National Trust for Historic Preservation
The National Trust for Historic Preservation is a funded, nonprofit organization based in Washington, D. C. that works in the field of historic preservation in the United States. The member-supported organization was founded in 1949 by congressional charter to support the preservation of America’s diverse historic buildings and heritage through its programs and advocacy; the National Trust for Historic Preservation aims to empower local preservationists by providing leadership to save and revitalize America's historic places, by working on both national policies as well as local preservation campaigns through its network of field offices and preservation partners, including the National Park Service, State Historic Preservation Offices, local preservation groups. The National Trust is headquartered in Washington, D. C. with field offices in Boston, New York City, Nashville, Houston, Boise, Los Angeles, San Francisco and Seattle. The organization is governed by a board of trustees and led by current president, Stephanie K. Meeks.
The National Trust presently has around 750,000 supporters. In addition to leading campaigns and advocacy, the National Trust provides a growing educational resource through the Preservation Leadership Forum that offers articles, case studies, conferences and training; the National Trust issues the quarterly Preservation magazine and produces the "PreservationNation" blog. The National Trust’s current work focuses on building sustainable communities through the adaptive reuse of historic spaces. Towards the end of the 19th century, as the United States was rebuilding after the Civil War, the country was beginning to form its sense of national identity and history; the government began to enact legislation for the preservation of sites and objects deemed significant to the nation’s history. In 1872, an Act of Congress established Yellowstone. In 1906, the Antiquities Act enabled the President to declare landmarks or objects as a national monument. In 1935, Congress passed the Historic Sites Act which outlined programs for research and inventory of historic sites.
Meanwhile, historic preservation initiatives existed on local and state levels. In 1931, the first historic district was created in South Carolina. However, efforts to save and maintain historic sites were still limited to private citizens or local groups. In the late 1940s, leaders in American historic preservation saw the need for a national organization to support local preservation efforts. In 1946, David E. Finley, Jr. George McAneny, Christopher Crittenden, Ronald Lee met at the National Gallery of Art to discuss the formation of such a national organization; this meeting was followed by a larger gathering on April 15, 1947, attended by representatives from a number of art and historical societies, which culminated in the creation of the National Council for Historic Sites and Buildings. The meeting’s attendants became the first charter members of the Council; the organization’s first headquarters was in the offices of Ford’s Theatre in downtown Washington, D. C; the Council pursued the formation of a National Trust for Historic Preservation, somewhat modeled on the British National Trust, which would be tasked with the acquisition and maintenance of historic properties.
The creation of the National Trust was proposed as a bill to Congress, H. R. 5170, introduced by Congressman J. Hardin Peterson of Florida and passed; the National Trust for Historic Preservation was formally established through the Act of Congress when President Harry S. Truman signed the legislation on October 26, 1949; the charter provided that the Trust should acquire and preserve historic sites and objects of national significance and provide annual reports to Congress on its activities. Finley served as the National Trust's first chairman of the board, remaining in the position for 12 years; the National Trust and the National Council existed side by side for several years until the need to merge resources compelled the Executive Committee to integrate the two entities. In 1952, the boards of both organizations approved a merger of the Council into the National Trust; the merger was effective the following year and was completed by 1956. The National Trust became a membership organization and assumed all other functions of the National Council.
In its early years, the National Trust’s founders envisioned an organization whose primary purpose would be the acquisition and administration of historic sites, while encouraging public participation in their preservation. In 1957, the National Trust acquired its first property, Woodlawn Plantation in northern Virginia. Since, the National Trust portfolio of historic properties and contracted affiliates include twenty-seven historic sites, ranging from the 18th-century Drayton Hall in South Carolina to the Modernist Glass House in Connecticut. Over the next decade, the National Trust grew to become the leading national organization in historic preservation, they began working with citizens and city planning officials on legislative matters, including federal and municipal ordinances for historic preservation. National Trust staff traveled to parts of the country to advise local communities on preservation projects. In 1966, Congress passed the National Historic Preservation Act, a significant legislation for the preservation movement.
The Act provided federal funding in support of the National Trust’s work. The fundi
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital, which has an emergency department to treat urgent health problems ranging from fire and accident victims to a sudden illness. A district hospital is the major health care facility in its region, with a large number of beds for intensive care and additional beds for patients who need long-term care. Specialized hospitals include trauma centers, rehabilitation hospitals, children's hospitals, seniors' hospitals, hospitals for dealing with specific medical needs such as psychiatric treatment and certain disease categories. Specialized hospitals can help reduce health care costs compared to general hospitals. Hospitals are classified as general, specialty, or government depending on the sources of income received. A teaching hospital combines assistance to people with teaching to medical nurses; the medical facility smaller than a hospital is called a clinic.
Hospitals have a range of departments and specialist units such as cardiology. Some hospitals have outpatient departments and some have chronic treatment units. Common support units include a pharmacy and radiology. Hospitals are funded by the public sector, health organisations, health insurance companies, or charities, including direct charitable donations. Hospitals were founded and funded by religious orders, or by charitable individuals and leaders. Hospitals are staffed by professional physicians, surgeons and allied health practitioners, whereas in the past, this work was performed by the members of founding religious orders or by volunteers. However, there are various Catholic religious orders, such as the Alexians and the Bon Secours Sisters that still focus on hospital ministry in the late 1990s, as well as several other Christian denominations, including the Methodists and Lutherans, which run hospitals. In accordance with the original meaning of the word, hospitals were "places of hospitality", this meaning is still preserved in the names of some institutions such as the Royal Hospital Chelsea, established in 1681 as a retirement and nursing home for veteran soldiers.
During the Middle Ages, hospitals served different functions from modern institutions. Middle Ages hospitals were hostels for pilgrims, or hospital schools; the word "hospital" comes from the Latin hospes, signifying a foreigner, hence a guest. Another noun derived from this, hospitium came to signify hospitality, the relation between guest and shelterer, hospitality and hospitable reception. By metonymy the Latin word came to mean a guest-chamber, guest's lodging, an inn. Hospes is thus the root for the English words host hospitality, hospice and hotel; the latter modern word derives from Latin via the ancient French romance word hostel, which developed a silent s, which letter was removed from the word, the loss of, signified by a circumflex in the modern French word hôtel. The German word'Spital' shares similar roots; the grammar of the word differs depending on the dialect. In the United States, hospital requires an article; some patients go to a hospital just for diagnosis, treatment, or therapy and leave without staying overnight.
Hospitals are distinguished from other types of medical facilities by their ability to admit and care for inpatients whilst the others, which are smaller, are described as clinics. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital known as an acute-care hospital; these facilities handle many kinds of disease and injury, have an emergency department or trauma center to deal with immediate and urgent threats to health. Larger cities may have several hospitals of facilities; some hospitals in the United States and Canada, have their own ambulance service. A district hospital is the major health care facility in its region, with large numbers of beds for intensive care, critical care, long-term care. In California, "district hospital" refers to a class of healthcare facility created shortly after World War II to address a shortage of hospital beds in many local communities. Today, district hospitals are the sole public hospitals in 19 of California's counties, are the sole locally-accessible hospital within nine additional counties in which one or more other hospitals are present at substantial distance from a local community.
Twenty-eight of California's rural hospitals and 20 of its critical-access hospitals are district hospitals. They are formed by local municipalities, have boards that are individually elected by their local communities, exist to serve local needs, they are a important provider of healthcare to uninsured patients and patients with Medi-Cal. In 2012, district hospitals provided $54 million in uncompensated care in California. Types of specialised hospitals incl
McAlpine Locks and Dam
The McAlpine Locks and Dam are a set of locks and a hydroelectric dam at the Falls of the Ohio River at Louisville, Kentucky. They control a 72.9 miles long navigation pool. The locks and their associated canal were the first major engineering project on the Ohio River, completed in 1830 as the Louisville and Portland Canal, designed to allow shipping traffic to navigate through the Falls of the Ohio. From 1925 to 1927, the dam for generating hydroelectric power was added, the locks were expanded, first by a private company and by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers; the hydroelectric plant at the time was the seventh largest hydroelectric plant in the United States. The system was renamed the McAlpine Locks and Dam in 1960 in honor of William McAlpine, the only civilian to have served as district engineer for the Corps of Louisville. At present, the normal pool elevation is 420 feet above sea level and the drainage area above the dam is 91,170 square miles; the average daily flow at McAlpine is 118,000 cubic feet per second.
The lock chambers are located at the dam on the Kentucky side of the Ohio River and are capable of a normal lift of 37 feet between the McAlpine pool upstream and the Cannelton pool downstream. The hydroelectric plant consists of eight turbine units with a net power generation capacity of 80,000 kilowatts. In October 2003, McAlpine was designated a Historic Civil Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Civil Engineers; the McAlpine locks underwent a 10-year, $278 million expansion project scheduled to be completed in 2008, but was completed in early 2009. The hydroelectric plant is owned and operated by Louisville Gas & Electric, a subsidiary of PPL Corporation while the locks are operated by the Army Corps of Engineers. List of crossings of the Ohio River List of locks and dams of the Ohio River Transportation in Louisville, Kentucky List of attractions and events in the Louisville metropolitan area LG&E Plants McAlpine Locks and Dam 2007 version from Wayback Machine McAlpine Locks and Dam from U.
S. Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved 29 April 2017 McAlpine Locks and Dam fact sheet from U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved 29 April 2017 History of navigation development on the Ohio River from U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved 29 April 2017 Robinson, Michael C.. History of Navigation in the Ohio River Basin. National Waterways Study, Institute for Water Resources, U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. Retrieved 30 April 2017. Provides historical context for McAlpine Locks and Dam. <?-- locks and canal-->
Bowman Field (airport)
Bowman Field is a public airport five miles southeast of downtown Louisville, in Jefferson County, Kentucky. The airport has two runways; the FAA calls it a reliever airport for nearby Louisville International Airport. Bowman Field is Kentucky's first commercial airport and is the oldest continually operating commercial airfield in North America, it was founded by Abram H. Bowman, drawn to aviation by the interest generated during World War I. Bowman found an outlet for his enthusiasm after meeting and forming a brief partnership with Louisvillian Robert H. Gast, a pilot and World War I veteran of the Royal Flying Corps. Bowman leased a parcel of land east of Louisville from the U. S. Government in 1919 to operate the airfield, which opened in 1921; the first business ventures began with the aerial photography business in 1921, the 465th Pursuit Squadron began operations at Bowman Field in 1922. Charles Lindbergh landed the Spirit of St. Louis at the airport in 1927, viewed by 10,000 spectators.
During the Great Depression, Louisvillians would come to the Art Deco terminal building to watch airplanes depart and land as a form of inexpensive entertainment. During the 1930s Eastern Air Lines and Trans World Airlines carried passengers and mail in and out of Bowman Field. During World War II Bowman Field was one of the nation's most important training bases and the nation's busiest airport; the facility became known as "Air Base City" when a bomber squadron moved in and more than 1,600 recruits underwent basic training in a three-month period. The United States Army Air Forces' school for flight surgeons, medical technicians, flight nurses called Bowman Field home. Bowman Field was used in the James Bond film Goldfinger as the base for Pussy Galore's Flying Circus. In 1988 three adjacent buildings at the airport were added to the National Register of Historic Places as the Bowman Field Historic District, they are the airport Administration Building, the Curtiss Flying Service Hangar, the Army Air Corps Hangar.
Since many urban airports are located in industrial areas, this verdant setting is unusual and contributes to the ambience of the Bowman Field Historic District. The buildings of the Bowman Field Historic District are related not only by proximity and historical function, but by their Art Deco/Art Moderne styling and use of masonry materials such as brick and concrete; the dominant landmark of Bowman Field is its terminal, known as the Administration Building, styled in aerodynamic Streamline Moderne, designed by the firm of Wischmeyer and Arrasmith. As built in 1929 it was a modest two-story structure with one-story wings, housing administrative and communications offices, weather station, restaurant. During 1936 and 1937 it nearly tripled in size; this was accomplished by demolishing the east wing and retaining the west and central sections as west wings of the new building. The Administration Building faces an elliptical landscaped island surrounded by a driveway and paved parking area; the 1920s Art-Deco style Le Relais French restaurant has made its home in the airport's historic terminal for more than 25 years.
Bowman Field is surrounded by tree-lined suburban neighborhoods, but accidents are rare. As of 2008, the most recent two landing accidents had occurred in April 2008 and April 2002. Today Bowman Field is home to hundreds of owned aircraft as well as several commercial operations, including Central American Airways, which opened its doors in 1946, Falcon Aviation, Aero Club of Louisville, Inc. and Louisville Executive Aviation. Several flight schools operate there as well. In the year ending September 23, 2013 the airport averaged 203 aircraft operations per day: 47% Local general aviation, 47% transient general aviation 5% air taxi and <1% military. 193 aircraft are based at this airport: 159 single-engine, 33 multi-engine, 3 jet, 3 helicopter. Kentucky Flying Service is no longer in operation, it was started by Captain Richard C. Mulloy who flew C-46s and C-47s with the Flying Tigers over "The Hump" in World War II, he was known by employees and students of Kentucky Flying Service as "Dick Mulloy," and died surrounded by his family in Louisville on Saturday, May 8, 2010, at the age of 89.
Bowman Field is operated by the Louisville Regional Airport Authority, which operates Louisville International Airport. History of Louisville, Kentucky Kentucky World War II Army Airfields I Troop Carrier Command Transportation in Louisville, Kentucky National Register of Historic Places listings in Jefferson County, Kentucky FAA Airport Master Record for LOU Official website Bowman Field - Fan Page Richard C. Mulloy's obituary Le Relais Restaurant in historic Administration Building Louisville Art Deco page on Bowman Field Aviation: From Sand Dunes to Sonic Booms, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary imdb.com FAA Airport Diagram, effective March 28, 2019 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for LOU AirNav airport information for KLOU ASN accident history for LOU FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS latest weather observations SkyVector aeronautical chart, Terminal Procedures
George Rogers Clark
George Rogers Clark was an American surveyor and militia officer from Virginia who became the highest ranking American military officer on the northwestern frontier during the American Revolutionary War. He served as leader of the militia in Kentucky throughout much of the war, he is best known for his celebrated captures of Kaskaskia and Vincennes during the Illinois Campaign, which weakened British influence in the Northwest Territory. The British ceded the entire Northwest Territory to the United States in the 1783 Treaty of Paris, Clark has been hailed as the "Conqueror of the Old Northwest". Clark's major military achievements occurred before his thirtieth birthday. Afterwards, he led militia in the opening engagements of the Northwest Indian War but was accused of being drunk on duty, he was disgraced and forced to resign, despite his demand for a formal investigation into the accusations. He left Kentucky to live on the Indiana frontier but was never reimbursed by Virginia for his wartime expenditures.
He spent the final decades of his life evading creditors and living in increasing poverty and obscurity. He was involved in two failed attempts to open the Spanish-controlled Mississippi River to American traffic, he became an invalid after suffering the amputation of his right leg. He was aided in his final years by family members, including his younger brother William, one of the leaders of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, he died of a stroke on February 13, 1818. George Rogers Clark was born on November 19, 1752 in Albemarle County, near Charlottesville, the hometown of Thomas Jefferson, he was the second of 10 children of John and Ann Rogers Clark, who were Anglicans of English and Scottish ancestry. Five of their six sons became officers during the American Revolutionary War, their youngest son William was too young to fight in the war, but he became famous as a leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. The family moved from the Virginia frontier to Caroline County, Virginia around 1756, after the outbreak of the French and Indian War, lived on a 400-acre plantation that grew to include more than 2,000 acres.
Clark had little formal education. He lived with his grandfather so that he could receive a common education at Donald Robertson's school with James Madison and John Taylor of Caroline, he was tutored at home, as was usual for Virginian planters' children of the period. His grandfather trained him to be a surveyor. In 1771 at age 19, Clark left his home on his first surveying trip into western Virginia. In 1772, he made his first trip into Kentucky via the Ohio River at Pittsburgh and spent the next two years surveying the Kanawha River region, as well as learning about the area's natural history and customs of the Indians who lived there. In the meantime, thousands of settlers were entering the area as a result of the Treaty of Fort Stanwix of 1768. Clark's military career began in 1774, he was preparing to lead an expedition of 90 men down the Ohio River when hostilities broke out between the Shawnee and settlers on the Kanawha frontier that culminated in Lord Dunmore's War. Most of Kentucky was not inhabited by Indians.
Tribes were angry in the Ohio country who had not been party to the treaty signed with the Cherokee, because the Kentucky hunting grounds had been ceded to Great Britain without their approval. As a result, they were unsuccessful. Clark spent a few months surveying in Kentucky, as well as assisting in organizing Kentucky as a county for Virginia prior to the American Revolutionary War; as the American Revolutionary War began in the East, Kentucky's settlers became involved in a dispute about the region's sovereignty. Richard Henderson, a judge and land speculator from North Carolina, had purchased much of Kentucky from the Cherokee in an illegal treaty. Henderson intended to create a proprietary colony known as Transylvania, but many Kentucky settlers did not recognize Transylvania's authority over them. In June 1776, these settlers selected Clark and John Gabriel Jones to deliver a petition to the Virginia General Assembly, asking Virginia to formally extend its boundaries to include Kentucky.
Clark and Jones traveled the Wilderness Road to Williamsburg where they convinced Governor Patrick Henry to create Kentucky County, Virginia. Clark was given 500 lb of gunpowder to help defend the settlements and was appointed a major in the Kentucky County militia, he was just 24 years old, but older settlers looked to him as a leader, such as Daniel Boone, Benjamin Logan, Leonard Helm. In 1777, the Revolutionary War intensified in Kentucky. British lieutenant governor Henry Hamilton armed his Indian allies from his headquarters at Fort Detroit, encouraging them to wage war on the Kentucky settlers in hopes of reclaiming the region as their hunting ground; the Continental Army could spare no men for an invasion in the northwest or for the defense of Kentucky, left to the local population. Clark spent several months defending settlements against the Indian raiders as a leader in the Kentucky County militia, while developing his plan for a long-distance strike against the British, his strategy involved seizing British outposts north of the Ohio River to destroy British influence among their Indian allies.
In December 1777, Clark presented his plan to Virginia's Governor Patrick Henry, he asked for permission to lead a secret expedition to capture the British-held villages at Kaskaskia and Vincennes in the Illinois country. Governor Henry commissioned him as a lieutenant colonel in the
Old Louisville is a historic district and neighborhood in central Louisville, Kentucky, USA. It is the third largest such district in the United States, the largest preservation district featuring entirely Victorian architecture, it is unique in that a majority of its structures are made of brick, the neighborhood contains the highest concentration of residential homes with stained glass windows in the U. S. Many of the buildings are in the Victorian-era styles of Romanesque, Queen Anne, among others. There are several 20th-century buildings from 15 to 20 stories. Old Louisville consists of about 48 city blocks and is located north of the University of Louisville's main campus and south of Broadway and Downtown Louisville, in the central portion of the modern city; the neighborhood hosts the renowned St. James Court Art Show on the first weekend in October. Despite its name, Old Louisville was built as a suburb of Louisville starting in the 1870s, nearly a century after Louisville was founded.
It was called the Southern Extension, the name Old Louisville did not come until the 1960s. Old Louisville was home to some of Louisville's wealthiest residents, but saw a decline in the early and mid-20th century. Following revitalization efforts and gentrification, Old Louisville is home to a diverse population with a high concentration of students and young professionals. Old Louisville is not the oldest part of Louisville. In fact, large-scale development south of Broadway did not begin until the 1870s, nearly a century after what is now Downtown Louisville was first settled; the area was part of three different military land grants issued in 1773, throughout the early and mid-19th century the land passed through the hands of several speculators, meanwhile much of it was used as farmland. Some of the land south of Broadway was still in its natural state during this time, such as the 50-acre tract between Broadway and Breckenridge, known as Jacob's Woods, a popular picnic ground as late as 1845.
A major attraction was Oakland Race Track, near today's Seventh and Ormsby, built in 1839 and an early forerunner to Churchill Downs. Country estates had been built in the area as early as the 1830s, some of Louisville's great early mansions, predominantly in the Italianate style, were built along Broadway near Old Louisville, before the Civil War. Development from 1850 to 1870 occurred between Broadway and Kentucky Street, the northern extreme of what came to be called Old Louisville. North-south city streets were extended throughout the area in the 1850s, a mulecar line was extended down Fourth to Oak in 1865; the land south of Broadway that became Old Louisville was annexed by the city in 1868, as a part of larger expansion efforts. This annexation moved the southern boundary of the city as far south as the city's House of Refuge, an area, now the University of Louisville campus and the southern border of Old Louisville. A year architect Gideon Shryock called the area "a growing and beautiful suburban locality".
By 1876 about a quarter of the area was occupied. Development continued as lots were sold southward to present day Oak Street, about a third of the way between Broadway and the House of Refuge; the principal road through the suburb at this time was Central Plank Road, which became Third Street. The emerging area was called the Southern Extension by this time. Growth south of Oak was slow until the Southern Exposition was held annually in the area from 1883 to 1887. At the urging of Courier-Journal editor Henry Watterson, the city held the Southern Exposition, which in the words of Watterson, was meant to "advance the material welfare of the producing classes of the South and West." It was held on 45 acres at the heart of Old Louisville, where St. James Court and Central Park would be located, included a 600 by 900-foot enclosed exhibition building; the Exposition was opened by President Chester Arthur and attracted nearly one million visitors in its first year. The exhibition featured the first public display of Thomas Edison's light bulb, as well as what was billed as the largest artificial lighting display in history with 4,600 lamps, in a time when electric lighting was considered a novelty.
During the 1880s, after the exposition ended, the area between Oak and Hill Streets developed and became one of the city's most fashionable neighborhoods. According to historian Young E. Allison, 260 homes valued at a total of $1.6 million were constructed in Old Louisville from 1883 to 1886. The dominant styles by this time were Richardsonian Romanesque. An example of the latter, known for its turrets and bay windows, was the Conrad house at St. James Court; these styles became less prevalent in the 1890s as the remaining southern portions of Old Louisville, between Ormsby and the House of refuge, were filled in, predominantly with buildings in the Chateauesque and Renaissance Revival styles. This included one of Old Louisville's most famous sections, St. James Court, developed starting in 1890 and envisioned as a haven for the upper class, was occupied by 1905. Described as "the epitome of Victorian eclecticism", the area included houses in such styles as Venetian, Colonial and others. From 1890 to 1905 the area was home to the Amphitheatre Auditorium, which claimed the second largest stage in the United States and showcased many of the day's best actors.
The structure, located at the corner of 4th and Hill Streets, was razed after its owner, William Norton, Jr. died. Another form of entertainment in the area was baseball, with the game first being played by 1860 and an e
Portland is a neighborhood and former independent town northwest of downtown Louisville, Kentucky. It is situated along a bend of the Ohio River just below the Falls of the Ohio, where the river curves to the north and to the south, thus placing Portland at the northern tip of urban Louisville. In its early days it was the largest of the six major settlements at the falls, the others being Shippingport and Louisville in Kentucky and New Albany and Jeffersonville on the Indiana side, its modern boundaries are the Ohio River along the northwest and northeast, 10th Street at the far east, Market Street on the south, the Shawnee Golf Course at the far west. Gen. William Lytle II, the founder of Cincinnati, owned a large amount of land just below the Falls of the Ohio and in 1811 laid out the settlement of Portland, he planned to sell the lots to finance his plan to build a canal around the Falls. Lytle authorized Joshua Barclay and Alexander Ralston to design the town, which featured a Northeast to Southwest street grid.
The original settlement was between what is now 36th and 33rd Street along the Ohio River, which included a large wharf. The settlement grew to the east in a Northwest to Southeast street grid, which noticeably contrasts to the East-West grid of adjacent areas of Louisville; the advent of steamboats on the Mississippi occurred with Portland's development, allowing the Ohio River to be used as a major freight shipping route in what was the American Frontier. Portland was located just downstream from the only natural obstacle on the Ohio River, so all large boats traveling on the Ohio had to stop to move their freight by land around the Falls and reload them on another boat. With a captive audience and a need for freight hauling, Portland's Wharf flourished as numerous taverns and shipyards were built. By 1814 French immigrants from Alsace began populating the town. By 1817 the original street grid had run out of room and was expanded to 40th Street on the west and 13th Street on the east in 1817 to facilitate the additional growth.
It became a rival of Louisville and the nearer-by settlement of Shippingport. The three were first connected by road in 1818; this road called the Louisville & Portland Turnpike, became Portland Avenue. An important early home was the Squire Earick house, home of the first magistrate, used as the settlement's courthouse and jail. Another landmark was the Church of Our Lady now Good Shepherd Catholic Church, started in 1839 and the third building, built in 1873, still standing in 2010. From 1826 to 1833, the Louisville and Portland Canal was built around the Falls, causing many of the warehouses and shipyards to close and shifting economic power on the Falls to nearby Louisville, although Portland would continue to grow as many French and Irish immigrants moved there, it was incorporated in 1834, but annexed by Louisville in 1837 after a compromise by which the canal would be widened to handle larger ships but the new rail line going from Lexington to the Ohio River would go to Portland's wharf instead of Louisville's.
However, after the new line collapsed into bankruptcy in 1840 having only reached as far as Louisville, Portlanders voted in 1842 to become independent again, although ten years the area was annexed a second time. Although now just a neighborhood of the much larger Louisville, Portland would continue to flourish as a working class community through the 1930s, with residents working in many of the nearby factories; the largest Ohio River flood in recorded history occurred in 1937 and inundated all of Portland, with areas closest to the river nearly being wiped out. Plans began to protect the area with a flood wall, but World War II occupied the priority of the government's engineers. Just eight years in 1945 the second largest flood in Louisville's history occurred. In its aftermath all areas of Portland nearest to the river were razed, including the Portland Wharf, a gigantic flood wall was built to a height three feet above the level of the 1937 flood. Both floods had driven many middle-class families from the area.
Despite the loss of many of area's oldest buildings, portions of the neighborhood away from the flood wall were untouched by urban renewal, retain a great number of pre-Civil War buildings. Although many older mansions exist in Portland, the vast majority of homes built in the area were shotgun houses; as of 2015, the estimated population of Portland is 11,810. Portland was the only predominantly white neighborhood on Louisville's West Side. Prior to 1960, African Americans were unable to live in the neighborhoods north of Broadway, which included Portland. Portland has been home to one of the earliest settlements of free, property-holding blacks who co-existed as 10-15% of Portland's resident population according to Rick Bell, Portland historian. Archives of this community may be visited at the Portland Museum, 2308 Portland Ave. However, during white flight areas to Portland's south and west became entirely African-American. In 2006, Portland was named by First Lady Laura Bush to be a Preserve America community.
Communities designated through the program are allowed to use the Preserve America logo on signs and promotional materials and are eligible to apply for grants that will be administered by the U. S. Department of the Interior. There are several futures plans to help revive parts of Portland, including the creation of a mu