Amata Coleman Radewagen
Amata Catherine Coleman Radewagen called Aumua Amata, is the delegate for the United States House of Representatives from American Samoa. Radewagen, a Republican, was elected on November 4, 2014, defeating Democratic incumbent Eni Faleomavaega, she began her tenure on January 3, 2015. Radewagen is the daughter of Peter Tali Coleman, the first popularly elected Governor of American Samoa, Nora Stewart Coleman, the former First Lady of American Samoa. Radewagen has twelve siblings, she is a graduate of Sacred Hearts Academy in Honolulu. She is married to Fred Radewagen, they have three children, two grandchildren. Radewagen holds the orator title of Aumua from the Village of Pago Pago, where she is a registered voter. From 1997 to 1999, Radewagen served on the staff of United States Representative Phil Crane of Illinois, she served on the staff of United States Representative J. C. Watts, Jr. of Oklahoma from 1999 to 2003. After that, she served on the staff of the House Republican Conference from 2003 to 2005.
Radewagen was appointed in 2001, by President George W. Bush, as the White House Commissioner for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. Radewagen was the only Pacific Islander on the 15-member commission. Since 1994, Radewagen has participated in every federal election. Since 1986, she represents the American Samoa Republican Party in the Republican National Committee. Radewagen is the most senior member. Radewagen ran for American Samoa's at-large congressional district in the 2014 elections, she defeated the Democratic incumbent Delegate Eni Faleomavaega, 42% to 31%. Radewagen was re-elected in 2016, receiving the highest number of votes in American Samoa history for any elective office, winning 75.4% of the vote cast. Radewagen assumed office on January 3, 2015. Upon taking office, she became the Republican Party's highest ranking Asian Pacific federal officeholder in the United States. Radewagen has a bipartisan track record, ranked the 28th and 14th most bipartisan Representative in the 114th and 115th United States Congresses by The Lugar Center and McCourt School of Public Policy's Bipartisan Index.
Committee on Natural Resources Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations Subcommittee on Indian and Alaska Native Affairs Committee on Small Business Subcommittee on Health and Technology Subcommittee on Economic Growth and Capital Access Committee on Veterans' Affairs Subcommittee on Economic Opportunity Congressional Western Caucus Climate Solutions Caucus Radewagen has been involved in helping build democratic institutions internationally. As a trainer since 1992, she has participated in missions to Kazakhstan, Cambodia and Morocco for the International Republican Institute and the International Foundation for Electoral Systems, among other activities. List of Asian Americans and Pacific Islands Americans in the United States Congress Women in the United States House of Representatives U. S. Representative Aumua Amata official U. S. House site Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Profile at Project Vote Smart Profile at Ballotpedia Appearances on C-SPAN
Antonio Delgado (politician)
Antonio Ramon Delgado is an American attorney and politician from the state of New York. He is the member of the United States House of Representatives from New York's 19th congressional district; the district includes most of the southern and eastern suburbs of the Capital District, as well as the outer portion of the lower Hudson Valley. He is the first person of either African-American or Hispanic descent to be elected to Congress from Upstate New York. Delgado was born in Schenectady, New York, to Tony Delgado and Thelma P. Hill, he is of Puerto Rican ancestry. He played for the school's basketball team, he enrolled at Colgate University and played college basketball for the Colgate Raiders men's basketball team alongside future Golden State Warriors player Adonal Foyle. He played in the 1996 NCAA Division I Tournament in Indianapolis. Delgado graduated from Colgate in 1999, earned a Rhodes Scholarship to study at Queen's College, Oxford in 2001, he graduated from Harvard Law School. After law school, Delgado worked in the music industry.
In 2007, Delgado released a conscious rap album under the stage name "AD the Voice". He worked as a litigator in the New York office of the law firm Akin Gump. In the 2018 elections, Delgado ran for the United States House of Representatives in New York's 19th congressional district, he defeated six other candidates in the Democratic Party's primary election, faced incumbent Republican John Faso in the November 6 general election. During Delgado's campaign, he criticized Faso for his votes against the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Faso, alongside the Congressional Leadership Fund and the National Republican Congressional Committee, launched attacks on Delgado's former rap career, alleging that his lyrics were offensive and profane, they referred to Delgado as a "big city rapper." The New York Times Editorial Board condemned the attacks as "race-baiting."On November 6, Delgado was elected, receiving 132,001 votes versus Faso's 124,408, out of 267,979 total votes cast. Delgado was sworn into office on January 3, 2019.
Committee on Agriculture Subcommittee on Biotechnology and Research Subcommittee on Commodity Exchanges and Credit Committee on Small Business Subcommittee on Economic Growth and Capital Access Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure Subcommittee on Highways and Transit Subcommittee on Water Resources and Environment Congressional Black Caucus Delgado married Lacey Schwartz in 2011. Schwartz made a documentary film for PBS in 2015, examining being biracial, they live in Rhinebeck, north of Poughkeepsie. He is 6 ft 4 in. List of African-American Representatives List of Hispanic and Latino Americans in the United States Congress Congressman Antonio Delgado official U. S. House website Antonio Delgado for CongressBiography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Profile at Vote Smart Financial information at the Federal Election Commission Legislation sponsored at the Library of Congress
History of the United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives known as the lower chamber of the United States Congress, along with the United States Senate known as the upper chamber, are the two parts of the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States. Like its counterpart, the House was established by the United States Constitution and convened for its first meeting on March 4, 1789 at Federal Hall in New York City; the history of this institution begins several years prior to that date, at the dawn of the American Revolutionary War. The First Continental Congress was a meeting of representatives of twelve of Great Britain's seventeen North American colonies, in the autumn of 1774; the Continental Congress sent a list of grievances to King George III. When the King failed to respond, the American Revolutionary War began in April 1775, the Second Continental Congress was convened—this time with thirteen colonies in attendance. A year on 4 July 1776, the Continental Congress declared the thirteen colonies free and independent states, referring to them as the "united States of America."
This was not a formal name, however, so "united" was not capitalized in the Declaration of Independence, "States" being capitalized only because all nouns were capitalized in English before the Industrial Revolution. The Second Continental Congress continued in office while the War for Independence continued, producing the Articles of Confederation— the country's first constitution— in 1777, ratified by all of the states by 1781. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. States could, did, ignore what did pass; the ineffectiveness of the federal government under the Articles led Congress to summon the Convention of 1787. One of the most divisive issues facing the Convention was the structure of Congress. James Madison's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress; the plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population.
The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states. A compromise, known as the Connecticut Compromise or the Great Compromise was reached; the Constitution was ratified by the end of 1788, its full implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House of Representatives began work on April 1, 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time, with 59 members elected from 11 states. In 1790, North Carolina and Rhode Island elected representatives, bringing the total count of representatives to 65. In the 1st United States Congress, Frederick Muhlenberg, a Pennsylvania Lutheran minister and politician, was the first Speaker of the House; the early 19th century was marked by frequent clashes between the House of Representatives and the Senate. For most of the first half of the 19th century, a balance between the free North and the slaveholding South existed in the Senate, as the numbers of free and slave states were equal.
However, since the North was much more populous than the South, it dominated the House of Representatives. In 1825, new Speaker of the House Henry Clay officially announced that he and his followers would separate from Andrew Jackson and form the National Republican Party. Clay moved to the Senate. During the Civil War, the key policy-maker in Congress was Thaddeus Stevens, as chairman of the Ways and Means Committee and as Republican floor leader, he took charge of major legislation that funded the war effort and revolutionized the nation's economic policies regarding tariffs, bonds and excise taxes, national banks, suppression of money issued by state banks, greenback currency, western railroad land grants. Stevens was one of the major policymakers regarding Reconstruction, obtained a House vote of impeachment against President Andrew Johnson. Hans Trefousse, his leading biographer, concludes that Stevens "was one of the most influential representatives to serve in Congress; the House with his wit, knowledge of parliamentary law, sheer willpower though he was unable to prevail."
Historiographical views of Stevens have shifted over the years, from the early 20th-century view of Stevens and the Radical Republicans as tools of big business and motivated by hatred of the white South, to the perspective of the neoabolitionists of the 1950s and afterwards, who applauded their efforts to give equal rights to the freed slaves. The Democrats were a weak minority from 1861 to 1874 made a major comeback in 1874 by winning 93 seats held by the GOP and becoming the majority; the Gilded Age was marked by close balances with the parties alternating control. Between 1860 and 1920 the average tenure of House members doubled from four to eight years; this number reflects the growth of "congressional careerism." The House began to develop a more stable culture, sessions of the House became longer, members of the House began to specialize in specific areas of policy. Power was decentralized from the Speaker of the House, seniority nearly assured advancement within the House; the increasing importance of the federal government, an increasing acceptance of leng
United States congressional committee
A congressional committee is a legislative sub-organization in the United States Congress that handles a specific duty. Committee membership enables members to develop specialized knowledge of the matters under their jurisdiction; as "little legislatures", the committees monitor on-going governmental operations, identify issues suitable for legislative review and evaluate information, recommend courses of action to their parent body. Woodrow Wilson once wrote, "it is not far from the truth to say that Congress in session is Congress on public exhibition, whilst Congress in its committee rooms is Congress at work." It is neither expected nor possible that a member of Congress be an expert on all matters and subject areas that come before Congress. Congressional committees provide valuable informational services to Congress by investigating and reporting about specialized subjects. Congress divides its legislative and internal administrative tasks among 200 committees and subcommittees. Within assigned areas, these functional subunits gather information.
While this investigatory function is important, procedures such as the House discharge petition process are so difficult to implement that committee jurisdiction over particular subject matter of bills has expanded into semi-autonomous power. Of the 73 discharge petitions submitted to the full House from 1995 through 2007, only one was successful in securing a definitive yea-or-nay vote for a bill; the growing autonomy of committees has fragmented the power of each congressional chamber as a unit. This dispersion of power has weakened the legislative branch relative to the other two branches of the federal government, the executive branch and the judiciary branch. In his cited article History of the House of Representatives, written in 1961, American scholar George B. Galloway wrote: "In practice, Congress functions not as a unified institution, but as a collection of semi-autonomous committees that act in unison." Galloway went on to cite committee autonomy as a factor interfering with the adoption of a coherent legislative program.
Such autonomy remains a characteristic feature of the committee system in Congress today. In 1932, a reform movement temporarily reduced the number of signatures required on discharge petitions in the U. S. House of Representatives from a constitutional majority of 218 down to 145, i.e. from one-half to one-third of the House membership. This reform was abolished in a 1935 counterattack led by the intra-House oligarchy, thus the era of the Great Depression marks the last across-the-board change, albeit a short-lived one, in the autonomy of House standing committees. The modern committee structure stems from the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946, the first and most ambitious restructuring of the standing committee system since the committee system was first developed; the 1946 act reduced the number of House committees from 48 to 19 and the number of Senate committees from 33 to 15. Jurisdictions of all committees were codified by rule in their respective chambers, which helped consolidate or eliminate many existing committees and minimize jurisdictional conflicts.
The Joint Committee on the Organization of Congress, a temporary committee established in 1993 to conduct a policy and historical analysis of the committee system, determined that while the 1946 Act was instrumental in streamlining the committee system, it did fail to limit the number of subcommittees allowed on any one committee. Today, Rules in the U. S. House of Representatives limit each full committee to five subcommittees, with the exception of Appropriations, Armed Services, Foreign Affairs, Transportation and Infrastructure. There are no limits on the number of subcommittees in the U. S. Senate. Congress has convened several other temporary review committees to analyze and make recommendations on ways to reform and improve the committee system. For example, the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1970 led to further reforms to open Congress to further public visibility, strengthen its decision-making capacities, augment minority rights; the 1970 Act provided for recorded teller votes in the House's Committee of the Whole.
Between 1994 to 2014, overall committee staffing was reduced by 35 percent. The number of hearings held in the House declined from 6,000 hearings per year in the 1970s, to about 4,000 hearings in 1994, to just over 2,000 hearings in 2014. Commentators from both parties have expressed concern regarding the loss of committee capacity to research and develop legislative initiatives; the first Senate committee was established April 1789, to draw up Senate rules of procedure. In those early days, the Senate operated with temporary select committees, which were responsive to the entire Senate, with the full Senate selecting their jurisdiction and membership; this system provided a great deal of flexibility, as if one committee proved unresponsive, another could be established in its place. The Senate could forgo committee referral for actions on legislation or presidential nominations; these early c
Rayburn House Office Building
The Rayburn House Office Building is a congressional office building for the U. S. House of Representatives in the Capitol Hill neighborhood of Washington, D. C. between South Capitol Street and First Street. Rayburn is named after former Speaker of the House Sam Rayburn, it was completed in 1965 and at 2.375 million square feet is the largest congressional office building and the newest House office building. Rayburn is home to the offices of 169 Representatives. Earlier efforts to provide space for the House of Representatives had included the construction of the Cannon House Office Building and the Longworth House Office Building. In March 1955, House Speaker Sam Rayburn introduced an amendment for a third House office building, although no site had been identified, no architectural study had been done, no plans prepared; the area west of the Longworth Building on squares 635 and 636 was chosen, with the main entrance on Independence Avenue and garage and pedestrian entrances on South Capitol Street, C Street, First Street Southwest.
The cornerstone was laid in May 1962, full occupancy began in February 1965. The Architect of the Capitol, J. George Stewart, with the approval of the House Office Building Commission, selected the firm of Harbeson, Livingston & Larson of Philadelphia to design a stripped-down classical building in architectural harmony with other Capitol Hill structures. However, while the interior design of the other House Office Buildings retains decor one would expect to see in House Office Buildings, the Rayburn building possesses design style parallel to that of the 1960s, with chrome push bars and elevators, space-age fluorescent lighting fixtures; the Capitol Subway System, an underground transportation system, connects the building to the Capitol. Pedestrian tunnels connect the Rayburn building to the Capitol and to the Longworth House Office Building; this system allows the Rayburn building to be connected to most of the Congressional office buildings on Capitol Hill via tunnel. For construction of the Rayburn House Office Building, the Congressional bill appropriated $2 million plus "such additional sums as may be necessary."
Such additional sums totaled $88 million. Congressional leaders inserted a gymnasium into the building plans, a fact, not publicly known at the time of construction; the gym is below the sub-basement level, in a level of the underground parking garage, according to The Hill, a capitol hill newspaper, "features dozens of cardio machines outfitted with TV screens, an array of Cybex weightlifting machines and free weights." In the third floor basement is a shooting range run by the U. S. Capitol Police and a basketball court. On May 20, 2006 FBI agents raided the Rayburn Building office of Democratic Congressman William J. Jefferson in connection to an ongoing bribery investigation, marking the first time the FBI had raided the office of a sitting congressman; the raid led to members of both parties questioning the constitutionality of the action, a subsequent hearing by the House Judiciary Committee. The legality of the raid was challenged in court, where a federal appeals court ruled that the FBI had violated the Speech or Debate clause of the United States Constitution by allowing the executive branch to review materials that were part of the legislative process.
On May 26, 2006, at 10:30 am local time, there were reports of the sounds of gunfire in the garage of the building. The Capitol complex was sealed off, staff in the building were told to stay in their offices after the building was put into lockdown by the United States Capitol Police; some parts of the lockdown were removed. Congressman Jim Saxton was the source of the false alarm, after he mistook construction sounds in the garage for gunfire. Congressional office buildings Cannon House Office Building Ford House Office Building Longworth House Office Building "The Rayburn House Office Building". Architect of the Capitol. Retrieved 24 July 2005. Media related to Rayburn House Office Building at Wikimedia Commons
United States Capitol
The United States Capitol called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress and the seat of the legislative branch of the U. S. federal government. It is located on Capitol Hill at the eastern end of the National Mall in Washington, D. C. Though no longer at the geographic center of the Federal District, the Capitol forms the origin point for the District's street-numbering system and the District's four quadrants; the original building was completed in 1800 and was subsequently expanded with the addition of the massive dome, expanded chambers for the bicameral legislature, the House of Representatives in the south wing and the Senate in the north wing. Like the principal buildings of the executive and judicial branches, the Capitol is built in a distinctive neoclassical style and has a white exterior. Both its east and west elevations are formally referred to as fronts, though only the east front was intended for the reception of visitors and dignitaries. Prior to establishing the nation's capital in Washington, D.
C. the United States Congress and its predecessors had met in Philadelphia, New York City, a number of other locations. In September 1774, the First Continental Congress brought together delegates from the colonies in Philadelphia, followed by the Second Continental Congress, which met from May 1775 to March 1781. After adopting the Articles of Confederation in York, the Congress of the Confederation was formed and convened in Philadelphia from March 1781 until June 1783, when a mob of angry soldiers converged upon Independence Hall, demanding payment for their service during the American Revolutionary War. Congress requested that John Dickinson, the Governor of Pennsylvania, call up the militia to defend Congress from attacks by the protesters. In what became known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, Dickinson sympathized with the protesters and refused to remove them from Philadelphia; as a result, Congress was forced to flee to Princeton, New Jersey, on June 21, 1783, met in Annapolis and Trenton, New Jersey, before ending up in New York City.
The United States Congress was established upon ratification of the United States Constitution and formally began on March 4, 1789. New York City remained home to Congress until July 1790, when the Residence Act was passed to pave the way for a permanent capital; the decision of where to locate the capital was contentious, but Alexander Hamilton helped broker a compromise in which the federal government would take on war debt incurred during the American Revolutionary War, in exchange for support from northern states for locating the capital along the Potomac River. As part of the legislation, Philadelphia was chosen as a temporary capital for ten years, until the nation's capital in Washington, D. C. would be ready. Pierre Charles L'Enfant was given the task of creating the city plan for the new capital city. L'Enfant chose Jenkin's Hill as the site for the "Congress House", with a "grand avenue" connecting it with the President's House, a public space containing a broader "grand avenue" stretching westward to the Potomac River.
In reviewing L'Enfant's plan, Thomas Jefferson insisted the legislative building be called the "Capitol" rather than "Congress House". The word "Capitol" comes from Latin and is associated with the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on Capitoline Hill, one of the seven hills of Rome; the connection between the two is not, crystal clear. In addition to coming up with a city plan, L'Enfant had been tasked with designing the Capitol and President's House; the word "capitol" has since been adopted, following the example of the United States Capitol, in many jurisdictions for other government buildings, for instance the "capitols" in the individual capitals of the states of the United States. This, in turn, has led to frequent misspellings of "capitol" and "capital"; the former refers to a building. In spring 1792, United States Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson proposed a design competition to solicit designs for the Capitol and the "President's House", set a four-month deadline; the prize for the competition was a lot in the Federal City.
At least ten individuals submitted designs for the Capitol. The most promising of the submissions was by a trained French architect. However, Hallet's designs were overly fancy, with too much French influence, were deemed too costly. A late entry by amateur architect William Thornton was submitted on January 31, 1793, to much praise for its "Grandeur and Beauty" by Washington, along with praise from Thomas Jefferson. Thornton was inspired by the east front of the Louvre, as well as the Paris Pantheon for the center portion of the design. Thornton's design was approved in a letter dated April 5, 1793, from Washington, Thornton served as the first Architect of the Capitol. In an effort to console Hallet, the commissioners appointed him to review Thornton's plans, develop cost estimates, serve as superintendent of construction. Hallet proceeded to pick apart and make drastic changes
Party leaders of the United States House of Representatives
Party leaders and whips of the United States House of Representatives known as floor leaders, are elected by their respective parties in a closed-door caucus by secret ballot. With the Democrats holding a majority of seats and the Republicans holding a minority, the current leaders are: Majority Leader Steny Hoyer, Majority Whip James Clyburn, Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy, Minority Whip Steve Scalise. Unlike in Westminster-style legislatures or as with the Senate Majority Leader, the House Majority Leader's duties and prominence vary depending upon the style and power of the Speaker of the House; the Speaker does not participate in debate and votes on the floor. In some cases, Majority Leaders have been more influential than the Speaker. In addition, Speaker Newt Gingrich delegated to Dick Armey an unprecedented level of authority over scheduling legislation on the House floor; the current Minority Leader, Kevin McCarthy, serves as floor leader of the opposition party, is the counterpart to the Majority Leader.
Unlike the Majority Leader, the Minority Leader is on the ballot for Speaker of the House during the convening of the Congress. If the Minority Leader's party takes control of the House, the party officers are all re-elected to their seats, the Minority Leader is the party's top choice for Speaker for the next Congress, while the Minority Whip is in line to become Majority Leader; the Minority Leader meets with the Majority Leader and the Speaker to discuss agreements on controversial issues. The Speaker, Majority Leader, Minority Leader, Majority Whip and Minority Whip all receive special office suites in the United States Capitol; the floor leaders and whips of each party are elected by their respective parties in a closed-door caucus by secret ballot. The Speaker-elect is chosen in a closed-door session although they are formally installed in their position by a public vote when Congress reconvenes. Like the Speaker of the House, the Minority Leaders are experienced lawmakers when they win election to this position.
When Nancy Pelosi, D-CA, became Minority Leader in the 108th Congress, she had served in the House nearly 20 years and had served as minority whip in the 107th Congress. When her predecessor, Richard Gephardt, D-MO, became minority leader in the 104th House, he had been in the House for 20 years, had served as chairman of the Democratic Caucus for four years, had been a 1988 presidential candidate, had been majority leader from June 1989 until Republicans captured control of the House in the November 1994 elections. Gephardt's predecessor in the minority leadership position was Robert Michel, R-IL, who became GOP Leader in 1981 after spending 24 years in the House. Michel's predecessor, Republican John Rhodes of Arizona, was elected Minority Leader in 1973 after 20 years of House service. By contrast, party leaders of the United States Senate have ascended to their position despite few years of experience in that chamber, such as Lyndon B. Johnson, William F. Knowland, Bill Frist. Former House Majority Leader Eric Cantor had a comparatively quick rise to the post and was the youngest House Majority Leader in American history.
The House Majority Leader's duties vary, depending upon the political makeup of the majority caucus. In several recent sessions of Congress, with the notable exception of the Pelosi speakership, the Majority Leader has been responsible for scheduling the House floor's legislative calendar and direct management for all House committees. One statutory duty, per 19 U. S. C. § 2191, stipulates that an implementing bill submitted by the President of the United States for a fast-track negotiating authority trade agreement must be introduced in the House by the Majority Leader of the House. Before 1899, the majority party floor leader had traditionally been the Chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee, the most powerful committee in the House, as it generates the Bills of Revenue specified in the Constitution as the House's unique power; the office of Majority Leader first occupied by Sereno Payne. Speaker David B. Henderson created the position to establish a party leader on the House floor separate from the Speaker, as the role of Speaker had become more prominent, the size of the House had grown from 105 at the beginning of the century to 356.
Starting with Republican Nicholas Longworth in 1925, continued through the Democrats' control of the House from 1931 to 1995, save for Republican majorities in 1947–49 and 1953–55, all majority leaders have directly ascended to the Speakership brought upon by the retirement of the incumbent. The only exceptions during this period were Charles A. Halleck who became Republican House leader and Minority Leader from 1959 to 1965, Hale Boggs who died in a plane crash, Dick Gephardt who became the Democrats' House leader but as Minority Leader since his party lost control in the 1994 midterm elections. Since 1995, the only Majority Leader to become Speaker is John Boehner, though indirectly as his party lost control in the 2006 midterms elections, he subsequently served as Republican House leader and Minority Leader from 2007 to 2011 and was elected Speaker when the House reconvened in 2011. In 1998, with Speaker Newt Gingrich announcing his resignation, both Majority Leader Dick Armey and Majority Whip Tom DeLay did not contest the Speakership which went to Chief Deputy Whip Dennis Hastert.
Traditionally, the Speaker is reckoned as the leader of the majority party in the House, with the Majority Leader as second-in-command. For instance, when the Republicans gained the majority in the House after the 2010 elections, Eric Canto