Salaries of members of the United States Congress
This chart shows historical information on the salaries that members of the United States Congress have been paid. The Government Ethics Reform Act of 1989 provides for an automatic increase in salary each year as a cost of living adjustment that reflects the employment cost index. Since 2010 Congress has annually voted not to accept the increase, keeping it at the same nominal amount since 2009; the Twenty-seventh Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1992, prohibits any law affecting compensation from taking effect until after the next election. Additional pay schedule for the Senate and House positions: SCHEDULE 6—VICE PRESIDENT AND MEMBERS OF CONGRESS
Jerrold Lewis Nadler is an American attorney and politician who serves as the U. S. Representative from New York's 10th congressional district. In his 14th term in congress, he has served since 1992, he is a member of the Democratic Party. The district, numbered as the 17th District from 1992 to 1993 and as the 8th District from 1993 to 2013, includes the west side of Manhattan from the Upper West Side down to Battery Park, including the World Trade Center, it includes the Manhattan neighborhoods of Chelsea, Hell's Kitchen, Greenwich Village, as well as parts of Brooklyn such as Coney Island, Borough Park, Bay Ridge. It includes many of New York City's most popular tourist attractions, including the Statue of Liberty, New York Stock Exchange, Brooklyn Bridge, Central Park. Nadler was born into a Jewish family in Brooklyn, New York City, New York, the son of Miriam and Emanuel "Max" Nadler, he graduated from Stuyvesant High School in 1965. Nadler received his B. A. degree from Columbia University, where he became a brother of Alpha Epsilon Pi, in 1969.
He received his J. D. degree from the part-time evening program of Fordham University School of Law while serving in the New York State Assembly in 1978. He was a member of the New York State Assembly from 1977 to 1992, sitting in the 182nd, 183rd, 184th, 185th, 186th, 187th, 188th and 189th New York State Legislatures. In 1985, he ran for Manhattan Borough President, he lost the Democratic primary to David Dinkins. In the general election, he ran as the New York Liberal Party nominee, was again defeated by Dinkins. In 1989, he ran for New York City Comptroller. In the Democratic primary, he lost to Kings County D. A. Elizabeth Holtzman. Nadler chaired the Assembly Subcommittee on Mass Transit and Rail Freight. In 1992, Ted Weiss was expected to run for re-election in the 8th District, renumbered from the 17th after the 1990 U. S. Census. However, Weiss died a day before the primary election. Nadler was nominated to replace Weiss, he ran in two elections on Election Day – a special election to serve the rest of Weiss's term, a regular election for a full two-year term.
He won both handily, has been re-elected 12 times with no substantive opposition, never dropping below 75 percent of the vote in one of the most Democratic districts in the country. The district was renumbered as the 10th District after the 2010 census. A Republican has not represented its predecessors in over a century. Nadler is the chair of the U. S. House Committee on the Judiciary and is a member of the Transportation and Infrastructure committees. Despite earlier efforts to bring impeachment charges against George W. Bush, more recent requests from fellow representatives, he did not schedule hearings on impeachments for Bush or Dick Cheney, saying in 2007 that doing so would be pointless and would distract from the presidential election. In an interview in Washington Journal on July 15, 2008, Nadler reiterated the timing defense while stating that Bush had committed impeachable offenses, but that nothing could be done because the system is "overly political". Ten days following upon submission of Articles of Impeachment by Representative Dennis Kucinich, the full House Judiciary Committee held hearings covered by C-SPAN regarding the process.
A top Ronald Reagan Justice Department official, Bruce Fein, was among those testifying for impeachment. On a similar note, referring to hypothetical impeachment proceedings against President Donald Trump that would begin in the newly elected Democrat-controlled House, he suggested a "three-pronged test" that "would make for a legitimate impeachment proceeding"; such a test would include "that the offenses in question must be so grave", "the evidence so clear", that "even some supporters of the president concede that impeachment is necessary". If determined that the president committed an impeachable offense, lawmakers must consider if such an offense would “rise to the gravity where it’s worth putting the country through the trauma of an impeachment proceeding,” Nadler stated. Nadler said in a December 2008 interview that he was interested in the U. S. Senate seat that Hillary Clinton was planning to resign to become U. S. Secretary of State in the Obama administration, he cited his opposition to the war in Iraq, the PATRIOT Act, the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 2005 as among his principal qualifications.
Nadler urged the Attorney General in December 2008 to appoint an independent counsel to investigate Dick Cheney, Donald Rumsfeld, other top Bush officials for violating the law on torturing prisoners in US custody. In January 2011, Nadler called the new GOP majority's plan to read the Constitution on the House floor "ritualistic" and complained that it treated the Constitution like "a sacred text" for "propaganda" purposes. Committee on the Judiciary Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, Civil Liberties Subcommittee on Crime and Homeland Security Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure Subcommittee on Highways and Transit Subcommittee on Railroads and Hazardous Materials Congressional Arts Caucus Congressional Progressive Caucus Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus Nadler was unhappy with the passage of the surveillance-reform compromise bill, the FISA Amendments Act of 2008, saying it "abandons the Constitution's protections and insulates lawless behavior from legal scrutiny".
Nadler compared Obama's acceptance of Republican demands to extend Bush-era tax cuts at the highest income levels to someone being roughed-up by the mob, asserting that the
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
United States congressional apportionment
United States congressional apportionment is the process by which seats in the United States House of Representatives are distributed among the 50 states according to the most recent decennial census mandated by the United States Constitution. Each state is apportioned a number of seats which corresponds to its share of the aggregate population of the 50 states. However, every state is constitutionally guaranteed at least one seat; the number of voting seats in the House of Representatives has since 1913 been 435, capped at that number by the Reapportionment Act of 1929—except for a temporary increase to 437 when Alaska and Hawaii were admitted into the Union. The size of a state's total congressional delegation determines the size of its representation in the U. S. Electoral College, which affects the U. S. presidential election process. Article One, Section 2, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution provided: Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.
The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at least one Representative. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State. Reapportionments occur following each decennial census, though the law that governs the total number of representatives and the method of apportionment to be carried into force at that time are enacted prior to the census; the decennial apportionment determines the size of each state's representation in the U.
S. Electoral College. Under Article II, Section 1, Clause 2 of the U. S. Constitution, the number of electors of any state equals the size of its total congressional delegation. Federal law requires the Clerk of the House of Representatives to notify each state government no than January 25 of the year following the census of the number of seats to which it is entitled. If the number of seats has changed, the state determines the boundaries of congressional districts—geographical areas within the state of equal population—in a process called redistricting. Any citizen of the State can challenge the constitutionality of the redistricting in their US district court; because the deadline for the House Clerk to report the results does not occur until the following January, the states need sufficient time to perform the redistricting, the decennial census does not affect the elections that are held during that same year. For example, the electoral college apportionment during 2000 presidential election was still based on the 1990 census results.
The congressional districts and the electoral college during the 2020 general elections will still be based on the 2010 census. The size of the U. S. House of Representatives refers to total number of congressional districts into which the land area of the United States proper has been divided; the number of voting representatives is set at 435. There are an additional five delegates to the House of Representatives, they represent the District of Columbia and the territories of American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, which first elected a representative in 2008, the U. S. Virgin Islands. Puerto Rico elects a resident commissioner every four years. Since 1789, when the Federal Government began operating under the Constitution, the number of citizens per congressional district has risen from an average of 33,000 in 1790 to 700,000 as of 2008. Prior to the 20th century, the number of representatives increased every decade as more states joined the union, the population increased; the ideal number of members has been a contentious issue since the country's founding.
George Washington agreed that the original representation proposed during the Constitutional Convention was inadequate and supported an alteration to reduce that number to 30,000. This was the only time that Washington pronounced an opinion on any of the actual issues debated during the entire convention. In Federalist No. 55, James Madison argued that the size of the House of Representatives has to balance the ability of the body to legislate with the need for legislators to have a relationship close enough to the people to understand their local circumstances, that such representatives' social class be low enough to sympathize with the feelings of the mass of the people, that their power be diluted enough to limit their abuse of the public trust and interests.... First, that so small a number of representatives will be an unsafe depositary of the public interests.
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of
United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary
The United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, informally the Senate Judiciary Committee, is a standing committee of 22 U. S. Senators whose role is to oversee the Department of Justice, consider executive nominations, review pending legislation; the Judiciary Committee's oversight of the DOJ includes all of the agencies under the DOJ's jurisdiction, such as the FBI. It has oversight of the Department of Homeland Security; the Committee considers presidential nominations for positions in the DOJ, the Office of National Drug Control Policy, the State Justice Institute, certain positions in the Department of Commerce and DHS. It is in charge of holding hearings and investigating judicial nominations to the Supreme Court, the U. S. court of appeals, the U. S. district courts, the Court of International Trade. The Standing Rules of the Senate confer jurisdiction to the Senate Judiciary Committee in certain areas, such as considering proposed constitutional amendments and legislation related to federal criminal law, human rights law, intellectual property, antitrust law, internet privacy.
Established in 1816 as one of the original standing committees in the United States Senate, the Senate Committee on the Judiciary is one of the oldest and most influential committees in Congress. Its broad legislative jurisdiction has assured its primary role as a forum for the public discussion of social and constitutional issues; the Committee is responsible for oversight of key activities of the executive branch, is responsible for the initial stages of the confirmation process of all judicial nominations for the federal judiciary. In January 2018, the Democratic minority had their number of seats increase from 9 to 10 upon the election of Doug Jones, changing the 52–48 Republican majority to 51–49. On January 2, 2018, Al Franken, a member of the committee, resigned from the Senate following accusations of sexual misconduct. Source: 2013 Congressional Record, Vol. 159, Page S296 to 297 United States House Committee on the Judiciary List of current United States Senate committees United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary Official Website Senate Judiciary Committee.
Legislation activity and reports, Congress.gov
Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee
The Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee is the Democratic Hill committee for the United States House of Representatives, working to elect Democrats to that body and discourage primary challengers. The DCCC recruits candidates, raises funds, organizes races in districts that are expected to yield politically notable or close elections; the structure of the committee consists of the Chairperson, their staff, other Democratic members of Congress that serve in roles supporting the functions of the committee. The Chairperson of the DCCC is the fifth-ranking position among House Democrats, after the Minority Leader, the Minority Whip, the House Assistant Democratic Leader and the Democratic Caucus Chairperson; the current chair is Cheri Bustos of Illinois, who assumed the position in 2019. The DCCC originated in 1866 as the Democratic National Congressional Committee. Due to the reform of campaign finance legislation that took effect in the 2004 election cycle, the DCCC splits into two organizations a few months before each Election Day: One organization can continue to stay in contact with the individual congressional campaigns, offering advice and suggestions to candidates and their staffs in each race.
The other organization, which makes independent expenditures in congressional districts on behalf of the campaigns, is not allowed to coordinate activities with the campaigns. In recent elections, the DCCC has played an expansive role in supporting Democratic candidates with independently produced television ads and mail pieces. Rahm Emanuel assumed the position of DCCC committee chair after the death of the previous chair, Bob Matsui, at the end of the 2004 election cycle. Emanuel led the Democratic Party's effort to capture the majority in the House of Representatives in the 2006 elections. After Emanuel's election as chairman of the Democratic Caucus, Chris Van Hollen became committee chair for the 110th Congress, thus for the 2008 elections, he continued through the 2010 elections. For the 2014 election cycle, Democratic Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi appointed congressman Ben Ray Luján to serve as the committee's chair. In August 2014, the DCCC said it had 444 field staff working in 48 states and planned to add 219 more by the end of August as part of its efforts to manage an expanded ground game across the nation for the 2014 midterm elections.
Controversy arose after the DCCC issued press releases on June 29 and July 2, 2012 which claimed that funds from which Sheldon Adelson, a Las Vegas casino owner, donated to the Republican Party come in part from "Chinese prostitution money". The press releases were repeating allegations from one of Adelson's former employees who filed a lawsuit and alleged that Adelson "approved of prostitution at a casino in Macau"; the DCCC repeated the charges in press releases that attacked Republicans Jim Renacci, Scott DesJarlais, Jim Gerlach. Adelson fought back against the claims, which he called "outrageous", filed a brief threatening a libel suit against the DCCC which demanded that the "DCCC retract the claims, apologize for them, retain any documents associated with them in preparation for a potential lawsuit". Politifact, a nonpartisan fact checking organization, rated the DCCC's claims as "pants on fire", saying that the DCCC "seized upon questionable claim and exaggerated it to taint all of Adelson's political donations with prostitution earnings" and carried "that on down a convoluted line to Scott DesJarlais and talk about "his Chinese prostitution money"".
On August 2, 2012, under immense pressure from Adelson's right wing propaganda machine, including daily coordinated disinformation on Fox News, talk radio and Senate Republicans, the RNC, the DCCC issued a public apology, saying: In press statements issued on June 29 and July 2, 2012, the DCCC made unsubstantiated allegations that attacked Sheldon Adelson, a supporter of the opposing party. This was wrong; the statements were untrue and unfair and we retract them. The DCCC extends its sincere apology to his family for any injury we have caused. In July 2016, the DCCC said. Subsequently, a person described as a hacker and known as "Guccifer 2.0" released documents and information that were obtained from the cyberattack on the DCCC. Despite the DCCC's funding opposition research and spending $20,000 against activist writer Laura Moser, she reached the May 22, 2018 runoff with 24.3% of the vote after attorney Lizzie Pannill Fletcher's 29.3% in the seven-candidate primary in the 7th Texas Congressional District.
Tom Perez, who became the chair of the Democratic National Committee after the firing of Debbie Wasserman Schultz in 2016, broke ranks and criticized the DCCC's opposition to Moser. In the run-up to the 2020 United States House of Representatives elections, the DCCC announced a policy to blacklist any vendors who worked with Democratic challengers to sitting Congresspeople. Of the four congressional campaign committees, the DCCC, with a staff of 25, has the largest in-house research department. In a February 2012 profile of the department, Roll Call wrote that "The DCCC's team of 20-somethings researches opposition targets for eight weeks at a time, scouring news clips and YouTube videos and traveling across the country to comb through public records, all in hopes of finding a good hit. Discoveries go into hundred-page research books on their targets that are used as bait to recruit candidates, leaked to reporters or cited i