click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

United States House Committee on Oversight and Reform

The Committee on Oversight and Reform is the main investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. The committee's broad jurisdiction and legislative authority make it one of the most influential and powerful panels in the House, its chairman is one of only three in the House with the authority to issue subpoenas without a committee vote or consultation with the ranking member. However, in recent history, it has become practice to refrain from unilateral subpoenas. Carolyn Maloney has served as acting chair of the committee since the death of Elijah Cummings on October 17, 2019. Representative Jim Jordan is ranking member; the panel now known as the Committee on Oversight and Reform was the Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments, created in 1927 to consolidate 11 separate Committees on Expenditures that had overseen the spending of various departments of the federal government. The modern-day committee's immediate predecessor, the Committee on Government Operations, was established in 1952.

The new name was intended to reflect the committee's broad mission: to oversee "the operations of Government activities at all levels with a view to determining their economy and efficiency". After Republicans gained control of the House in the 1994 elections, the committee was reorganized to include seven subcommittees instead of 14; this reorganization consolidated the jurisdiction covered by three full committees and resulted in a 50 percent cut in staff. In 2007, a reorganization under a new Democratic majority combined the duties of the seven subcommittees into five. In the 106th Congress, the panel was renamed the Committee on Government Reform. While retaining the agenda of the former Committee on Government Operations, the new committee took on the responsibilities of the former House Committee on the Post Office and Civil Service and the Committee on the District of Columbia. On January 4, 2007, the 110th Congress renamed it the Committee on Government Reform; the name was changed again by the 116th Congress to its current iteration: the Committee on Oversight and Reform.

Since 2007, it has been called the "Oversight Committee" for short. In 1997, the Republican majority on the committee changed its rules to allow the chairman, Dan Burton, to issue subpoenas without the consent of the committee's ranking Democrat. From 1997 to 2002, Burton used this authority to issue 1,052 unilateral subpoenas, many of them related to alleged misconduct by President Bill Clinton, at a cost of more than $35 million. By contrast, from 2003 to 2005, under the chairmanship of Tom Davis, the committee issued only three subpoenas to the Bush administration. After Republicans retook the House in the 2010 elections, the new chairman, Darrell Issa, escalated the use of subpoenas again, issuing more than 100 in four years during the Obama administration; that was more than the combined total issued by the previous three chairmen—Davis, Henry Waxman, Edolphus Towns —from 2003 to 2010. Between 2000 and 2006, many major events and scandals in the Bush administration generated few or no subpoenas from the Republican-led committee.

These events included the September 11 attacks. After the release of the Downing Street memo, which contained incriminating information on the buildup to the Iraq War, Democrats in the minority were refused a hearing chamber and were forced to meet in the basement of the United States Capitol. However, under Davis's chairmanship from 2003–2007, the committee launched two controversial investigations. One of those investigations—triggered by the publication of Jose Canseco's memoir, Juiced—concerned the use of anabolic steroids by Major League Baseball players; the other was an inquiry into the Terri Schiavo case. In that investigation, which concerned the removal of a feeding tube from a woman in a persistent vegetative state, the committee issued a subpoena requiring Schiavo to "appear" so that members could "examine nutrition and hydration which incapacitated patients receive as part of their care"; the apparent objective of this, beyond providing information to committee members, was to delay the pending withdrawal of life support from Schiavo, whose wishes were in dispute, while Congress considered legislation targeted at her case.

Members of the Democratic minority opposed the action. Chairman Davis said it was "a legitimate legislative inquiry"; the committee investigated World Wrestling Entertainment's wellness and drug policies, amid speculation about a possible link between steroid use and the death of WWE performer Chris Benoit. On July 8, 2009, committee Republicans released an investigative staff report discussing the financial crisis of 2007–2008; the report alleged that the government had caused the collapse by meddling in the United States' housing and lending market in the name of "affordable housing". In February 2012, the committee held a hearing on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's mandate that would "require all employers to cover birth control free of cost to women". Republicans on the committee alleged that the Department of Health and Human Services's rules governing exemptions for religious institutions violated the Free Exercise Clause o

SS Mary Victoria Greenhow

SS Mary Victoria Greenhow was the first steamboat on Okanagan Lake in British Columbia, Canada. She was built by Captain Thomas Shorts and Thomas Greenhow and although she was not perfect, she was the harbinger of a long and significant line of steamships in the Okanagan. Shorts had begun the boating service on the lake with his rowboat Ruth Shorts in 1883 and three years he decided to venture into steam, he convinced the pioneer and rancher Thomas Ellis that it would be cheaper to transport freight by water than by packtrain from Hope, British Columbia, so with financial assistance from the cattle rancher Thomas Greenhow, Shorts was able to begin steamboating. Mary Victoria Greenhow was the first powered vessel on the lake and Shorts launched her on April 21, 1886 at the shipyard at Okanagan Landing, she was 32 feet long by 5 feet in beam and could carry five passengers and five tons of freight, with a two horsepower engine and a kerosene-burning boiler manufactured in Rochester, New York.

Mary Victoria Greenhow was named after the only daughter of Elizabeth Greenhow. Mary Victoria Greenhow was clumsy and Shorts ran out of fuel halfway on her first trip, he had to borrow kerosene from the settlers along the lake, leaving a series of darkened cabins behind him as he went up, as there was no longer oil to light candles. On his return trip, while Shorts was borrowing more kerosene from the Lequime brothers at Okanagan Mission, Mary Victoria Greenhow was damaged by fire. Shorts managed to get her to Okanagan Landing, where he attempted and failed to convert her to a wood-burner. Shorts ordered a new boiler for Mary Victoria Greenhow, hoping to repair her, but he and carpenter John Hamilton began work on a new ship in the meantime. By the time the boiler arrived in July of 1887, they had built SS Jubilee. Shorts decided to put the boiler in his new steamship instead and transferred the engine from Mary Victoria Greenhow to Jubilee, launched in September; the engine powered several other ships, including City of Vernon, Mud Hen, SS Wanderer, Violet, but Mary Victoria Greenhow was the only one registered on official records, so they would all be considered the same ship speaking.

The engine was used at Trinity Valley for a shingle mill and wood-cutting starting in 1906 before Mr. and Mrs. G. H. Worth of Vernon, British Columbia, whose family had owned it for many years, donated it to the Vernon Museum and Archives in November, 1957

T. Garry Buckley

Thomas Garry Buckley was the 73rd Lieutenant Governor of Vermont. T. Garry Buckley was born in Albany, New York on September 13, 1922, the son of Christopher and Margaret Garry Buckley, his father owned several movie theaters in the Albany area, moved to Bennington in 1937, where he owned and operated the General Stark Theater. Buckley was educated at The Albany Academy, Bennington's high school, the Cranwell Preparatory School and Brown University, he left college to enlist for military service. Buckley served in the United States Army Air Forces during World War II, piloting troop carriers and gliders, serving as an instructor pilot. After the war Buckley resided in Bennington and Dorset and was a real estate broker and insurance agent. A Republican, Buckley was elected to various local offices, including member of the Bennington County Planning Commission, Old Bennington village trustee, member of the village Highway Commission, town selectman. Buckley was a member of the board of directors of the Bennington County Industrial Corporation and a trustee of the Bennington Museum.

He served in the Vermont State Senate from 1955 to 1959, 1969 to 1975. Buckley was elected lieutenant governor in 1976, he finished second in the popular vote to John T. Alden: John T. Alden, Democrat: 82,632, 48.4% T. Garry Buckley, Republican: 81,471, 47.6% John L. Franco, Liberty Union 6,778, 4.0% Since no candidate received a majority, the Vermont General Assembly was empowered to choose a winner. The Republican controlled assembly chose Buckley. With 90 votes required for election the results were: T. Garry Buckley, 90 John T. Alden, 87 John L. Franco, 1In other such elections, the assembly has voted for the candidate who had the most popular votes. In the Alden-Buckley-Franco election, it came to light that during the election Alden, an insurance agent, was being investigated for fraud; this was not known publicly, but some legislators were aware, this contributed to Buckley's victory. In 1978 Alden was convicted of diverting his clients' premium payments to his own use. Buckley was defeated in the 1978 Republican primary for reelection by Peter P. Smith.

In 1980 he lost a bid for the Republican U. S. Senate nomination, he moved from Vermont to Vero Beach, Florida. Buckley died on May 23, 2012 in Stowe, Vermont at the age of 89, he was buried at Old Bennington Cemetery in Bennington. Buckley married Frances Kingsbury Littlefield in 1945, they were the parents of four sons and one daughter. For many years Buckley and his family resided in the home, built by Isaac Tichenor in the late 1700s. After the death of his first wife, Buckley was married successively to Barbara Morgan, Patricia Mann, Hesterley Black

Larry Zimmerman

Lawrence A. Zimmerman known as Larry Zimmerman, is an America businessman who served as the Chief Financial Officer and Executive Vice President of Xerox Corporation from June 1, 2002 to April 2011. Prior to joining Xerox in 2002, Mr. Zimmerman served at System Software Associates, Inc. where he served as an Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer from 1998 to 1999. He worked with International Business Machines Corporation, where he served in various senior finance executive positions, as Vice President of Finance for Europe, Middle East & Africa Operations from 1994 to 1996 and a Corporate Controller from 1991 to 1994, he held various other positions at IBM from 1967 to 1991. Mr. Zimmerman served as an Assistant General Manager in finance and planning for the Enterprise System division from 1989 to 1991 and Director of Budgets from 1988 to 1989. A 31-year employee of IBM, he served as Vice President of Finance and Planning for Brunswick Corporation's multibillion-dollar Server and Technology division from 1996 to 1998.

He served as a Vice Chairman of Xerox Corporation from July 2009 to April 2011. He has been an Independent Director at Flex Ltd. since October 2012, Global Imaging Systems Inc. since May 9, 2007, Delphi Automotive PLC since November 2009. He served as an Independent Director of Brunswick Corporation from February 7, 2006, to May 6, 2015, he served as a Director of Computer Sciences Corporation from August 7, 2012, to August 13, 2014. He served as a Director at Stanley Black & Decker, Inc. from July 26, 2005, to December 31, 2011. Zimmerman graduated from New York University in 1965 with a Bachelor of Science degree in Finance and Master's Degree in Business Administration from Adelphi University in 1967, he says coming out of retirement to take over as senior vice president and CFO of Xerox Corporation in 2002 is one of the best decisions he's made. That's saying a lot for a financial executive with a 31-year tenure at IBM. Known for his financial restructuring skills, Zimmerman helped CEO restore Xerox's reputation and guide it back to profitability after the company suffered through a messy Securities and Exchange investigation and subsequent $10 million fine

Matrix product state

Matrix product state is a pure quantum state of many particles, written in the following form: | Ψ ⟩ = ∑ Tr | s 1 s 2 … s N ⟩, where A i are complex, square matrices of order χ. Indices s i go over states in the computational basis. For qubits, it is s i ∈. For qudits, it is s i ∈, it is useful for dealing with ground states of one-dimensional quantum spin models. The parameter χ is related to the entanglement between particles. In particular, if the state is a product state, it can be described as a matrix product state with χ = 1. For states that are translationally symmetric, we can choose: A 1 = A 2 = ⋯ = A N ≡ A. In general, every state can be written in the MPS form. However, MPS are practical. Except for a small number of specific cases, such a thing is not possible, though in many cases it serves as a good approximation; the MPS decomposition is not unique. For introductions see and. In the context of finite automata see. For emphasis placed on the graphical reasoning of tensor networks, see the introduction.

One method to obtain an MPS representation of a quantum state is to use Schmidt decomposition N − 1 times. Alternatively if the quantum circuit which prepares the many body state is known, one could first try to obtain a matrix product operator representation of the circuit; the local tensors in the matrix product operator will be four index tensors. The local MPS tensor is obtained by contracting one physical index of the local MPO tensor with the state, injected into the quantum circuit at that site. Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state, which for N particles can be written as superposition of N zeros and N ones | G H Z ⟩ = | 0 ⟩ ⊗ N + | 1 ⟩ ⊗ N 2 can be expressed as a Matrix Product State, up to normalization, with A = A =, or equivalently, using notation from: A =; this notation uses matrices with entries being state vectors, when multiplying matrices using tensor product for its entries. Such matrix is constructed as A ≡ | 0 ⟩ A + | 1 ⟩ A + … + | d − 1 ⟩ A. Note that tensor product is not commutative.

In this particular example, a product of two A matrices is: A A = [ | 00 ⟩ 0 0 | 11 ⟩

Modern Combat 3: Fallen Nation

Modern Combat 3: Fallen Nation is a 2011 first-person shooter developed and published by Gameloft Montreal for iOS, Bada 2.0 and BlackBerry PlayBook devices. It is the third game in the Modern Combat series, is a sequel to 2009's Modern Combat: Sandstorm and 2010's Modern Combat 2: Black Pegasus; the fourth part of the series, Modern Combat 4: Zero Hour, was released in 2012, the fifth, Modern Combat 5: Blackout, in 2014. The game is set between 2028 and 2030 where North Korea and Pakistan invade the United States of America, thus causing a global war; the gameplay in Fallen Nation is similar to the previous Modern Combat games, similar to Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare and Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2. The game's single player mode takes place over thirteen levels, in locales such as Hollywood and the Middle East; the player assumes the roles of Corporal James Walker, Master Sergeant Carter and Sergeant Anderson The game is controlled using virtual buttons on-screen. Gyroscopic controls are featured on the iPhone 4, fourth generation iPod Touch and certain Android devices.

The player can crouch, throw grenades, use their weapon's iron sights, change weapon, pick up different weapons, knife enemies, mantle obstacles, shoot using buttons and prompts on the touchscreen. All controls can be customized from the main menu; the single-player campaign includes Quick time events. As with both of the previous games, Fallen Nation features a multiplayer mode, although the number of players has increased to twelve. Six different maps and eight different game modes are available. Killing enemies and securing objectives earns experience points, allowing players to level up through 90 ranks. Once a player has reached rank 90, they can obtain a Veteran Symbol, they have the choice of resetting their rank to rank 1 without losing any purchased items. On June 7, an update was released, adding a new game mode, two new maps, a new perk, new equipment to lessen the damage players take. In the backstory to the game, terrorists from North Korea and Russia have formed an alliance called the K.

P. R. Alliance. Led by General Popovich, K. P. R. have declared war on the United States. After defeating the US defense apparatus, K. P. R. Invaded US deployed several WMDs in US cities; the game begins in Los Angeles, as Corporal James Walker infiltrates the NSA building with Privates Colt and Kelly in order to secure important intel from the servers. After fighting through a few K. P. R. Personnel, the three complete their mission; however and Kelly are killed prior to extraction, their vehicle is destroyed. After Walker escapes the ambush, he travels to the lobby, where he meets up with Captain Turner and his men. Upon arriving however, the group comes under heavy fire, the building collapses. Despite this, Walker survives, he and Turner are able to force their way to the extraction point; the story switches to the perspective of Master Sergeant Carter, aboard an AC-130 gunship. He is tasked with providing cover fire from the skies, allowing fire-teams to destroy bridges around the city, his crew succeeds, preventing K.

P. R. troops from moving into new territory. During a mission to destroy anti-aircraft batteries in Hollywood Hills, Turner is killed in action, Walker is contacted by Sergeant Downs and enlisted into the special ops group "Phantom Unit". Walker and Downs are sent on a mission to the Alaskan wilderness to locate the members of "Razor Squad", who had gone MIA, determine the enemy's plan of attack. In Alaska, they escape on an off-road truck. Anderson joins the unit, they are deployed to the Yongwang, a K. P. R. Warship located in the Bering Strait. Phantom Unit eliminates Sung, the captain, discovers next-generation stealth fighters, which they use to escape, they infiltrate a weapons factory in Siberia, destroy K. P. R.'s supply of munitions and ordnance. The team heads to Pakistan to hunt down Edward Page, a former Green Beret who has joined the K. P. R. Alliance. During the mission and Corporal Washington are wounded, but Page is captured, he reveals that General Tong, a high-ranking member of K. P. R. is planning to bomb America from North Korea.

Phantom Unit attacks a North Korean airfield, under orders to prevent Tong from initiating the attack. However, during the assault and Anderson are captured and held prisoner by Tong himself. Seconds before their unceremonious execution, Anderson manages to escape and release Walker, who kills Tong; the unit is sent to infiltrate Kijang, a K. P. R. Village used to store WMDs. During the raid, Popovitch manages to capture Walker; the last thing they are told before they are knocked unconscious is that they have failed and their efforts will prove fruitless as nuclear missiles are to be launched at the US. After being locked up, Downs and Walker manage to escape their cells. Popovitch flees. Upon reaching the third missile however, they discover. With no other choice, they plant C-4 explosives on the missile and head after Popovich, in what seemed to be a suicide mission. Upon reaching him, the m