Reuters is an international news organization. It has nearly 200 locations around the world; until 2008, the Reuters news agency formed part of an independent company, Reuters Group plc, a provider of financial market data. Since the acquisition of Reuters Group by the Thomson Corporation in 2008, the Reuters news agency has been a part of Thomson Reuters, making up the media division. Reuters transmits news in English, German, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, Japanese and Chinese, it was established in 1851. The Reuter agency was established in 1851 by Paul Julius Reuter in Britain at the London Royal Exchange. Paul Reuter worked at a book-publishing firm in Berlin and was involved in distributing radical pamphlets at the beginning of the Revolutions in 1848; these publications brought much attention to Reuter, who in 1850 developed a prototype news service in Aachen using homing pigeons and electric telegraphy from 1851 on in order to transmit messages between Brussels and Aachen, in what today is Aachen's Reuters House.
Upon moving to England, he founded Reuter's Telegram Company in 1851. Headquartered in London, the company covered commercial news, serving banks, brokerage houses, business firms; the first newspaper client to subscribe was the London Morning Advertiser in 1858. Afterwards more newspapers signed up, with Britannica Encyclopedia writing that "the value of Reuters to newspapers lay not only in the financial news it provided but in its ability to be the first to report on stories of international importance." Reuter's agency built a reputation in Europe and the rest of the world as the first to report news scoops from abroad. Reuters was the first to report Abraham Lincoln's assassination in Europe, for instance, in 1865. In 1872, Reuters expanded into the far east, followed by South America in 1874. Both expansions were made possible by advances in overland telegraphs and undersea cables. In 1883, Reuters began transmitting messages electrically to London newspapers. In 1923, Reuters began using radio to transmit a pioneering act.
In 1925, The Press Association of Great Britain acquired a majority interest in Reuters, full ownership some years later. During the world wars, The Guardian reported that Reuters "came under pressure from the British government to serve national interests. In 1941 Reuters deflected the pressure by restructuring itself as a private company." The new owners formed the Reuters Trust. In 1941, the PA sold half of Reuters to the Newspaper Proprietors' Association, co-ownership was expanded in 1947 to associations that represented daily newspapers in New Zealand and Australia; the Reuters Trust Principles were put in place to maintain the company's independence. At that point, Reuters had become "one of the world's major news agencies, supplying both text and images to newspapers, other news agencies, radio and television broadcasters." At that point, it directly or through national news agencies provided service "to most countries, reaching all the world's leading newspapers and many thousands of smaller ones," according to Britannica.
In 1961, Reuters scooped news of the erection of the Berlin Wall. Reuters was one of the first news agencies to transmit financial data over oceans via computers in the 1960s. In 1973, Reuters "began making computer-terminal displays of foreign-exchange rates available to clients." In 1981, Reuters began making electronic transactions on its computer network and afterwards developed a number of electronic brokerage and trading services. Reuters was floated as a public company in 1984, when Reuters Trust was listed on the stock exchanges such as the London Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. Reuters published the first story of the Berlin Wall being breached in 1989; the share price grew during the dotcom boom fell after the banking troubles in 2001. In 2002, Brittanica wrote that most news throughout the world came from three major agencies: the Associated Press and Agence France-Presse. Reuters merged with Thomson Corporation in Canada in 2008. In 2009, Thomson Reuters withdrew from the LSE and the NASDAQ, instead listing its shares on the Toronto Stock Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange.
The last surviving member of the Reuters family founders, Baroness de Reuter, died at age 96 on 25 January 2009. The parent company Thomson Reuters is headquartered in Toronto, provides financial information to clients while maintaining its traditional news-agency business. In 2012, Thomson Reuters appointed Jim Smith as CEO; every major news outlet in the world subscribed to Reuters as of 2014. Reuters operated in more than 200 cities in 94 countries in about 20 languages as of 2014. In July 2016, Thomson Reuters agreed to sell its intellectual property and science operation for $3.55 billion to private equity firms. In October 2016, Thomson Reuters announced relocations to Toronto; as part of cuts and restructuring, in November 2016, Thomson Reuters Corp. eliminated 2,000 worldwide jobs out of its around 50,000 employees. Reuters employs 600 photojournalists in about 200 locations worldwide. Reuters journalists use the Reuters Handbook of Journalism as a guide for fair presentation and disclosure of relevant interests, to maintain the values of integrity and freedom upon which their reputation for reliability, accuracy and exclusivity relies.
In May 2000, Kurt Schork, an American reporter, was killed in an ambush while on assignment in Sierra Leone. In April and August 2003, news cameramen Taras Protsyuk and Mazen Dana were killed in separate incidents by U. S. troops in Iraq. In July 2007, Namir Noor-Eldeen and Saeed Chmagh were killed when they w
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission is an independent agency of the United States government tasked with protecting public health and safety related to nuclear energy. Established by the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, the NRC began operations on January 19, 1975 as one of two successor agencies to the United States Atomic Energy Commission, its functions include overseeing reactor safety and security, administering reactor licensing and renewal, licensing radioactive materials, radionuclide safety, managing the storage, security and disposal of spent fuel. Prior to 1975 the Atomic Energy Commission was in charge of matters regarding radionuclides; the AEC was dissolved, because it was perceived as unduly favoring the industry it was charged with regulating. The NRC was formed as an independent commission to oversee nuclear energy matters, oversight of nuclear medicine, nuclear safety and security; the U. S. AEC became the Energy Research and Development Administration in 1975, responsible for development and oversight of nuclear weapons.
Research and promotion of civil uses of radioactive materials, such as for nuclear non-destructive testing, nuclear medicine, nuclear power, was split into the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science & Technology within ERDA by the same act. In 1977, ERDA became the United States Department of Energy. In 2000, the National Nuclear Security Administration was created as a subcomponent of DOE, responsible for nuclear weapons. Twelve years into NRC operations, a 1987 Congressional report entitled "NRC Coziness with Industry" concluded, that the NRC "has not maintained an arms length regulatory posture with the commercial nuclear power industry... has, in some critical areas, abdicated its role as a regulator altogether". To cite three examples: A 1986 Congressional report found that NRC staff had provided valuable technical assistance to the utility seeking an operating license for the controversial Seabrook plant. In the late 1980s, the NRC'created a policy' of non-enforcement by asserting its discretion not to enforce license conditions.
Critics charge that the NRC has ceded important aspects of regulatory authority to the industry's own Institute for Nuclear Power Operations, an organization formed by utilities in response to the Three Mile Island Accident. The origins and development of NRC regulatory processes and policies are explained in five volumes of history published by the University of California Press; these are: Controlling the Atom: The Beginnings of Nuclear Regulation 1946–1962. Containing the Atom: Nuclear Regulation in a Changing Environment, 1963–1971. Permissible Dose: A History of Radiation Protection in the Twentieth Century Three Mile Island: A Nuclear Crisis in Historical Perspective The Road to Yucca Mountain: The Development of Radioactive Waste Policy in the United States; the NRC has produced a booklet, A Short History of Nuclear Regulation 1946–2009, which outlines key issues in NRC history. Thomas Wellock, a former academic, is the NRC historian. Before joining the NRC, Wellock wrote Critical Masses: Opposition to Nuclear Power in California, 1958–1978.
The NRC's mission is to regulate the nation's civilian use of byproduct and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, to protect the environment. The NRC's regulatory mission covers three main areas: Reactors – Commercial reactors for generating electric power and research and test reactors used for research and training Materials – Uses of nuclear materials in medical and academic settings and facilities that produce nuclear fuel Waste – Transportation and disposal of nuclear materials and waste, decommissioning of nuclear facilities from service; the NRC is headed by five Commissioners appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate for five-year terms. One of them is designated by the President to be the Chairman and official spokesperson of the Commission; the current chairman is Kristine Svinicki. President Donald Trump designated Svinicki as Chairman of the NRC effective January 23, 2017.
The NRC consists of the Commission on the one hand and offices of the Executive Director for Operations on the other. The Commission is divided into two committees and one Board, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, as well as eight commission staff offices. Kristine Svinicki is the chairman of the NRC. There are altogether 17 Executive Director for Operations offices: Office of Federal and State Materials and Environmental Management Programs, Office of New Reactors, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, Office of Enforcement, which investigates reports by nuclear power whistleblowers the Allegations Program, Office of Investigations, Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response, Region I, Region II, Region III, Region IV, Office of Information Services, Computer Security Office, Office of Administration, Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer, Office of Small Business and Civil Rights.
Of these operations offices, NRC's major program components are the first five offices mentioned above
International Business Times
The International Business Times is an American online news publication that publishes seven national editions in four languages. The publication, sometimes called IBTimes or IBT, offers news and editorial commentary on business and commerce. IBT is one of the world's largest online news sources, receiving forty million unique visitors each month, its 2013 revenues were around $21 million. IBTimes was launched in 2005, its headquarters are in the Financial District of New York City. Founder Etienne Uzac, a native of France, came up with the idea for the global business news site while a student at the London School of Economics, he found that the strongest business newspapers had a focus on the United States and Europe and planned to provide broader geographic coverage. Uzac recruited Johnathan Davis to join him in the enterprise. In late 2005, Uzac and Davis moved to New York City to launch the site, with Uzac focused on business strategy, while Davis coded the site and wrote the first articles.
In May 2012, the company announced the appointment of Jeffery Rothfeder as editor-in-chief and the promotion of Davis from executive editor to chief content officer. On August 4, 2013, IBT Media announced its purchase of Newsweek and the domain newsweek.com from IAC/InterActiveCorp. The purchase did not include The Daily Beast. Peter S. Goodman executive business editor and global news editor of The Huffington Post, became editor in 2014. IBT Media rebranded as Newsweek Media Group. From March to July 2016, IBT laid off an estimated thirty percent of its editorial staff; this period marked a new era for the company as it expanded into branded content and events with its sister publication Newsweek. At the same time, Dev Pragad, who had started the Europe, the Middle East and Africa business in 2009, was promoted from managing director of Europe to global CEO of Newsweek and IBT; this was followed in January 2017 by the appointment of Alan Press in the "newly-created, strategic role of President".
In September 2018, Newsweek Media Group once again became IBT Media with Newsweek spun off as an independent company. In late 2011, Google moved the outlet's articles down in search results in response to excessive search engine optimization activity. An internal IBT memo advised IBT journalists on how to "re-work a story you've done and re-post it in the hopes that it will chart better via Google... Some people have been just re-posting the exact same story, with a new headline. We're not doing that anymore."Reporting in 2014, Mother Jones claimed that IBT journalists are subject to constant demand to produce clickbait. Of 432 articles published by IBT Japan in a certain time interval, 302 were created by copying sentences from Japanese media and combining them, "collage-style", to create stories that seemed new. Employees told The Guardian in 2014 that at times they seemed to operate more as "content farms" demanding high-volume output than a source of quality journalism. At least two journalists were threatened with firing unless traffic to their articles increased sharply.
In 2016, IBT hired John Crowley, the Wall Street Journal's EMEA digital editor, as its UK editor-in-chief. According to The Guardian, "Crowley said his focus would be on helping the site break exclusives, in-depth storytelling and new forms of digital journalism, he said IBT was putting together a UK business desk and hiring an audience team." Crowley stated, "We are not a wire service or so-called paper of record... but I have a vision of where I want to take a site... we've got to have a USP... make ourselves distinctive in journalistic terms." The standard of content on IBTimes.co.uk has notably improved in recent years with reputable papers such as The Times quoting exclusive content from the publication. Sports and entertainment coverage gets pick up in the British press and on the BBC. In early 2017, International Business Times UK joined a partnership along with the likes of Bloomberg, Channel 4 and the BBC to work together to combat the spread of fake news. In June 2017, Jason Murdock — who covers cybersecurity for the International Business Times UK — won Digital Writer of the year at the Drum Online Media Awards, which according to InPublishing magazine “identify the cleverest and most original purveyors of news and views from around the world.”Media Matters for America, a politically progressive journalism watchdog, labeled an IBT article linking Hillary Clinton's policies to the gun used in the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting a "false and sloppy smear", based on a misreading of government documents.
In the Columbia Journalism Review, contributing editor Trudy Lieberman credited IBT's David Sirota's investigative reporting for helping to drive a call for reform in Connecticut health insurance regulation. Early in its history, IBT Media employed immigrant students of Olivet University who were not authorized to work in the United States to translate English content into Chinese and other languages, paying them less than minimum wage to do so. In 2016, employees complained publicly about missed payroll, meager or nonexistent severance packages, one-sided nondisclosure agreements; the nature of the connection between IBT and The Community, a Christian sect led by David Jang, is disputed. Da
Elaine D. Kaplan
Elaine Debra Kaplan is a Judge of the United States Court of Federal Claims. She served as General Counsel of the United States Office of Personnel Management from 2009 to 2013, as acting director of the office in 2013. Kaplan was born in 1955 in New York, she received a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1976 from Binghamton University. She received cum laude, in 1979, from the Georgetown University Law Center, she began her career as a staff attorney in the Solicitor's Office of the United States Department of Labor. From 1984–98, she worked for the National Treasury Employees Union, with increasing levels of responsibility. In 1998, she was unanimously confirmed by the Senate to serve as the head of the United States Office of Special Counsel and served five years in that position. From 2003 -- 04, she served as office counsel at the law firm of Katz. From 2004–09, she served as Senior Deputy General Counsel at the NTEU. From 2009–13, she was the General Counsel of the United States Office of Personnel Management.
Kaplan took the office of Acting Director in April 2013, after Director John Berry's four-year term expired. Kaplan is open about her lesbian identity. On March 19, 2013, President Barack Obama nominated Kaplan to serve as a Judge of the United States Court of Federal Claims, to the seat vacated by Judge Christine Odell Cook Miller; the Senate Judiciary Committee held a hearing on her nomination on May 8, 2013, reported her nomination to the floor by voice vote on June 6, 2013. Her nomination was confirmed on September 2013, by a vote of 64 ayes to 35 nays, she took the oath of office from Chief Judge Patricia E. Campbell-Smith on November 6, 2013. Elaine D. Kaplan at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. United States Court of Federal Claims page on Elaine D. Kaplan
John Berry (administrator)
Morrell John Berry is an American former government official, named President of the American Australian Association in 2016. Berry was director of the United States Office of Personnel Management from 2009 to 2013 and United States Ambassador to Australia from 2013 to 2016. Berry was born in Maryland, to parents who worked for the federal government, he completed degrees at the University of Maryland, College Park and Syracuse University and worked in local government and as a legislative aide in state government from 1982 to 1985. From 1985 to 1994, he worked as legislative director for U. S. Representative Steny Hoyer, he held posts in the U. S. Treasury Department, the Smithsonian Institution, the U. S. Department of the Interior until 2000, worked as director of the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation and the National Zoological Park until 2009, when he was nominated by President Barack Obama as director of the United States Office of Personnel Management. Berry took office after being confirmed by the United States Senate in April 2009.
In June 2013, President Obama nominated Berry to replace Jeff Bleich as U. S. Ambassador to Australia, he was confirmed by unanimous consent of the U. S. Senate in August 2013. Berry was born February 10, 1959, in Rockville, Montgomery County, United States, his father served in the U. S. Marine Corps, his mother worked for the U. S. Census Bureau, he has a brother and a sister. Berry graduated from high school in 1977 and finished a Bachelor of Arts in government and politics from the University of Maryland, College Park in 1980. In 1981, Berry graduated from the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University with a Master of Public Administration. Berry served in management for the Montgomery County government from 1982 to 1984 and as staff director of the Maryland Senate Finance Committee from 1984 to 1985. From 1985 to 1994, he was legislative director for U. S. Representative Steny Hoyer, associate staffer on the House Appropriations Committee. Berry assisted Hoyer on employment issues of the federal government, played a leading role in negotiations that led to the Federal Employees Pay Comparability Act of 1990, which established the locality pay system.
From 1994 to 1995, Berry served as Deputy Assistant Secretary and acting Assistant Secretary for Law Enforcement in the U. S. Treasury Department. From 1995 to 1997, Berry worked as director of government relations and as senior policy advisor at the Smithsonian Institution. Berry was appointed Assistant Secretary for Policy and Budget at the U. S. Department of the Interior during the Clinton administration, serving from 1997 to 2001. At the Interior Department, Berry improved credit union and continuing education options, oversaw the expansion of department programs to improve employees' work-life balance, held town hall meetings with Interior employees and used their suggestions to upgrade a cafeteria and health center; these changes were funded through partnerships with federal employees and other agencies to reduce costs for the department. Berry worked to create a complaint procedure for employees who experience discrimination because of their sexual orientation, to expand relocation benefits and counseling services to domestic partners of employees, to establish a liaison to gay and lesbian workers, to eliminate discriminatory provisions of the National Park Service's law enforcement standards.
He helped establish an office supply store for Interior employees, which he staffed with disabled workers. Berry oversaw one of the largest budgetary increases in the department's history. In 2000, Berry became director of the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, where he worked with Interior Inspector General Earl Devaney to reconcile twenty years of financial records, improve management, conserve wildlife habitat through public-private partnerships. Berry was appointed from October 1, 2005, to serve as director of the National Zoo, found to have shortcomings in record keeping and maintenance. Berry created a strategic modernization process for the zoo; this included a twenty-year capital plan, securing $35 million in funding to provide for fire protection, beginning renovations to animal houses. The Berry Bastion, an Antarctic mountain, was named in his honor. In 2008, Berry was mentioned as a possible nominee for U. S. Secretary of the Interior, a position obtained by Ken Salazar. President Barack Obama announced his intention to nominate Berry as director of the Office of Personnel Management on March 3, 2009, did so on March 4.
The nomination hearing before the Senate Homeland Security Committee on March 26, 2009, led to expectation of easy confirmation for Berry, despite opposition from conservative activists based on Berry's homosexuality. In the hearing Berry stated he supported any effective employee compensation system, but that the federal government had the obligation to give employees with comparable job performances similar pay and treatment, he pledged to preserve veterans preference and supplement it with training programs to prepare veterans for federal jobs, promised reviews of proposals to improve the security clearance and hiring processes. Berry emphasized the importance for agencies to use all recruitment tools, citing relocation benefits that could keep agencies competitive with the private sector, stated he would create a strategic plan and set performance goals for the Office of Personnel Management. Berry had stated support for benefits for same-sex partners of federal employees and a repeal of the Defense of Marriage Act.
The Senate confirmed Berry on April 3, 2009, he was sworn in April 13 as the first agency director in the Obama administration with all senior staff in place. The ceremon