The conservation movement known as nature conservation, is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including animal and plant species as well as their habitat for the future. The early conservation movement included fisheries and wildlife management, soil conservation, sustainable forestry; the contemporary conservation movement has broadened from the early movement's emphasis on use of sustainable yield of natural resources and preservation of wilderness areas to include preservation of biodiversity. Some say the conservation movement is part of the broader and more far-reaching environmental movement, while others argue that they differ both in ideology and practice. Chiefly in the United States, conservation is seen as differing from environmentalism in that it aims to preserve natural resources expressly for their continued sustainable use by humans. Outside the U. S. the term conservation more broadly includes environmentalism. The conservation movement can be traced back to John Evelyn's work Sylva, presented as a paper to the Royal Society in 1662.
Published as a book two years it was one of the most influential texts on forestry published. Timber resources in England were becoming dangerously depleted at the time, Evelyn advocated the importance of conserving the forests by managing the rate of depletion and ensuring that the cut down trees get replenished; the field developed during the 18th century in Prussia and France where scientific forestry methods were developed. These methods were first applied rigorously in British India from the early-19th century; the government was interested in the use of forest produce and began managing the forests with measures to reduce the risk of wildfire in order to protect the "household" of nature, as it was termed. This early ecological idea was in order to preserve the growth of delicate teak trees, an important resource for the Royal Navy. Concerns over teak depletion were raised as early as 1799 and 1805 when the Navy was undergoing a massive expansion during the Napoleonic Wars; the first forestry officer was appointed in 1806 to regulate and preserve the trees necessary for shipbuilding.
This promising start received a setback in the 1820s and 30s, when laissez-faire economics and complaints from private landowners brought these early conservation attempts to an end. Conservation was revived in the mid-19th century, with the first practical application of scientific conservation principles to the forests of India; the conservation ethic that began to evolve included three core principles: that human activity damaged the environment, that there was a civic duty to maintain the environment for future generations, that scientific, empirically based methods should be applied to ensure this duty was carried out. Sir James Ranald Martin was prominent in promoting this ideology, publishing many medico-topographical reports that demonstrated the scale of damage wrought through large-scale deforestation and desiccation, lobbying extensively for the institutionalization of forest conservation activities in British India through the establishment of Forest Departments. Edward Percy Stebbing warned of desertification of India.
The Madras Board of Revenue started local conservation efforts in 1842, headed by Alexander Gibson, a professional botanist who systematically adopted a forest conservation program based on scientific principles. This was the first case of state management of forests in the world; these local attempts received more attention by the British government as the unregulated felling of trees continued unabated. In 1850, the British Association in Edinburgh formed a committee to study forest destruction at the behest of Dr. Hugh Cleghorn a pioneer in the nascent conservation movement, he had become interested in forest conservation in Mysore in 1847 and gave several lectures at the Association on the failure of agriculture in India. These lectures influenced the government under Governor-General Lord Dalhousie to introduce the first permanent and large-scale forest conservation program in the world in 1855, a model that soon spread to other colonies, as well the United States. In the same year, Cleghorn organised the Madras Forest Department and in 1860 the Department banned the use shifting cultivation.
Cleghorn's 1861 manual, The forests and gardens of South India, became the definitive work on the subject and was used by forest assistants in the subcontinent. In 1861, the Forest Department extended its remit into the Punjab. Sir Dietrich Brandis, a German forester, joined the British service in 1856 as superintendent of the teak forests of Pegu division in eastern Burma. During that time Burma's teak forests were controlled by militant Karen tribals, he introduced the "taungya" system, in which Karen villagers provided labor for clearing and weeding teak plantations. After seven years in Burma, Brandis was appointed Inspector General of Forests in India, a position he served in for 20 years, he helped establish research and training institutions. The Imperial Forest School at Dehradun was founded by him. Germans were prominent in the forestry administration of British India; as well as Brandis, Berthold Ribbentrop and Sir William P. D. Schlich brought new methods to Indian conservation, the latter becoming the Inspector-General in 1883 after Brandis stepped down.
Schlich helped to establish the journal Indian Forester in 1874, became the founding director of the first forestry school in England at Cooper's Hill in 1885. He authored the five-volume Manual of Forestry on silviculture, forest management, forest protection, fores
National Recreation Area
A National Recreation Area is a designation for a protected area in the United States. Early National Recreation Areas were established by interagency memoranda of agreement between the U. S. Bureau of Reclamation and the National Park Service; the first National Recreation Area was the Boulder Dam Recreation Area renamed Lake Mead National Recreation Area. In 1963, the President's Recreation Advisory Committee issued an Executive Branch policy that established criteria for establishing National Recreation Areas; the policy called for all future National Recreation Areas to be established by acts of the United States Congress. In 1964, Congress made Lake Mead National Recreation Area to first such area to be established by statute. In 1965 Spruce Knob-Seneca Rocks National Recreation Area became the first NRA under the administration of the U. S. Forest Service. In 1972 Congress created Gateway National Recreation Area under the management of the National Park Service, thereby becoming the first "urban national park".
One NRA, the Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area, was redesignated Cuyahoga Valley National Park in October 2000. Areas with this designation are managed by different federal agencies, most of which operate within the Department of the Interior or the Department of Agriculture; some national recreation areas are under the National Park Service, one under the Bureau of Land Management, others are managed by the U. S. Forest Service. National Recreation Areas of the United States Protected areas of the United States Recreation.gov: Locator for all U. S. outdoor recreational areas, parks and historic sites — "Search engine with the largest inventory of federal land in America"
Sequoia National Forest
Sequoia National Forest is located in the southern Sierra Nevada mountains of California. The U. S. National Forest is named for the majestic Giant Sequoia trees which populate 38 distinct groves within the boundaries of the forest; the Giant Sequoia National Monument is located in the national forest. Other notable features include impressive granite monoliths; the Needles are a series of granite spires atop a narrow ridge above the Kern River. Forest headquarters are located in California. There are local ranger district offices in Dunlap, Lake Isabella, Springville; the Sequoia National Forest covers 1,193,315 acres, ranges in elevation from 1,000 feet in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada to over 12,000 feet. Its giant sequoia groves are part of its 196,000 acres of old growth forests. Other tree species include: Jeffrey pine Red fir Coast Douglas-fir Ponderosa pine White fir Lodgepole pine The Needles are a series of granite spires atop a narrow ridge above the Kern River. There are six wilderness areas within Sequoia NF that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System.
Some of these extend into neighboring National Forests. Two of them extend into land, managed by the Bureau of Land Management. Domeland Wilderness Golden Trout Wilderness Jennie Lakes Wilderness Kiavah Wilderness Monarch Wilderness South Sierra Wilderness The National Forest contains over 2,500 miles of road and 850 miles of trails, hosts a number of camping and recreational facilities; the forest is adjacent to Kings Canyon National Parks. Sequoia National Forest was established on July 1908 from a portion of Sierra Forest Reserve. On March 2, 1909 Theodore Roosevelt added land by Presidential Proclamation. On July 1, 1910 1,951,191 acres was removed from the forest to create the Kern National Forest; this land was returned to Sequoia National Forest on July 1, 1915. The Sequoia National Forest has 34 giant sequoia groves; the 14 groves in the Kings River watershed are in the northern section of Giant Sequoia National Monument, or in the Sequoia National Forest, in southernmost Fresno County and Tulare County:Indian Basin Grove A mid-size grove logged.
It can be accessed by paved roads. The grove contains many young sequoias approaching diameters of up to 10 feet. 36°48′N 118°56′W 1800–2000 m. Converse Basin Grove. Once the second-largest grove, but much logged around 1890-1900. Home of the Boole Tree, which the loggers spared as it was by far the largest tree in the grove and is now identified as the sixth-largest tree by volume. Home of the Chicago Stump, the remnant of the General Noble Tree, cut for the 1893 World Columbian Exposition. Although not among the largest Giant Sequoias, the General Noble Tree was among the top 30 largest Giant Sequoias before it was cut. 36°48′N 118°58′W 1800–2000 m. Lockwood Grove. 36°48′N 118°52′W 1700–1800 m. Monarch Grove. North of the Agnew Grove, near Monarch Wilderness boundary. On Forest Service GSNM map. Evans Grove. Logged, before 1920. 36°48'N 118°49'30"W 2050–2250 m. Agnew & Deer Meadow Grove. 36°47′20″N 118°46′45″W 1950–2000 m. Cherry Gap Grove. Logged. Located between Converse Basin Grove and General Grant Grove, near McGee Overlook.
2070 m. Cherry Gap Grove is a small sequoia grove of about thirty-five acres in Sequoia national forest. Abbott Creek Grove. 36°46′N 118°58′W 1900 m. Listed by Rundel and Flint. Kennedy Grove. 36°46′0″N 118°49′20″W 2050–2250 m. Contains the 13th largest giant sequoia in the world, The Ishi Giant. Little Boulder Creek Grove. 36°45′10″N 118°49′0″W 2000 m. Boulder Creek Grove. 36°45′N 118°49′W 2050 m. Landslide Grove. 36°45′0″N 118°51′50″W 2050–2250 m. Bearskin Grove. 36°45′0″N 118°54′40″W 1850–1900 m. Big Stump Grove. 36°43′N 118°58′W 1850 m. One grove in the Kaweah River watershed:Redwood Mountain Grove; the largest grove, 1240 ha, with 15,800 sequoias 30 cm or more in diameter at the base. The 19 groves in the Tule River and Kern River watersheds are in Giant Sequoia National Monument. Upper Tule Grove. Included on Forest Service GSNM map. Maggie Mountain Grove. Silver Creek Grove. Mountain Home Grove. Home of the'Genesis' tree, seventh largest by volume, this grove contains the smaller Middle Tule Grove Burro Creek Grove.
Wishon Grove. South of Silver Creek Grove. Included on Forest Service GSNM map. Alder Creek Grove. Home of'Alonzo Stagg', the fifth largest tree by volume. Home to the Waterfall tree, which has the largest circumference and diameter at ground level of any sequoia. McIntyre Grove. Carr Wilson Grove. Freeman Creek Grove. Black Mou
Grazing is a method of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants such as grasses, or other multicellular organisms such as algae. In agriculture, grazing is one method used whereby domestic livestock are used to convert grass and other forage into meat and other products. Many small selective herbivores follow larger grazers which skim off the highest, tough growth of grasses, exposing tender shoots. For terrestrial animals, grazing is distinguished from browsing in that grazing is eating grass or forbs, whereas browsing is eating woody twigs and leaves from trees and shrubs. Grazing differs from predation, it differs from parasitism because the two organisms live together in a constant state of physical externality. Water animals that feed by rasping algae and other micro-organisms from stones are called grazers-scrapers. Grazing is a method of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants such as grasses, or other multicellular organisms such as algae. Graminivory is a form of grazing involving feeding on grass.
Horses, capybara, grasshoppers and giant pandas are graminivores. Giant pandas are 99 % of their diet consisting of sub-alpine bamboo species. Rabbits are herbivores that feed by grazing on grass and leafy weeds, they graze and for about the first half-hour of a grazing period, followed by about half an hour of more selective feeding. If the environment is non-threatening, the rabbit remains outdoors for many hours, grazing at intervals, their diet contains large amounts of cellulose, hard to digest. Rabbits solve this problem by using a form of hindgut fermentation, they pass two distinct types of feces: hard droppings and soft black viscous pellets, the latter of which are known as caecotrophs and are eaten. Rabbits reingest their own droppings to extract sufficient nutrients. Capybara are herbivores that graze on grasses and aquatic plants, as well as fruit and tree bark; as with other grazers, they can be selective, feeding on the leaves of one species and disregarding other species surrounding it.
They eat a greater variety of plants during the dry season. While they eat grass during the wet season, they have to switch to more abundant reeds during the dry season; the capybara's jaw hinge is not perpendicular. Capybara are coprophagous as a means of obtaining bacterial gut flora to help digest the cellulose in the grass that forms their normal diet, to extract the maximum protein and vitamins from their food, they may regurgitate food to masticate again, similar to cud-chewing by a cow. As with other rodents, the front teeth of capybara grow continually to compensate for the constant wear from eating grasses; the hippopotamus is a large, semi-aquatic, mammal inhabiting rivers and mangrove swamps. During the day, they remain cool by staying in the mud, they emerge at dusk to graze on grasses. While hippopotamuses rest near each other in the water, grazing is a solitary activity, their incisors can be the canines up to 50 cm. Hippos rely on their broad, horny lips to grasp and pull grasses which are ground by the molars.
The hippo is considered to be a pseudoruminant. Although grazing is associated with mammals feeding on grasslands, or more livestock in a pasture, ecologists sometimes use the word in a broader sense, to include any organism that feeds on any other species without ending the life of the prey organism. Use of the term varies more than this. Malacologists sometimes apply the word to aquatic snails that feed by consuming the microscopic film of algae and detritus—a biofilm—that covers the substrate and other surfaces underwater; the use of livestock grazing can be dated back to the Civil War. During this time land ownership was not common, ranchers grazed their cattle on the surrounding federal, land. Not having a permanent home, these cowboys would graze an area down, continue on their way. More however, cattle were rotated between summer and winter ranges. Soon the public saw how profitable cattle could be, many tried to get into the cattle business. With the appearance of free, unlimited grass and feed, the land became overcrowded and the forage depleted.
Ranchers tried to put a stop to this by using barbed wire fences to barricade their land, water sources, cattle. After failed attempts, the Taylor Grazing Act was enacted in 1934; this act was put into place to help regulate the use of public land for grazing purposes and allotted ranchers certain paddocks of land. Additionally, "fees collected for grazing livestock on public lands was returned to the appropriate grazing district to be used for range improvements"; the Taylor Grazing Act helped to stabilize ranchers' operations and allow them to continue raising their livestock. In the 19th century, grazing techniques were non-existent. Pastures would be grazed for long periods of time, wi
Federal lands are lands in the United States owned by the federal government. Pursuant to the Property Clause of the United States Constitution, the Congress has the power to retain, buy and regulate federal lands, such as by limiting cattle grazing on them; these powers have been recognized in a long line of U. S. Supreme Court decisions; the federal government owns about 640 million acres of land in the United States, about 28% of the total land area of 2.27 billion acres. The majority of federal lands are administered by the Bureau of Land Management, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service, or U. S. Forest Service. BLM, FWS, NPS are part of the U. S. Department of the Interior, while the Forest Service is part of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. An additional 11.4 million acres of land is owned by the U. S. Department of Defense; the majority of federal lands are located in the Western states. The United States Supreme Court has upheld the broad powers of the federal government to deal with federal lands, for example having unanimously held in Kleppe v. New Mexico that "the complete power that Congress has over federal lands under this clause includes the power to regulate and protect wildlife living there, state law notwithstanding."
Lands held by the United States in trust for Native American tribes are not considered public lands. There are some 55 million acres of land held in trust by the federal government for Indian tribes and 11 million acres of land held in trust by the federal government for individual Natives. Although the United States holds legal title to these lands, the tribe or individual holds beneficial title; as a result, Indian Country is "quasi-private, not public, land." "because the United States is a legal title holder, the federal government is a necessary part in all leases and dispositions of resources including trust land. For example, the secretary of the interior must approve any contract for payment or grant by an Indian tribe for services for the tribe'relative to their lands'." The four primary federal land holders are: Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management - Manages about 248.3 million acres of federal lands as of 2017, more than any other agency. Of these, 99.4 % are in Alaska.
BLM emphasizes rangeland, but administers lands for purposes other than grazing, including "recreation... timber, watershed and fish habitat, conservation." United States Fish and Wildlife Service - Manages about 89.1 million acres of federal land, of which 86% are in Alaska. FWS-administered land is for conservation and promotion of wildlife. National Park Service - Manages about 79.8 million acres of federal land, of which 66% are in Alaska. There are over 417 official NPS units with a variety of titles, including national park, national monument, national historic site, national recreation area, national battlefield. Department of Agriculture United States Forest Service - Manages about 192.9 million acres of national forests. Although Forest Service holdings are in the West, FS manages about 60% of all federal lands in the Eastern United States; the fifth largest federal landowner is the U. S. Department of Defense, which owns, leases, or possessed 26.1 million worldwide, of which 11.4 million acres are located in the United States.
DOD land is military bases and reservations. The largest single DOD-owned tract is the 2.3-million-acre White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Together, the BLM, FWS, NPS, Forest Service, DOD manage 97% of federal land. Federal agencies that control smaller amounts of land include the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Bureau of Reclamation, the United States Postal Service, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the U. S. Department of Energy. Federal land is concentrated in the Western United States. Nationwide, the federal government owns 27.4% of all land area. There are significant variations regionally; the state with the highest percentage of land held by the federal government is Nevada. From 1990 to 2015, federal acreage declined by about 3.9% due to a decline in land held by DOD and BLM. Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act Endangered Species Act Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 Federal Land Transaction Facilitation Act Mineral Leasing Act National Environmental Policy Act Omnibus Public Land Management Act Taylor Grazing Act Wild and Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971 Crown Estate Federal enclave
Theodore Parker Lukens was an American conservationist, real estate investor, civic leader, forester who believed that burned over mountains could again be covered in timber which would protect watersheds. Lukens collected pine cones and seeds of different types and conducted experimental plantings on the mountain slopes above Pasadena, California, his perseverance earned him the name "Father of Forestry."Lukens established Henninger Flats tree nursery, which provided seed stock for an estimated 70,000 trees. He worked for the United States Forest Service and was acting supervisor of the San Gabriel Timberland Reserve and the San Bernardino Forest Reserve in 1906. Lukens served two terms as mayor of Pasadena and was active in municipal and civic affairs of early-day Pasadena. Lukens remained prominent in civic and conservation issues until his death in 1918. Lukens was interested in growing plants before moving out to Southern California from Illinois, where he had owned and operated a nursery in Whiteside County, Illinois.
By 1882 the Lukens family established a home in Pasadena. Lukens knew of the hardwoods in his native Midwest but now the former nurseryman sought to learn about the native and non-native trees of Southern California. Among them: live oak, camphor, umbrella and various citrus trees. Lukens undertook several expeditions to study the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains from 1897 to 1899, he learned. The increased use and misuse of resources by miners and livestock owners had devastated the lands. Wildfires caused the worst damage due to the Mediterranean climate of long and dry summers which turned fires into infernos, leaving behind burned and bare hillsides, resulting in erosion and flooding during the rainy season. Among the different species of trees Lukens studied, the knobcone pine was the best choice he believed, for its fire-resistant properties; the cones, which are embedded in the tree, only release seeds after a wildfire. He learned how to open the cones by boiling them and the method of watering and care that produced seedlings.
The cone is sealed by a glaze-like resin and only opens after melting from heat of at least 200 °F. The knobcone is well suited for reforestation as it grows on rocky hillsides in serpentine or granitic soil. Botanist Willis Linn Jepson observed that the knobcone grows on sites that are the "most hopelessly inhospitable in the California mountains". Lukens' belief in the solution of tree planting was shown by lectures he gave, as well as writings and photographs he prepared, his proposals gained support. In 1899, William Kerckhoff, president of the Forest and Water Association, paid for $50 worth of seed to give University of Southern California forestry students for planting, in a two-week period, more than 60,000 seeds were sown by the young foresters; the next year Lukens, with support by the Forest and Water Association, planted several thousand knobcone and ponderosa pine seeds in the San Gabriel mountains above Altadena, California. Lukens' reported to the association that "ridges and crowns of hills were selected, that when the trees came into fruiting the seed would be cast in different directions down steep slopes."
On a wider scale, the conservation movement was gaining momentum throughout California. In 1899, 24 organizations met in San Francisco and formed The California Society for Conserving Water and Protecting Forests. Another group formed was The Forest and Water Society of Southern California, composed of the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce and the Southern California Academy of Science. In 1903, Lukens expanded the tree-planting enterprise with a lease on the Henninger property for the US Forest Service, of which he was an employee. Chief Forester Gifford Pinchot approved the lease in October 1903 for the clearing of 5 acres. Reforestation became official policy. Improvements included a 48' by 60' lath rabbit-proof fence; the first firebreak constructed in the San Gabriel Reserve was around Henninger Flats to protect the site. Lukens worked to make Henninger Flats a high elevation tree nursery that would produce seedlings for reforestation and watershed restoration efforts. Lukens and his assistants grew more than 60,000 experimental tree seedlings at the nursery.
Most of the 1,000 trees that were planted in the San Gabriel and San Bernardino reserves for the Forest Service were grown at the nursery during 1903-1907. Locally, the nursery provided 17,000 seedlings for Los Angeles' Griffith Park, the second-largest city park in California; the nursery received many orders for seed and seedlings from foresters worldwide, including Chile and Australia. Galen Clark, former Guardian of the Yosemite Grant, approved massive tree plantings, declared this a "grand enterprise..." in a 1904 letter to Lukens. In 1907, John Muir visited the tree nursery and was impressed by the work done at the site. A Los Angeles Times article in June, 1912 compared Lukens to the famed Johnny Appleseed. Locally, his work at Henninger Flats was recognized when the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors and George H. Maxwell, executive director of the National Reclamation Association, inspected the tree nursery and nearby slopes, accompanied by Lukens. Afterwards, the Pasadena Star, on June 21, 1915 reported- "It was truthfully and justly the proudest moment of Mr. Lukens' life.
His work was ranked by the speakers as among the most important for the future of Southern California and as a climax Mr. Maxwell said that in his years of travel and investigation of reclamation projects he had found none more of importance to mankind than the thing Mr. Lukens had done in solving the problem of reforestation of denuded watershed areas."
Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time. The "need to do something for recreation" is an essential element of human psychology. Recreational activities are done for enjoyment, amusement, or pleasure and are considered to be "fun"; the term recreation appears to have been used in English first in the late 14th century, first in the sense of "refreshment or curing of a sick person", derived turn from Latin. Humans spend their time in activities of daily living, sleep, social duties, leisure, the latter time being free from prior commitments to physiologic or social needs, a prerequisite of recreation. Leisure has increased with increased longevity and, for many, with decreased hours spent for physical and economic survival, yet others argue that time pressure has increased for modern people, as they are committed to too many tasks. Other factors that account for an increased role of recreation are affluence, population trends, increased commercialization of recreational offerings.
While one perception is that leisure is just "spare time", time not consumed by the necessities of living, another holds that leisure is a force that allows individuals to consider and reflect on the values and realities that are missed in the activities of daily life, thus being an essential element of personal development and civilization. This direction of thought has been extended to the view that leisure is the purpose of work, a reward in itself, "leisure life" reflects the values and character of a nation. Leisure is considered a human right under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Recreation is difficult to separate from the general concept of play, the term for children's recreational activity. Children may playfully imitate activities, it has been proposed that play or recreational activities are outlets of or expression of excess energy, channeling it into acceptable activities that fulfill individual as well as societal needs, without need for compulsion, providing satisfaction and pleasure for the participant.
A traditional view holds that work is supported by recreation, recreation being useful to "recharge the battery" so that work performance is improved. Work, an activity performed out of economic necessity and useful for society and organized within the economic framework, however can be pleasurable and may be self-imposed thus blurring the distinction to recreation. Many activities may be work for one person and recreation for another, or, at an individual level, over time recreational activity may become work, vice versa. Thus, for a musician, playing an instrument may be at one time a profession, at another a recreation, it may be difficult to separate education from recreation as in the case of recreational mathematics. Recreation is an essential part of human life and finds many different forms which are shaped by individual interests but by the surrounding social construction. Recreational activities can be communal or solitary, active or passive, outdoors or indoors, healthy or harmful, useful for society or detrimental.
A significant section of recreational activities are designated as hobbies which are activities done for pleasure on a regular basis. A list of typical activities could be endless including most human activities, a few examples being reading, playing or listening to music, watching movies or TV, fine dining, sports and travel; some recreational activities - such as gambling, recreational drug use, or delinquent activities - may violate societal norms and laws. Public space such as parks and beaches are essential venues for many recreational activities. Tourism has recognized that many visitors are attracted by recreational offerings. In support of recreational activities government has taken an important role in their creation and organization, whole industries have developed merchandise or services. Recreation-related business is an important factor in the economy. S. economy and generates 6.5 million jobs. A recreation center is a place for recreational activities administered by a municipal government agency.
Swimming, weightlifting and kids' play areas are common. Many recreational activities are organized by public institutions, voluntary group-work agencies, private groups supported by membership fees, commercial enterprises. Examples of each of these are the National Park Service, the YMCA, the Kiwanis, Walt Disney World. Recreation has many health benefits, accordingly, Therapeutic Recreation has been developed to take advantage of this effect; the National Council for Therapeutic Recreation Certification is the nationally recognized credentialing organization for the profession of Therapeutic Recreation. Professionals in the field of Therapeutic Recreation who are certified by the NCTRC are called "Certified Therapeutic Recreation Specialists"; the job title "Recreation Therapist" is identified in the U. S. Dept of Labor's Occupation Outlook; such therapy is applied in rehabilitation, psychiatric facilities for youth and adults, in the care of the elderly, the disabled, or people with chronic diseases.
Recreational physical activity is important to reduce obesity, the risk of osteoporosis and of cancer, most in men that of colon and prostate, in women that of the breast. Extreme adventure recreation carries its own ha