republican United States Representative from Iowa's 8th congressional district, six years as the appointed Governor of Puerto Rico. In an era in which the federal government's role in health and education was small, he was an early leader of efforts to expand that role. Towner was born in Belvidere, the son of John and Keziah Towner, he was educated in the public schools at Belvidere, at the University of Chicago, at the Union College of Law, while teaching school. He was admitted to the bar in 1877, practiced law in Prescott, Iowa, in Adams County. In 1880, he was elected county superintendent of schools at Corning, Iowa, in which capacity he served until 1884, he resumed the practice of law in Corning. In 1887 he married Harriet Elizabeth Cole, at Corning, they had three children, Leta and Constance. In 1890, he was elected as a judge of the third judicial district of Iowa, he served as a lecturer on constitutional law at the University of Iowa from 1902 to 1911.
He was a pianist and a composer, who set to music "Iowa, Beautiful Land," once Iowa's official song. In 1910 Towner ran as a Republican to succeed retiring Democrat William Darius Jamieson representing Iowa's 8th congressional district in the U. S. House, he was re-elected five times. From 1919 to 1923, he was served as the House Republican Conference Chairman, he was the co-author of the first federal law to offer matching federal funds for social welfare or to offer grants-in-aid to states for health purposes. That law, known as the Sheppard-Towner Act or the Maternity and Infant Act, was designed to lower the United States' high rates of infant mortality, established maternal and child health services in each state. First offered in 1919, it passed in 1921. Although the program it created was chronically underfunded after passage and was allowed to expire in 1929, it paved the way for many similar state-federal social welfare programs in the New Deal era and thereafter. Towner was the co-sponsor of the Towner-Sterling bill, which would have created a cabinet-level department of education.
It failed to pass during his tenure in the House, over fifty years would pass before its objective would be realized. During his congressional service, Towner was chairman for four years of the United States House Committee on Insular Affairs, a committee with oversight responsibility over protectorates and territories. In early 1923, President Warren G. Harding appointed Towner Governor of Puerto Rico, a post he held until September 29, 1929, his incumbency was characterized by the construction of a great number of public works projects, such as the system of aqueducts in various sectors, the irrigation system in Isabela, the School of Tropical Medicine building in Puerta de Tierra and the penitentiary. He implemented a retirement law for public employees and a new tax law. Towner resumed the practice of law in Corning, until his death on November 23, 1937, he was interred in Walnut Grove Cemetery. He is the namesake of Horace Mann Towner Primary School in Comerío, Puerto Rico
Edgar Raymond Kiess
Edgar Raymond Kiess was a Republican member of the U. S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. Edgar R. Kiess was born in Pennsylvania, he graduated from the Lycoming County Normal School in Muncy, Pennsylvania, in 1892. He taught in the public schools of Lycoming County for two years, he became engaged in the newspaper publishing business in Hughesville, Pennsylvania, in 1894. He served as a member of the Pennsylvania State House of Representatives from 1904 to 1910, he was engaged in business in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, in 1910, served as a trustee of Pennsylvania State College from 1912 to 1930. Kiess was elected as a Republican to the Sixty-third and to the eight succeeding Congresses and served until his death at his summer home at Eagles Mere, Pennsylvania in 1930, he served as chairman of the House Committee on Insular Affairs, which had jurisdiction over United States territories such as Puerto Rico and the Philippines, during the Sixty-ninth through Seventy-first Congresses. Interment was at Wildwood Cemetery in Williamsport.
List of United States Congress members who died in office United States Congress. "Edgar Raymond Kiess". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Edgar Raymond Kiess at The Political Graveyard Edgar Raymond Kiess at Find a Grave Media related to Edgar Raymond Kiess at Wikimedia Commons
The Spanish–American War was an armed conflict between Spain and the United States in 1898. Hostilities began in the aftermath of the internal explosion of USS Maine in Havana harbor in Cuba, leading to U. S. intervention in the Cuban War of Independence. The war led to emergence of U. S. predominance in the Caribbean region, resulted in U. S. acquisition of Spain's Pacific possessions. That led to U. S. involvement in the Philippine Revolution and in the Philippine–American War. The main issue was Cuban independence. Revolts had been occurring for some years in Cuba against Spanish rule; the U. S. backed these revolts upon entering the Spanish–American War. There had been war scares before, as in the Virginius Affair in 1873, but in the late 1890s, American public opinion was agitated by reports of gruesome Spanish atrocities; the business community had just recovered from a deep depression and feared that a war would reverse the gains. It lobbied vigorously against going to war. President William McKinley sought a peaceful settlement.
The United States Navy armored cruiser USS Maine mysteriously sank in Havana Harbor. McKinley signed a joint Congressional resolution demanding Spanish withdrawal and authorizing the President to use military force to help Cuba gain independence on April 20, 1898. In response, Spain severed diplomatic relations with the United States on April 21. On the same day, the U. S. Navy began a blockade of Cuba. Both sides declared war; the ten-week war was fought in both the Pacific. As U. S. agitators for war well knew, U. S. naval power would prove decisive, allowing expeditionary forces to disembark in Cuba against a Spanish garrison facing nationwide Cuban insurgent attacks and further wasted by yellow fever. The invaders obtained the surrender of Santiago de Cuba and Manila despite the good performance of some Spanish infantry units and fierce fighting for positions such as San Juan Hill. Madrid sued for peace after two Spanish squadrons were sunk in Santiago de Cuba and Manila Bay and a third, more modern, fleet was recalled home to protect the Spanish coasts.
The result was the 1898 Treaty of Paris, negotiated on terms favorable to the U. S. which allowed it temporary control of Cuba and ceded ownership of Puerto Rico and the Philippine islands. The cession of the Philippines involved payment of $20 million to Spain by the U. S. to cover infrastructure owned by Spain. The defeat and loss of the last remnants of the Spanish Empire was a profound shock to Spain's national psyche and provoked a thorough philosophical and artistic reevaluation of Spanish society known as the Generation of'98; the United States gained several island possessions spanning the globe and a rancorous new debate over the wisdom of expansionism. The combined problems arising from the Peninsular War, the loss of most of its colonies in the Americas in the early 19th-century Spanish American wars of independence, three Carlist Wars marked the low point of Spanish colonialism. Liberal Spanish elites like Antonio Cánovas del Castillo and Emilio Castelar offered new interpretations of the concept of "empire" to dovetail with Spain's emerging nationalism.
Cánovas made clear in an address to the University of Madrid in 1882 his view of the Spanish nation as based on shared cultural and linguistic elements – on both sides of the Atlantic – that tied Spain's territories together. Cánovas saw Spanish imperialism as markedly different in its methods and purposes of colonization from those of rival empires like the British or French. Spaniards regarded the spreading of civilization and Christianity as Spain's major objective and contribution to the New World; the concept of cultural unity bestowed special significance on Cuba, Spanish for four hundred years, was viewed as an integral part of the Spanish nation. The focus on preserving the empire would have negative consequences for Spain's national pride in the aftermath of the Spanish–American War. In 1823, the fifth American President James Monroe enunciated the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that the United States would not tolerate further efforts by European governments to retake or expand their colonial holdings in the Americas or to interfere with the newly independent states in the hemisphere.
S. would respect the status of the existing European colonies. Before the American Civil War, Southern interests attempted to have the United States purchase Cuba and convert it into a new slave territory; the pro-slavery element proposed the Ostend Manifesto proposal of 1854. It was rejected by anti-slavery forces. After the American Civil War and Cuba's Ten Years' War, U. S. businessmen began monopolizing the devalued sugar markets in Cuba. In 1894, 90% of Cuba's total exports went to the United States, which provided 40% of Cuba's imports. Cuba's total exports to the U. S. were twelve times larger than the export to her mother country, Spain. U. S. business interests indicated that while Spain still held political authority over Cuba, economic authority in Cuba, acting-authority, was shifting to the US. The U. S. became interested in a trans-isthmus canal either in Nicaragua, or in Panama, where the Panama Canal would be built, realized the need for naval protection. Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan was an influential theorist.
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United States Senate Committee on the Budget
The United States Senate Committee on the Budget was established by the Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974. It is responsible for drafting Congress's annual budget plan and monitoring action on the budget for the Federal Government; the committee has jurisdiction over the Congressional Budget Office. The committee operated as a special committee from 1919 to 1920 during the 66th Congress, before being made a standing committee in 1974; the Budget Committee is confused with the Finance Committee and the Appropriations Committee, both of which have different jurisdictions: The Finance Committee is analogous to the Ways and Means Committee in the House of Representatives. The Appropriations Committee has legislative jurisdiction over appropriations bills, which provide funding for government programs. While the budget resolution prepared by the Budget Committee sets out a broad blueprint for the Congress with respect to the total levels of revenues and spending for the government as a whole, these other Committees prepare bills for specific tax and spending policies.
Official website Senate Budget Committee. Legislation activity and reports, Congress.gov. Committee on the Budget, United States Senate, 1974-2006. Senate Document 109-24. 109th Congress, 2nd session, 2006