Robert Phillips Corker Jr. is an American businessman and politician who served as a United States Senator from Tennessee from 2007 to 2019. A member of the Republican Party, he served as Chair of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee from 2015 to 2019. In 1978, Corker founded a construction company, which he sold in 1990; this increased his net worth to $45 million. He ran in the 1994 U. S. Senate election in Tennessee, but was defeated in the Republican primary by future Senate majority leader Bill Frist. Appointed by Governor Don Sundquist, Corker served as Commissioner of Finance and Administration for the State of Tennessee from 1995 to 1996, preceded by David Manning and succeeded by John Ferguson, he acquired two of the largest real estate companies in Chattanooga, before being elected the 71st Mayor of Chattanooga in 2000. Corker announced his candidacy for the 2006 U. S. Senate election in Tennessee after Frist announced his retirement. Corker defeated Democratic U. S. Representative Harold Ford, Jr. in the general election, with 51% of the vote.
In 2012 Corker was reelected, defeating Democrat Mark E. Clayton, 65% to 30%. On September 26, 2017, Corker announced that he would not seek reelection in 2018. S. Representative Marsha Blackburn was elected to succeed him. Corker was born in the son of Jean J. and Robert Phillips "Phil" Corker. His great-great-grandfather was U. S. Congressman Stephen A. Corker, his family moved to Tennessee. Corker graduated from Chattanooga High School in 1970 and earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Industrial Management from the University of Tennessee in Knoxville in 1974. Corker is a member of Sigma Chi fraternity. Corker's roommate in the Sigma Chi fraternity was Cleveland Browns owner Jimmy Haslam, whose brother is the former Tennessee governor Bill Haslam. During his twenties, Corker participated in a mission trip to Haiti, which he credits with inspiring him to become more active in his home community. Following his return, Corker helped found the Chattanooga Neighborhood Enterprise, a nonprofit organization that has provided low-interest home loans and home maintenance education to thousands of Tennesseans since its creation in 1986.
Corker and his wife Elizabeth, whom he married on January 10, 1987, have two daughters. The family's permanent residence is at the Anne Haven Mansion, built by Coca-Cola Bottling Company heirs Anne Lupton and Frank Harrison. In an interview with Esquire, Corker said that he started working when he was 13, collecting trash and bagging ice, he worked at Western Auto and as a construction laborer. After graduating from college, he worked for four years as a construction superintendent. During this time he saved up $8,000, which he used to start a construction company, Bencor, in 1978; the company's first large contract was with Krystal restaurants. The construction company became successful, growing at 80 percent per year, according to Corker, by the mid-1980s carried out projects in 18 states, he sold the company in 1990. In 1999, Corker acquired two of the largest real estate companies in Chattanooga: real estate developer Osborne Building Corporation and property management firm Stone Fort Land Company.
In 2006, he sold the properties and assets that had formed these companies to Chattanooga businessman Henry Luken. In recognition of his business success, in 2005 the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga named him to their "Entrepreneurial Hall of Fame." Corker has said that he believes his business background has been valuable in his political career and that experience "gives unique insights and allows to weigh in, in valuable ways". As of 2008, Corker's assets were estimated at more than $19 million. Corker first ran for the United States Senate in 1994, finishing second in the Republican primary to eventual winner Bill Frist. During the primary campaign, Frist's campaign manager attacked Corker, calling him "pond scum". Despite the rhetoric, Corker arrived in Nashville the morning after the primary to offer the Frist campaign his assistance, he went on to campaign for Frist in the general election. From 1995 to 1996, Corker was the Commissioner of Finance and Administration for the State of Tennessee, an appointed position, working for Governor Don Sundquist.
Corker served as mayor of Chattanooga from 2001–05. While in office he implemented a merit-based bonus system for teachers; the system, established in 2002, awards teachers and principals bonuses for improving student performance at Chattanooga's lowest performing schools. Two years after its implementation, a study published in The Tennessean showed that the percentage of third graders reading at or above grade level had increased from 53% to 74%. However, a report by the think tank Education Sector suggested that specific teacher training had at least as much to do with the student improvement. In 2003 Corker started a program called ChattanoogaRESULTS, facilitating monthly meetings with public service department administrators to evaluate their performance and set goals for improvement; the program has been continued by Ron Littlefield. Corker has credited the increased collaboration between departments for decreasing crime in Chattanooga. City data showed a nearly 26% decrease in crime and a 50% reduction in violent crimes between 2001 and 2004.
Corker was heavily involved in the redevelopment of the Enterprise South Industrial Park in Chattanooga, the site of the former Volunteer Army Ammunition Plant. As a U. S. Senator, he worked with state and local officials to recruit Volkswagen to open a production facility at the site. During his tenure as mayor, Corker oversaw a $120 million riverfront renovation project, including an
Richard Craig Shelby is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Alabama. First elected to the U. S. Senate in 1986, he is the Chairman of the Senate Appropriations Committee, succeeding Thad Cochran, he served as Chairman of the U. S. Senate Committee on Banking and Urban Affairs and Senate Committee on Rules and Administration, he is the longest serving U. S. Senator from Alabama, surpassing John Sparkman. Born in Birmingham, Shelby received his law degree from the Birmingham School of Law in Birmingham, Alabama, in 1961. After law school in 1963, he went on to serve as city prosecutor. During this period he worked as a U. S. Magistrate for the Northern District of Alabama and Special Assistant Attorney General of Alabama, he won a seat in the Alabama Senate in 1970. In 1978, he was elected from the 7th District to the United States House of Representatives, where he was among a group of Conservative Democrats known as the boll weevils. In 1986, Shelby won a tight race as a Democrat for the U.
S. Senate. In 1994, the day after the Republican Revolution in which the GOP gained the majority in Congress midway through President Bill Clinton's first term, Shelby switched party affiliations and became a Republican. Shelby was re-elected by a large margin in 1998 and has faced no significant electoral opposition since, he is the dean of the Alabama delegation. Shelby was born in Birmingham, the son of Alice L. and Ozie Houston Shelby. He graduated in 1953 from Hueytown High School in Hueytown, Alabama the University of Alabama, receiving an undergraduate degree in 1957, he attended the Birmingham School of Law, where he earned his Juris Doctor in 1961. He was admitted to the Alabama State Bar on August 29, 1961, he received an LL. B. from The University of Alabama in 1963. Shelby is a member of the American Bar Association and Alabama State Bar, as well as the American Judicature Society, Alabama Law Institute, Delta Chi Fraternity, Phi Alpha Delta legal fraternity. Shelby was a city prosecutor in Tuscaloosa, Alabama from 1963 to 1971.
From 1966 to 1970, Shelby was a U. S. Magistrate for the Northern District of Alabama. Shelby was elected to the Alabama Senate in 1970 and served until 1978; that year he ran for and was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives from the Tuscaloosa-based 7th district from which Congressman Walter Flowers was retiring, he was re-elected three times. Shelby was one of the more Conservative Democrats in Congress, a member of the boll weevils, a group of moderate to conservative-leaning Democrats who worked with Republican President Ronald Reagan on defense issues. In 1986 U. S. Senate election in Alabama, Shelby won the Democratic nomination for the Senate seat held by Republican Jeremiah Denton, the first Republican elected to the Senate from Alabama since Reconstruction, he won a close race as the Democrats regained control of the Senate. He was re-elected in 1992 as Bill Clinton lost Alabama's electoral votes. On November 9, 1994, Shelby switched his party affiliation to Republican, one day after the Republican Revolution in which they won control of both houses in the midterm elections, giving the Republicans a 53–47 majority in the Senate.
He won his first full term as a Republican in 1998 by a large margin. He has since faced no significant opposition in 2004 or 2010, he was re-elected to a sixth term in 2016. A September 2009 poll showed. In 2014, The Wall Street Journal criticized Shelby for hoarding campaign and PAC contributions and not sharing them with other colleagues. In 1987, Shelby opposed President Reagan's nomination of Robert Bork to the Supreme Court, a move attributed to lobbying by Alabama African-American leaders who reminded Shelby that he had relied on support from black voters in narrowly defeating Denton in 1986. However, in 1991, Shelby supported President George H. W. Bush's conservative Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas. In 1991, Shelby sponsored legislation granting federal recognition to the MOWA Band of Choctaw Indians. Though confident it would pass, Shelby stressed the "need to get more documentation regarding establishment of their tribal identity." The Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs voted 11 to 2 in favor of the legislation on July 18.
Shelby publicly feuded with President Bill Clinton during the first half of Clinton's first term. At a meeting with Vice President Al Gore, he turned to the TV cameras and denounced the Clinton program as "high on taxes, low on cuts". Shelby served on the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence from 1995 to 2003, stepping down because of a Senate rule limiting committee terms to eight years. Shelby took an adversarial stance toward the intelligence community during both Clinton and Bush administrations, he helped sink Anthony Lake's nomination as CIA director in 1997 and promised to investigate the use of American-made satellites by the Chinese to gather intelligence. Shelby took a hard line on leaks of classified information. In 2000 he introduced a bill "that would have broadened the law that criminalizes release of national defense information." According to the Washington Post: Civil liberties groups and news organizations, which argued that the legislation would chill their ability to get information from officials, lobbied for the veto....
In 2002, with George W. Bush in the White House, Shelby reintroduced his language, but then-Attorney General John D. Ashcroft said that "rigorous investigation" and enforcement of existing laws—not new legislation—were the best way to fight leaks. In 1991 Shelby supported
Robert Latham Owen
Robert Latham Owen Jr. was one of the first two U. S. senators from Oklahoma. He served in the Senate between 1907 and 1925. Born into affluent circumstances in antebellum Lynchburg, the son of a railroad company president, Owen suffered an Dickensian reversal of fortune when his family was ruined financially by the Panic of 1873 and his father died while he was still in his teens. Owen, part-Cherokee on his mother's side, responded by heading west to Indian Territory, where he built a new life as, in turn, a schoolteacher working with Cherokee orphans. Among the achievements that brought him to wider public notice, helped pave the way for his election to the U. S. Senate in 1907 when Oklahoma achieved statehood, was his success as a lawyer in 1906 in winning a major court case on behalf of the Eastern Cherokees seeking compensation from the U. S. Government for eastern lands the Cherokees had lost at the time of the Indian removals. A Democrat active in many progressive causes, including efforts to strengthen public control of government, the fight against child labor, Owen is remembered as the Senate sponsor of the Glass-Owen Federal Reserve Act of 1913, which created the Federal Reserve System.
In discussions at the time, he resisted a campaign to put the Federal Reserve formally under the control of the banking industry, the 1913 Act emerged broadly in line with Owen's compromise proposal, creating a central Federal Reserve Board nominated by the Government alongside twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks dominated by the larger banks. Owen subsequently became critical of what he saw as the Federal Reserve's bias towards deflationary policies during the early 1920s and again in the early 1930s, which he attributed to excessive influence by the largest banks upon the Fed, which he identified as responsible for causing the Great Depression: a minority view at the time, but one that has, in recent decades, gained wide acceptance among Conservative economists. In 1920 Owen unsuccessfully sought the Democratic Party's nomination for the presidency. Owen was born in Lynchburg, Virginia on February 2, 1856, the younger of two sons of Col. Robert L. Owen Sr. a civil engineer and former surveyor who had become president of the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad, his wife Narcissa Clark Chisholm Owen.
Owen's paternal ancestors had emigrated from Wales, the family had a record of public service as doctors and teachers. His grandfather, Dr. William Owen, uncle, Dr. William Otway Owen Sr. both practiced medicine in Lynchburg, the latter served as Surgeon-in-Chief in charge of thirty hospitals in Lynchburg throughout the Civil War. His father Robert Latham Owen Sr. served in the Virginia State Senate after the American Civil War. During Owen's boyhood, the family lived in Point of Honor. Owen attended private schools in Baltimore, Maryland; the American Civil War destroyed most of Virginia's railroads. In late 1867, Robert Latham Owen Sr. resigned his position as president of the Virginia and Tennessee Railway because he opposed a proposed railway consolidation led by the colorful and political former Confederate General William Mahone, who replaced him as president. In June 1873, when Owen was 16, his father died a financially ruined man, due to the Panic of 1873, which struck the consolidating railroads hard.
Writing in 1934, Owen described the family's hard times: "the value of my father's property was destroyed, my mother, from a life of abundance, was compelled to earn her living by teaching music." With support from scholarships obtained via his mother's contacts, but subsequently including the 1876 merit-based President's scholarship, Owen graduated in 1877 as valedictorian from Washington and Lee University. He received the university's gold medal for debating prowess, his older brother, William Otway Owen Jr. meanwhile, attended the Virginia Military Institute and the University of Virginia, went on to a medical career with the U. S. Army retiring with the rank of colonel. Owen's mother, Narcissa Chisholm Owen, was part Cherokee, she did much to foster her son's career, as well as becoming a distinguished painter. In 1907 she published memoirs about her life lived between Cherokee and mainstream U. S. societies, which have more attracted scholarly attention when republished in a critical edition in 2005.
However, the precise extent of her Cherokee ancestry is unclear. Owen's listing on the Dawes Rolls, dating from around 1900, records him as 1/16th Cherokee by blood. However, Narcissa's Memoirs, self-describe her as 1/16th Cherokee, which if correct would imply that her son was 1/32nd Cherokee; some secondary sources describe Narcissa as 1/8th Cherokee The modern editor of Narcissa's memoirs speculates that Narcissa might have missed "one generation or two" in her family tree. However, Narcissa had been raised among Cherokees, skillfully used her Cherokee heritage, colorfully describing her father, Thomas Chisholm, as "the last hereditary war chief of the Western Cherokees." Narcissa gave both her sons parallel Indian names derived from famous Cherokee chiefs: she named Robert Oconostota after a noted Cherokee ch
Elizabeth Ann Warren is an American politician and academic serving as the senior United States Senator from Massachusetts since 2013. Warren was a prominent scholar specializing in bankruptcy law. A noted progressive leader, she has focused on consumer protection, economic opportunity, the social safety net while in the Senate; some commentators describe her position as left-wing populism. Warren is a graduate of the University of Rutgers Law School, she taught law at several universities, including the University of Houston, the University of Texas at Austin, the University of Pennsylvania, Harvard University. Warren's initial foray into public policy began in 1995 when she worked to oppose what became a 2005 act restricting bankruptcy access for individuals, her profile rose due to her forceful stances in favor of more stringent banking regulations following the 2007–08 financial crisis. She served as chair of the Congressional Oversight Panel of the Troubled Asset Relief Program and was instrumental in the creation of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, for which she served as the first Special Advisor.
On February 9, 2019, at a rally in Lawrence, Warren announced her candidacy for the 2020 United States presidential election. Warren was born Elizabeth Ann Herring in Oklahoma City on June 22, 1949, the fourth child of middle-class parents Pauline and Donald Jones Herring. Warren has described her family as teetering "on the ragged edge of the middle class" and "kind of hanging on at the edges by our fingernails", she was raised Methodist. Warren lived in Norman; when she was 12, her father, a salesman at Montgomery Ward, had a heart attack, which led to many medical bills as well as a pay cut because he could not do his previous work. He worked as a custodian for an apartment building; the family's car was repossessed because they failed to make loan payments. To help the family finances, her mother found work in the catalog order department at Sears; when she was 13, Warren started waiting tables at her aunt's restaurant. Warren became a star member of the debate team at Northwest Classen High School and won the state high school debating championship.
She won a debate scholarship to George Washington University at the age of 16. She aspired to be a teacher, but left GWU after two years in 1968 to marry Jim Warren, whom she met in high school. Warren and her husband moved to Houston, where he was employed by IBM, she enrolled in the University of Houston and graduated in 1970 with a Bachelor of Science degree in speech pathology and audiology. The Warrens moved to New Jersey, she decided to remain at home to care for their daughter. After the child turned two, Warren enrolled in Rutgers Law School at Rutgers University–Newark. Shortly before graduating in 1976, Warren became pregnant with their second child, she received her J. D. and passed the bar examination. The couple had two children and Alexander, before they divorced in 1978. Two years Warren married Bruce H. Mann, a law professor, but kept her first husband's surname, she has grandchildren. According to public financial disclosure forms filed with federal election officials in February 2019, Warren and her husband have a combined net worth between $4 million and $11 million.
Warren has said that as a child she was told by older family members that she had Native American ancestry, that "being Native American has been part of my story, I guess, since the day I was born". In 2012 she was criticized for having listed herself as a minority in a directory for Harvard Law School; some critics alleged. Warren denied that, several colleagues and employers have said her reported ethnic status played no role in her hiring. An investigation by The Boston Globe in 2018 found "clear evidence, in documents and interviews, that her claim to Native American ethnicity was never considered by the Harvard Law faculty, which voted resoundingly to hire her, or by those who hired her to four prior positions at other law schools". PolitiFact noted: "Before this controversy arose in 2012, there is no account that Warren spoke publicly of having Native American roots, although she called herself Cherokee in a local Oklahoma cookbook in 1984."Following a challenge by President Donald Trump to pay $1 million to her favorite charity if she could prove her Native American ancestry via a DNA test, Warren released results of a DNA test in 2018.
It concluded that "while the vast majority of ancestry is European, the results support the existence of an unadmixed Native American ancestor in pedigree in the range of 6–10 generations ago." The use of DNA to determine Native American heritage was criticized by the Cherokee Nation as "inappropriate and wrong". During a 2019 public appearance in Sioux City, Warren was asked by an attendee, "Why did you undergo the DNA testing and give Donald more fodder to be a bully?" Warren responded. Tribal citizenship is different from ancestry. Tribes, only tribes, determine tribal citizenship, I respect that difference." She reached out to leadership of the Cherokee Nation to apologize, Cherokee Nation executive director of communications Julie Hubbard said that Warren understands "that being a Cherokee Nation tribal citizen is rooted in centuries of culture and laws not through DNA tests."In early February 2019 Warren apologized for having identified herself in 19
Martha Elizabeth McSally is a United States Air Force combat veteran and politician serving as the junior U. S. Senator for Arizona. A Republican, she served as the U. S. Representative for Arizona's 2nd congressional district. McSally rose to the rank of colonel before retiring. One of the highest-ranking female pilots in the history of the Air Force, McSally was the first American woman to fly in combat following the 1991 lifting of the prohibition on female combat pilots. McSally flew the Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II close air support aircraft over Iraq and Kuwait during Operation Southern Watch, she was the first female commander of a USAF fighter squadron. In 2001, she sued the United States Department of Defense in McSally v. Rumsfeld, challenging the military policy that required United States and United Kingdom servicewomen stationed in Saudi Arabia to wear the body-covering abaya when traveling off base in the country. Following two unsuccessful congressional bids in 2012, McSally was first elected to the U.
S. House of Representatives in 2014, she served two terms as the U. S. Representative for Arizona's 2nd congressional district. McSally was the Republican nominee in Arizona's 2018 U. S. Senate election, losing 50–48% to Democratic Congresswoman Kyrsten Sinema, while Democrat Ann Kirkpatrick won McSally's seat in the House elections. Following that election, interim U. S. Senator Jon Kyl announced his resignation from the state's other Senate seat, Republican Governor Doug Ducey appointed McSally to succeed Kyl. McSally was born in 1966 in the youngest of five children. In 1978, her father, Bernard, a lawyer, died of a heart attack, her mother, worked as a reading specialist to support the family. McSally was the valedictorian at St. Mary's Academy, Bayview in 1984. During an interview with The Wall Street Journal in April 2018, McSally alleged her track and field coach pressured her into a sexual relationship during her senior year at the Catholic girls' school, she told the Journal. She did not reveal the incident to friends or family until ten years after her graduation.
She earned an appointment to the United States Air Force Academy, graduating in 1988. She earned a master's degree from Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government following graduation from USAFA and proceeded to pilot training. McSally was first in her class at the Air War College. McSally earned her USAF pilot's wings in 1991 after completing Undergraduate Pilot Training at Williams AFB east of Phoenix, Arizona. Following graduation, she was assigned to Laughlin AFB, Texas, as a First Assignment Instructor Pilot in the T-37 trainer; when the military's combat aircraft restriction for female pilots was removed, McSally went on to Lead-in Fighter Training in 1993. McSally completed Replacement Training Unit for the A-10 Thunderbolt II at Davis-Monthan AFB, was assigned to an operational A-10 squadron that deployed to Kuwait in January 1995. During this deployment, McSally flew combat patrols over Iraq in support of Operation Southern Watch, enforcing the no-fly zone over southern Iraq and became "the first female U.
S. fighter pilot to fly in combat and the first woman to command a fighter squadron."In 1999 she deployed to Europe in support of Operation Allied Force. McSally was selected as one of seven active duty Air Force officers for the Legislative Fellowship program, she lived in Washington, D. C. working as an advisor to Senator Jon Kyl on defense and foreign affairs policy. Promoted to Major, she reported to Joint Task Force Southwest Asia in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in 2000 for an Operation Southern Watch temporary assignment. Following her promotion to Lieutenant Colonel, she took command of the A-10 equipped 354th Fighter Squadron at Davis-Monthan AFB in July 2004, she was subsequently deployed to Afghanistan under Operation Enduring Freedom, dispatching weapons for the first time from her A-10 in combat. In 2005, McSally and her squadron were awarded the David C. Shilling Award, given by the Air Force Association for the best aerospace contribution to national defense. McSally was represented by the Rutherford Institute in a successful 2001 lawsuit against the Department of Defense, challenging the military policy that required U.
S. and U. K. servicewomen stationed in Saudi Arabia to wear the body-covering abaya when traveling off base in the country. At the time of the lawsuit McSally, as a Major, was the highest ranking female fighter pilot in the U. S. Air Force, her suit alleged "the regulations required her to send the message that she believes women are subservient to men." In addition to the issue of religious garb, McSally noted that policies included other requirements. In a "60 Minutes" interview broadcast on CBS on January 20, 2002, she described the discrimination she experienced under the policy: "I have to sit in the back and at all times I must be escorted by a male... when questioned, is supposed to claim me as his wife," she said. "I can fly a single-seat aircraft in enemy territory. She was granted audience with several high-level officials, including two Secretaries of Defense, William Cohen and Donald Rumsfeld. General Tommy Franks commander of the United States Central Command, announced in 2002 that U.
S. military servicewomen would no longer be required to wear the abaya, although they would be "encouraged" to do so as a show of respect for local customs. Commenting on the change, Central Command spokesman Colonel Rick Thomas said it was not made because of McSa
Sherrod Campbell Brown is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Ohio, a seat he was first elected to in 2006. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the U. S. Representative for Ohio's 13th congressional district from 1993 to 2007 and the 47th Secretary of State of Ohio from 1983 to 1991, he started his political career in 1975 as an Ohio State Representative. Brown defeated two-term Republican incumbent Mike DeWine in the 2006 U. S. Senate election and was reelected both in 2012, defeating state Treasurer Josh Mandel, in 2018, defeating U. S. Representative Jim Renacci. In the Senate, he was chair of the Agriculture Subcommittee on Hunger and Family Farms and the Banking Subcommittee on Economic Policy, is a member of the Committee on Finance, the Committee on Veterans' Affairs, Select Committee on Ethics. At the start of the 114th Congress in January 2015, Brown became the Ranking Democratic Member on the Committee on Banking and Urban Affairs, he was appointed co-chair of the newly formed Joint Multiemployer Pension Solvency Committee in March 2018.
As of 2019, he is the only Democratic statewide elected official in Ohio. After winning his third term in 2018, Brown was considered a potential candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 2020, began exploring a run in January 2019. On March 7, 2019, he announced. Brown was born in Mansfield, the son of Emily and Charles Gailey Brown, M. D, he has Scottish, Irish and English ancestry, was named after his maternal grandfather. He became an Eagle Scout in 1967, he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Russian studies from Yale University in 1974. At Yale, he lived in Davenport College. While in college, Brown campaigned for George McGovern during the 1972 presidential election, he went on to receive a Master of Arts degree in education and a Master of Public Administration degree from Ohio State University at Columbus in 1979 and 1981, respectively. He taught at the Mansfield branch campus of Ohio State University from 1979 to 1981, he backpacked in India during the state of emergency imposed by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.
During his senior year in college, Brown was recruited by a local Democratic leader to run for Ohio's state house. Brown served as a state representative in Ohio from 1974 to 1982. At the time of his election to the Ohio House, he was the youngest person elected to that body. In 1982, Brown ran for Ohio Secretary of State to succeed Anthony J. Celebrezze Jr. Brown won a four-way Democratic primary that included Dennis Kucinich defeated Republican Virgil Brown in the general election. In 1986, Brown was reelected, defeating Vincent C. Campanella; as Secretary of State, Brown focused on voter registration outreach. In 1990, he lost reelection in a heated campaign against Republican Bob Taft, the only race he has lost in his political career. In 1992, Brown moved from Mansfield to Lorain and won a contested Democratic primary for the open seat for Ohio's 13th district, in the western and southern suburbs of Cleveland, after eight-term incumbent Don Pease announced his retirement; the Democratic-leaning district gave him an easy win over the little-known Republican Margaret R. Mueller.
He was reelected six times. The Democrats lost their long-held House majority in the 1994 elections, stayed in the minority for the remainder of Brown's tenure; as ranking member of the Energy and Commerce Health subcommittee, Brown advocated for increased funding to fight tuberculosis. In 2005, Brown led the Democratic effort to block the Central American Free Trade Agreement. For many months, Brown worked as whip on the issue, securing Democratic "nay" votes and seeking Republican allies. After several delays, the House of Representatives voted on CAFTA after midnight on July 28, 2005, which ended in passage by one vote. Brown opposed an amendment to Ohio's constitution, he was one of the few U. S. Representatives to vote against the Defense of Marriage Act in 1996. Brown was the ranking minority member on the House Energy and Commerce Committee's Health Subcommittee, he served on the Subcommittee on Telecommunications and the Internet and the Subcommittee on Commerce and Consumer Protection. While serving on the House International Relations Committee, he was a member of the Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific.
In August 2005, Brown announced he would not run for the United States Senate seat held by two-term Republican incumbent Mike DeWine. In October, Brown reconsidered his decision, his announcement came shortly after Democrat Paul Hackett stated that he would soon announce his candidacy. On February 13, 2006, Hackett withdrew from the race, all but ensuring that Brown would win the Democratic nomination. In the May 2 primary, Brown won 78.05% of the Democratic vote. His opponent, Merrill Samuel Keiser Jr. received 21.95% of the vote. In April 2006, along with John Conyers, brought an action against George W. Bush and others, alleging violations of the Constitution in the passage of the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005; the case, Conyers v. Bush, was dismissed for lack of standing. On November 7, 2006, Brown defeated DeWine, 56% to 44%. Brown ran for reelection in 2012, facing opponent Josh Mandel, who in 2010 had defeated the incumbent state treasurer by 14 points. Mandel raised $2.3 million to Brown's $1.5 million.
Early on, Brown enjoyed a steady lead in the polls. Mandel won the March Republican primary with 63% of the vote; the Washington Post reported that no candidate running for reelection faced more opposition from outside groups in 2012 than Brown did. As of Apr
Christine Elizabeth "Tina" Flint Smith is an American politician and former businesswoman serving as the junior United States senator from Minnesota since 2018, filling the seat vacated by Al Franken. She is a member of the Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party, an affiliate of the Democratic Party. Smith served as the 48th lieutenant governor of Minnesota from 2015 to 2018, when she was appointed to serve as a U. S. Senator for the state, she won the 2018 special election, defeating the Republican nominee, Minnesota State Senator Karin Housley. Smith was born on March 4, 1958 in Albuquerque, New Mexico, the daughter of Christine, a teacher, F. Harlan Flint, a lawyer. Before going to college, she worked on the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline in Alaska, she graduated from Stanford University with a degree in political science, earned a master's degree in business administration from Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College. Smith first moved to Minnesota in 1984 for a marketing job at General Mills.
She started her own marketing firm, where she consulted with businesses and nonprofits. In the early 1990s Smith became involved in local politics, volunteering for DFL campaigns in Minneapolis, she managed Ted Mondale's unsuccessful 1998 campaign for governor. After Minnesota's U. S. Senator Paul Wellstone died in a plane crash weeks before the 2002 election, Smith managed former U. S. Vice President Walter Mondale's campaign for the seat. After Mondale lost a narrow election to Norm Coleman, Smith began working as the vice president of external affairs at Planned Parenthood of Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota. Smith left her job at Planned Parenthood to serve as chief of staff to Minneapolis Mayor R. T. Rybak in 2006. In 2010 she was picked to manage Rybak's gubernatorial campaign, which ended after Margaret Anderson Kelliher won the DFL endorsement. Smith joined the campaign of Mark Dayton, who skipped the endorsing convention and won the DFL primary. After Dayton defeated Republican Tom Emmer in the general election, Smith was named a co-chair of the transition.
Dayton appointed Smith as his chief of staff when he took office in 2011. When Lieutenant Governor Yvonne Prettner Solon announced she would not seek reelection, Governor Mark Dayton selected Smith as his running mate in the 2014 gubernatorial election. Dayton cited Smith's work on passing legislation for new Minnesota Vikings Stadium, as well as her support for the Destination Medical Center project with the Mayo Clinic in Rochester. Smith stepped down as Dayton's chief of staff to campaign for lieutenant governor. After being nominated by acclamation at the DFL state convention, facing only token opposition in the DFL gubernatorial primary and Smith defeated Republicans Jeff Johnson and Bill Kuisle in the general election. Smith took office as lieutenant governor on January 5, 2015, served until she was appointed to represent Minnesota in the U. S. Senate on January 2, 2018. During her tenure Smith was described by many political observers as having a much higher profile and playing a much more significant role in legislative negotiations than her predecessors.
She spent a significant amount of time traveling the state in support of the priorities of Dayton's administration, including funding for optional preschool for all four-year-olds, transportation infrastructure, rural broadband internet access. She served as chair of the Destination Medical Center board until her resignation in December 2017. In 2016 Roll Call named Smith to their "America's Top 25 Most Influential Women in State Politics" list, citing her high-profile role in the Dayton administration. Despite widespread speculation to the contrary, Smith announced in March 2017 that she would not run for governor in the 2018 election. On December 13, 2017, Governor Dayton announced Smith as his pick to fill the United States Senate seat held by Al Franken, who indicated he would be resigning the seat at a date amid allegations of sexual misconduct. While political observers speculated Smith might serve in a caretaker role, she announced her candidacy in the 2018 special election. Dayton issued the official certificate of appointment following Franken's resignation on January 2, 2018.
With Vice President Mike Pence issuing the oath of office, Smith was sworn in as a United States Senator on January 3, 2018, alongside Doug Jones of Alabama. She was accompanied by fellow Minnesota Senator Amy Klobuchar and former Vice President Walter Mondale. Committee on Agriculture and Forestry Subcommittee on Commodities, Risk Management and Trade Subcommittee on Rural Development and Energy Subcommittee on Nutrition, Agricultural Research and Specialty Crops Committee on Energy and Natural Resources Committee on Banking and Urban Affairs Committee on Health, Education and Pensions Subcommittee on Children and Families Subcommittee on Employment and Workplace Safety Committee on Indian AffairsSource: Senate Democrats Press Release The following is an incomplete list of legislation that Smith has sponsored: Affordable College Textbook Act Smith competed in the 2018 special Senate election in Minnesota, she won the August 14 Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party primary with 76% of the vote.
Richard Painter, a White House ethics lawyer during the George W. Bush administration, finished second with 14%. Smith defeated Republican nominee Karin Housley, a state senator from St. Marys Point, in the November 6 general election, winning 53% of the vote to Housley's 42%. In March 2019 Smith was one of 38 senators to sign a letter to United States Secretary of Agriculture Sonny Perdue warning that dairy farmers "have continued to face market