The Washita River is a river in the states of Texas and Oklahoma in the United States. The river is 295 miles long and terminates at its confluence with the Red River, now part of Lake Texoma on the Texas–Oklahoma border; the Washita River forms in eastern Roberts County, near the town of Miami in the Texas Panhandle. The river crosses Hemphill County and enters Oklahoma in Roger Mills County, it cuts through the Oklahoma counties of Roger Mills, Washita, Grady, Murray and Johnston before emptying into Lake Texoma, the modern border between Bryan County and Marshall County. The river bisects the heart of the Anadarko Basin, the fifth-largest natural gas formation area in the United States; when the river reaches the Arbuckle Mountains, it drops 30 feet per mile as it cuts through Big Canyon, a limestone gorge 300 feet deep. The Washita's river bed is made up of unstable mud and sand, its banks are composed of steeply incised and erosive red earth; this makes it one of the most silt-laden streams in North America.
Along its path, the Foss Dam impounds the Washita River in Custer County to create the huge Foss Reservoir. Several reservoirs in the Washita River valley hold the waters of small tributaries, including Fort Cobb Lake, Lake Chickasha, Arbuckle Reservoir. French explorers discovered the Washita River in the early 18th century while traveling upstream on the Red River and thought it was the same stream described by friendly Choctaw tribesmen as the Ouachita River, they soon found that it appeared different from descriptions of the Ouachita, named it the Faux Ouachita. The name was referred to by English-speaking American settlers as False Washita. After the American Civil War, Americans referred to the river as the Washita. In 1842, General and future President Zachary Taylor established Fort Washita near the lower end of the river to protect resettled citizens of the Choctaw and Chickasaw nations, removed from the Southeastern United States, from the Plains Indians inhabiting the area; the fort was about 19 miles above the confluence of the Red rivers.
During the Indian Wars, the Battle of Washita River occurred at dawn on November 27, 1868. Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer’s 7th U. S. Cavalry attacked Black Kettle’s Cheyenne village on the Washita River near present-day Cheyenne, killing many inhabitants. Capt. Wyllys Lyman's wagon train was besieged by Indians near the Washita in Hemphill County on September 9–14, 1874. List of Oklahoma rivers List of Texas rivers U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Washita River Washita River from the Handbook of Texas Online Washita River Paddling Information Oklahoma Digital Maps: Digital Collections of Oklahoma and Indian Territory Public domain photos of streams of the Llano Estacado
The Cascade Range or Cascades is a major mountain range of western North America, extending from southern British Columbia through Washington and Oregon to Northern California. It includes both non-volcanic mountains, such as the North Cascades, the notable volcanoes known as the High Cascades; the small part of the range in British Columbia is referred to as the Canadian Cascades or, locally, as the Cascade Mountains. The latter term is sometimes used by Washington residents to refer to the Washington section of the Cascades in addition to North Cascades, the more usual U. S. term, as in North Cascades National Park. The highest peak in the range is Mount Rainier in Washington at 14,411 feet; the Cascades are part of the Pacific Ocean's Ring of Fire, the ring of volcanoes and associated mountains around the Pacific Ocean. All of the eruptions in the contiguous United States over the last 200 years have been from Cascade volcanoes; the two most recent were Lassen Peak from 1914 to 1921 and a major eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980.
Minor eruptions of Mount St. Helens have occurred since, most from 2004 to 2008; the Cascade Range is a part of the American Cordillera, a nearly continuous chain of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America. The Cascades extend northward from Lassen Peak in northern California to the confluence of the Nicola and Thompson rivers in British Columbia; the Fraser River separates the Cascades from the Coast Mountains in Canada, as does the Willamette Valley from the upper portion of the Oregon Coast Range. The highest volcanoes of the Cascades, known as the High Cascades, dominate their surroundings standing twice the height of the nearby mountains, they have a visual height of one mile or more. The highest peaks, such as the 14,411-foot Mount Rainier, dominate their surroundings for 50 to 100 miles; the northern part of the range, north of Mount Rainier, is known as the North Cascades in the United States but is formally named the Cascade Mountains north of the Canada–United States border, reaching to the northern extremity of the Cascades at Lytton Mountain.
Overall, the North Cascades and Canadian Cascades are rugged. The southern part of the Canadian Cascades the Skagit Range, is geologically and topographically similar to the North Cascades, while the northern and northeastern parts are less glaciated and more plateau-like, resembling nearby areas of the Thompson Plateau; because of the range's proximity to the Pacific Ocean and the region's prevailing westerly winds, precipitation is substantial on the western slopes due to orographic lift, with annual snow accumulations of up to 1,000 inches in some areas. Mount Baker in Washington recorded a national record single-season snowfall in the winter of 1998–99 with 1,140 inches. Prior to that year, Mount Rainier held the American record for snow accumulation at Paradise in 1978, it is not uncommon for some places in the Cascades to have over 500 inches of annual snow accumulation, such as at Lake Helen, near Lassen Peak. Most of the High Cascades are therefore white with ice year-round; the western slopes are densely covered with Douglas-fir, western hemlock and red alder, while the drier eastern slopes feature ponderosa pine, with some western larch, mountain hemlock and subalpine fir and subalpine larch at higher elevations.
Annual rainfall is as low as 9 inches on the eastern foothills due to a rain shadow effect. Beyond the eastern foothills is an arid plateau, created 17 to 14 million years ago by the many flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. Together, these sequences of fluid volcanic rock form the 200,000-square-mile Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington and parts of western Idaho; the Columbia River Gorge is the only major break of the range in the United States. When the Cascades began to rise 7 million years ago in the Pliocene, the Columbia River drained the low Columbia Plateau; as the range grew, erosion from the Columbia River was able to keep pace, creating the gorge and major pass seen today. The gorge exposes uplifted and warped layers of basalt from the plateau. Indigenous peoples have inhabited the area for thousands of years and developed their own myths and legends about the Cascades. In these legends, St. Helens with its pre-1980 graceful appearance, was regarded as a beautiful maiden for whom Hood and Adams feuded.
Native tribes developed their own names for the High Cascades and many of the smaller peaks, including "Tahoma", the Lushootseed name for Mount Rainier, "Koma Kulshan" or "Kulshan" for Mount Baker, "Louwala-Clough", meaning "smoking mountain" for Mount St. Helens. In early 1792, British navigator George Vancouver explored Puget Sound and gave English names to the high mountains he saw. Mount Baker was named for Vancouver's third lieutenant, Joseph Baker, although the first European to see it was Manuel Quimper, who named it la gran montaña del Carmelo in 1790. Mount Rainier was named after Admiral Peter Rainier. In 1792, Vancouver had his lieutenant William Robert Broughton explore the lower Columbia River, he named Mount Hood after an admiral of the Royal Navy. Mount St. Helens was sighted by Vancouver from near the mouth of the Columbia River, it was named for Al
Pike National Forest
The Pike National Forest is located in the Front Range of Colorado, United States, west of Colorado Springs including Pikes Peak. The forest encompasses 1,106,604 acres within Clear Creek, Park, Douglas and El Paso counties; the major rivers draining the forest are the South Fountain Creek. Rampart Reservoir, a large artificial body of water, is located within the forest; the forest is named after American explorer Zebulon Pike. Much of the bedrock within Pike National Forest is made up of the coarse, pink to orange Pikes Peak granite. Pike National Forest is managed in association with San Isabel National Forest and Comanche National Grassland in Colorado, as well as Cimarron National Grassland in Kansas and is headquartered in Pueblo, Colorado. There are local ranger district offices located in Colorado Springs and Morrison; the dry climate of Pike National Forest makes it prime wildfire territory. The first recorded fires occurred in the 19th century, the forest was the location of the Hayman Fire of 2002 and the Waldo Canyon Fire of 2012.
The former burned 133 homes while the latter burned 18,247-acre and 346 homes. The Pike and San Isabel National Forest was awarded a major reclamation project to fix the damage from the Hayman wildfire; the project was sponsored by The National Arbor Day Foundation, in conjunction with several university bookstores. Pike and San Isabel was voted the winner from a group of three separate forests; the vote took place at www.buildaforest.com. The school who placed the most votes for Pike and San Isabel National Forest was the University of Central Florida. There are three designated wilderness areas lying within Pike National Forest that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Two of them extend into neighboring National Forests. Buffalo Peaks Wilderness, 67.83 square miles Lost Creek Wilderness, 187 square miles Mount Evans Wilderness, 116.3 square miles Most of the forest experiences a Highland climate with warm summers and cold winters. In the summer, nights are cool due to the forest's high elevation.
Temperatures and precipitation vary throughout the forest, depending on elevation. Most of the forest receives more than 100 inches of snow a year. United States Army Pike’s Peak Research Laboratory Devil's Head Lookout Culturally modified trees Barr Trail Pike and San Isabel National Forests and Cimarron and Comanche National Grasslands
United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States. National Forests are forest and woodland areas owned collectively by the American people through the federal government, managed by the United States Forest Service, a division of the United States Department of Agriculture; the National Forest System was created by the Land Revision Act of 1891, signed under the presidency of Benjamin Harrison. It was the result of concerted action by Los Angeles-area businessmen and property owners who were concerned by the harm being done to the watershed of the San Gabriel Mountains by ranchers and miners. Abbot Kinney and forester Theodore Lukens were key spokesmen for the effort. In the United States there are 155 National Forests containing 190 million acres of land; these lands comprise 8.5 percent of the total land area of the United States, an area about the size of Texas. Some 87 percent of National Forest land lies west of the Mississippi River in the mountain ranges of the Western United States.
Alaska has 12 percent of all National Forest lands. The U. S. Forest Service manages all of the United States National Grasslands, around half of the United States National Recreation Areas. There are two distinctly different types of forests within the National Forest system; those east of the Great Plains in the Midwestern and Eastern United States were acquired by the federal government since 1891, may be second growth forests. The land had long been in the private domain and sometimes logged since colonial times, but was purchased by the United States government in order to create new National Forests; those west of the Great Plains in the Western United States, though established since 1891, are on lands with ownership maintained by the federal government since the U. S. acquisition and settling of the American West. These are lands that were kept in the public domain, with the exception of inholdings and donated or exchanged private forest lands. Land management of these areas focuses on conservation, timber harvesting, livestock grazing, watershed protection and recreation.
Unlike national parks and other federal lands managed by the National Park Service, extraction of natural resources from national forests is permitted, in many cases encouraged. However, the first-designated wilderness areas, some of the largest, are on National Forest lands. There are management decision conflicts between conservationists and environmentalists, natural resource extraction companies and lobbies, over the protection and/or use of National Forest lands; these conflicts center on endangered species protection, logging of old-growth forests, intensive clear cut logging, undervalued stumpage fees, mining operations and mining claim laws, logging/mining access road-building within National Forests. Additional conflicts arise from concerns that the grasslands and forest understory are grazed by sheep, and, more rising numbers of elk and mule deer due to loss of predators. Many ski resorts and summer resorts operate on leased land in National Forests. List of U. S. National Forests United States National Grassland National Forests of the United States topics State forest National Forest Management Act of 1976 Protected areas of the United States USDA Forest Service USDA Forest Service - The First Century 100 Years of Federal Forestry
Deschutes River (Oregon)
The Deschutes River in central Oregon is a major tributary of the Columbia River. The river provides much of the drainage on the eastern side of the Cascade Range in Oregon, gathering many of the tributaries that descend from the drier, eastern flank of the mountains; the Deschutes provided an important route to and from the Columbia for Native Americans for thousands of years, in the 19th century for pioneers on the Oregon Trail. The river flows through rugged and arid country, its valley provides a cultural heart for central Oregon. Today the river supplies water for irrigation and is popular in the summer for whitewater rafting and fishing; the river flows north, as do several other large Oregon tributaries of the Columbia River, including the Willamette and John Day. The headwaters of the Deschutes River are at Little Lava Lake, a natural lake in the Cascade Range 26 miles northwest of the city of La Pine; the river flows south into Crane Prairie Reservoir into Wickiup Reservoir, from where it heads in a northeasterly direction past the resort community of Sunriver and into the city of Bend, about 170 miles from the river mouth.
In central Bend, the river enters an impoundment behind Newport hydroelectric dam. The pond extends upstream to the Galveston Bridge and is a feature of Drake Park as well as Harmon and Brooks parks. From April through October, diversions to Central Oregon Irrigation District canals reduce the river flow between Bend and Pelton Reregulating Dam, at river mile 100; the river continues north from Bend, just west of Redmond, Oregon. Here it passes by Eagle Crest Cline Falls State Scenic Viewpoint; as it heads north through the central Oregon high desert, the river carves a gorge bordered by large basalt cliffs. By the time it reaches Lake Billy Chinook, a reservoir west of Madras, the river is 300 feet below the surrounding plateau, the Little Agency Plains and Agency Plains. At Lake Billy Chinook the river is joined by the Metolius rivers. Beyond the dam, the river continues north in a gorge well below the surrounding countryside, it passes through the Warm Springs Indian Reservation, which includes the city of Warm Springs and the Kah-Nee-Ta resort.
The river ends at its confluence with the Columbia River, 5 miles southwest of Biggs Junction and 204 miles from the Columbia's mouth on the Pacific Ocean. Named tributaries of the Deschutes River from source to mouth include Snow Creek the Cultus River, Cultus Creek and Deer Creek, which enter at Crane Prairie Reservoir. Further downstream come the Fall River, the Little Deschutes River, the Spring River followed by Tumalo Creek and Whychus Creek; the Metolius River and the Crooked River are next. Come Seekseequa Creek and Willow Creek followed by Dry Hollow and Campbell and Trout creeks, after which comes the Warm Springs River. Further downstream are Swamp, Oak, Cove, Nena and Bakeoven creeks. Spring Creek is next, followed by the White River. Below that are Winterwater and Elder creeks. Prior to 80,000 years ago, the river ran along the east side of Pilot Butte and a lava flow from Lava Top Butte filled in this ancient channel; the basalt of the Bend lava flow, associated with the Lava River Cave, had diverted the river westward to its present-day location.
The river was named Rivière des Chutes or Rivière aux Chutes, French for River of the Falls, during the period of fur trading. The waterfall it referred to was the Celilo Falls on the Columbia River, near where the Deschutes flowed into it.. Lewis and Clark encountered the river on October 22, 1805, referred to it by the Native American name Towarnehiooks. Variant names include Clarks River, River of the Falls, Riviere des Chutes, Chutes River, Falls River. During the middle 19th century, the river was a major obstacle for immigrants on the Oregon Trail; the major crossing point on the river was near its mouth in present-day Deschutes River State Recreation Area. Many immigrants camped on the bluff on the west side of the river after making the crossing; the remains of the trail leading up to the top of the bluff are still visible. In 1910, Mirror Pond was created by the construction of the Bend Water, Light & Power Company dam on the river in Bend; the dam provided the city with its initial source of electricity.
The dam has been owned by Pacific Power since 1930 and still produces electricity that supplies 400 Bend households. In 1908, two competing railroad companies, the Deschutes Railroad and the Oregon Trunk Railway, raced to build a line from the mouth of the river to Bend; the Deschutes Railroad, a Union Pacific subsidiary, was owned by Edward H. Harriman and the Oregon Trunk was owned by James J. Hill. In 1964, on the Deschutes River, Portland General Electric built, what was at the time, the largest hydroelectric dam in Oregon; this dam, named Round Butte Dam, stands 440 feet above Lake Simtustus, a 611-acre reservoir impounded by Pelton Dam. The river is world-renowned for its fly fishing, it is home to Columbia River redband trout known locally as "redsides". The redsides grow larger than most and have a distinct darker red stripe than most wild rainbow trout, they are abundant in this stretch of the river, which has counts of 1,700 fish of 7 inches in size per mile above Sherars Falls, they are noticeably stronger than trout who do not have to
Klamath National Forest
Klamath National Forest is a 1,737,774-acre national forest, in the Klamath Mountains, located in Siskiyou County in northern California, but with a tiny extension into southern Jackson County in Oregon. The forest contains continuous stands of ponderosa pine, Jeffrey pine, Douglas fir, red fir, white fir and incense cedar. Old growth forest is estimated to cover some 168,000 acres of the forest land. Forest headquarters are located in California. There are local ranger district offices located in Fort Jones, Happy Camp, Macdoel, all in California. Klamath was established on May 6, 1905; this park includes the Kangaroo Lake and the Sawyers Bar Catholic Church is located within the boundaries of the Forest. There are four designated wilderness areas in Klamath National Forest that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Two of them extend into neighboring national forests, one of those into land managed by the Bureau of Land Management. Marble Mountain Wilderness Russian Wilderness Red Buttes Wilderness Siskiyou Wilderness Trinity Alps Wilderness Media related to Klamath National Forest at Wikimedia Commons Klamath National Forest official website Mid Klamath Watershed Council website Salmon River Restoration Council website Pictures: Wilderness in the Klamath Mountains Panoramic Video: Outskirts of Klamath National Forest
Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the enabling laws of each country or the regulations of the international organizations involved; the term "protected area" includes Marine Protected Areas, the boundaries of which will include some area of ocean, Transboundary Protected Areas that overlap multiple countries which remove the borders inside the area for conservation and economic purposes. There are over 161,000 protected areas in the world with more added daily, representing between 10 and 15 percent of the world's land surface area. By contrast, only 1.17% of the world's oceans is included in the world's ~6,800 Marine Protected Areas. Protected areas are essential for biodiversity conservation providing habitat and protection from hunting for threatened and endangered species. Protection helps maintain ecological processes that cannot survive in most intensely managed landscapes and seascapes.
Protected areas are understood to be those in which human occupation or at least the exploitation of resources is limited. The definition, accepted across regional and global frameworks has been provided by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in its categorisation guidelines for protected areas; the definition is as follows: A defined geographical space, recognized and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values. The objective of protected areas is to conserve biodiversity and to provide a way for measuring the progress of such conservation. Protected areas will encompass several other zones that have been deemed important for particular conservation uses, such as Important Bird Areas and Endemic Bird Areas, Centres of Plant Diversity and Community Conserved Areas, Alliance for Zero Extinction Sites and Key Biodiversity Areas among others. A protected area or an entire network of protected areas may lie within a larger geographic zone, recognised as a terrestrial or marine ecoregions, or a crisis ecoregions for example.
As a result, Protected Areas can encompass a broad range of governance types. Indeed, governance of protected areas has emerged a critical factor in their success. Subsequently, the range of natural resources that any one protected area may guard is vast. Many will be allocated for species conservation whether it be flora or fauna or the relationship between them, but protected areas are important for conserving sites of cultural importance and considerable reserves of natural resources such as. Of all global terrestrial carbon stock, 15.2% is contained within protected areas. Protected areas in South America hold 27% of the world's carbon stock, the highest percentage of any country in both absolute terms and as a proportion of the total stock. Rainforests: 18.8% of the world's forest is covered by protected areas and sixteen of the twenty forest types have 10% or more protected area coverage. Of the 670 ecoregions with forest cover, 54% have 10% or more of their forest cover protected under IUCN Categories I – VI.
Mountains: Nationally designated protected areas cover 14.3% of the world's mountain areas, these mountainous protected areas made up 32.5% of the world's total terrestrial protected area coverage in 2009. Mountain protected area coverage has increased globally by 21% since 1990 and out of the 198 countries with mountain areas, 43.9% still have less than 10% of their mountain areas protected. Annual updates on each of these analyses are made in order to make comparisons to the Millennium Development Goals and several other fields of analysis are expected to be introduced in the monitoring of protected areas management effectiveness, such as freshwater and marine or coastal studies which are underway, islands and drylands which are in planning. Through its World Commission on Protected Areas, the IUCN has developed six Protected Area Management Categories that define protected areas according to their management objectives, which are internationally recognised by various national governments and the United Nations.
The categories provide international standards for defining protected areas and encourage conservation planning according to their management aims. IUCN Protected Area Management Categories: Category Ia — Strict Nature Reserve Category Ib — Wilderness Area Category II — National Park Category III — Natural Monument or Feature Category IV — Habitat/Species Management Area Category V — Protected Landscape/Seascape Category VI – Protected Area with sustainable use of natural resources Protected areas are cultural artifacts, their story is entwined with that of human civilization. Protecting places and resources is by no means a modern concept, whether it be indigenous communities guarding sacred sites or the convention of European hunting reserves. Over 2000 years ago, royal decrees in India protected certain areas. In Europe and powerful people protected hunting grounds for a thousand years. Moreover, the idea of protection of special places is universal: for example, it occurs among the communities in the Pacific and in parts of Africa.
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