Henry Jackson Ellicott
Henry Jackson Ellicott was an American sculptor and architectural sculptor, best known for his work on American Civil War monuments. The son of James P. Ellicott and Fannie Adelaide Ince, he attended Rock Hill College School in Ellicott City and Gonzaga College High School in Washington, D. C, he studied at Georgetown Medical College, may have served in the Civil War. At age 19, he completed a larger-than-life plaster statue of Abraham Lincoln – an entry in the Lincoln Monument Association's competition for a marble statue –, exhibited for two years in the United States Capitol rotunda; the competition was won by sculptor Lot Flannery. The fate of Ellicott's Lincoln statue is unknown, he studied at the National Academy of Design, 1867–1870, under William Henry Powell and Emanuel Leutze. His first two commissions were for monuments at Mount Calvary Cemetery in Lothian and Greenwood Cemetery in Laurel, Maryland, he was the modeler of an Infantryman statue for J. W. Fiske Architectural Metals, Inc. of New York City, mass-produced and used in numerous municipal Civil War monuments.
Company records list the sculptor's name as "Allicot."He moved to Philadelphia and modeled architectural sculpture on buildings for the 1876 Centennial Exposition. He remained in Philadelphia, exhibited at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts between 1878 and 1891. Ellicott was appointed Superintendent and Chief Modeler for the U. S. Treasury Department in 1889, responsible for all federal monuments, he moved to Washington, D. C. where he lived until his death. Abraham Lincoln, current whereabout unknown, ca. 1866. Exhibited in United States Capitol rotunda, 1866-1868. Goddess of Commerce, Goddess of Protection, Goddess of Mechanism, atop New England Mutual Life Insurance Building, Massachusetts, 1875, Nathaniel Jeremiah Bradlee, architect; the figure group was once the symbol of the company, but the statues were melted down in a World War II scrap-metal drive. Recording Angel, atop Thomas P. Duncan Mausoleum, Union Dale Cemetery, Pennsylvania, 1880, Theophilus Parsons Chandler, Jr. architect.
Bas-relief portrait of John Sartain, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Pennsylvania, ca. 1888. Architectural sculpture: 33 Keystones, Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 1891. Carved by Ellicott and William Boyd. Bust of George M. Dallas, United States Senate Vice Presidential Bust Collection, United States Capitol, Washington, D. C. 1893. Francis Elias Spinner, Myers Park, New York, 1894. Zebulon Baird Vance Monument, North Carolina State Capitol, North Carolina, 1899-1900. Bust of Rear-Admiral George W. Melville, United States Naval Academy Museum, Maryland. Goddess of Victory, atop Soldiers' Monument, Veterans Park, Massachusetts, 1875-76. Colonel James Cameron, granite with brass sword, Civil War Monument, Cameron Park, Pennsylvania, 1879. Infantryman, Civil War Monument, Massachusetts, 1881; the Sailor and Cavalry Officer figures were modeled by William Rudolf O'Donovan. Cavalryman, bronze, 2nd Pennsylvania Cavalry Monument, Gettysburg Battlefield, Pennsylvania, 1887-1889. Kneeling Cavalryman, bronze, 1st Pennsylvania Cavalry Monument, Gettysburg Battlefield, Pennsylvania, 1889-90.
Equestrian statue of General Winfield Scott Hancock, Washington, D. C. 1889-1896. Equestrian statue of General George B. McClellan, City Hall, Pennsylvania, 1891-1894. Infantryman, modeled by "Allicot" and mass-produced by J. W. Fiske Architectural Metals, Inc. New York City, from ca. 1875 to 1927. Examples in Saratoga, New York, Pennsylvania, King Ferry, New York, Missouri, Connecticut, Oak Bluffs, Martha's Vineyard, Pottstown, Berlin, New York, Iola and North Kingston, Rhode Island. Charles Evans, Charles Evans Cemetery, Pennsylvania; the undated statue is signed "ELLICOTT SC." and was cast by Bureau Brothers Foundry in Philadelphia. Media related to Henry Jackson Ellicott at Wikimedia Commons
Elbridge Gerry was an American statesman and diplomat. As a Democratic-Republican he served as the fifth vice president of the United States under President James Madison from March 1813 until his death in November 1814, he is known best for being the eponym of gerrymandering. Born into a wealthy merchant family, Gerry vocally opposed British colonial policy in the 1760s, was active in the early stages of organizing the resistance in the American Revolutionary War. Elected to the Second Continental Congress, Gerry signed both the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation, he was one of three men who attended the Constitutional Convention in 1787 who refused to sign the United States Constitution because it did not include a Bill of Rights. After its ratification he was elected to the inaugural United States Congress, where he was involved in drafting and passage of the Bill of Rights as an advocate of individual and state liberties. Gerry was at first opposed to the idea of political parties, cultivated enduring friendships on both sides of the political divide between Federalists and Democratic-Republicans.
He was a member of a diplomatic delegation to France, treated poorly in the XYZ Affair, in which Federalists held him responsible for a breakdown in negotiations. Gerry thereafter became a Democratic-Republican, running unsuccessfully for Governor of Massachusetts several times before winning the office in 1810. During his second term, the legislature approved new state senate districts that led to the coining of the word "gerrymander". Chosen by Madison as his vice presidential candidate in 1812, Gerry was elected, but died a year and a half into his term, he is the only signer of the Declaration of Independence, buried in Washington, D. C. Elbridge Gerry was born on July 1744, in Marblehead, Massachusetts, his father, Thomas Gerry, was a merchant operating ships out of Marblehead, his mother, Elizabeth Gerry, was the daughter of a successful Boston merchant. Gerry's first name came from one of his mother's ancestors. Gerry's parents had eleven children in all. Of these, Elbridge was the third.
He was first educated by private tutors, entered Harvard College shortly before turning fourteen. After receiving a B. A. in 1762 and an M. A. in 1765, he entered his father's merchant business. By the 1770s the Gerrys numbered among the wealthiest Massachusetts merchants, with trading connections in Spain, the West Indies, along the North American coast. Gerry's father, who had emigrated from England in 1730, was active in local politics and had a leading role in the local militia. Gerry was from an early time a vocal opponent of Parliamentary efforts to tax the colonies after the French and Indian War ended in 1763. In 1770 he sat on a Marblehead committee that sought to enforce importation bans on taxed British goods, he communicated with other Massachusetts opponents of British policy, including Samuel Adams, John Adams, Mercy Otis Warren, others. In May 1772 he won election to the General Court of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. There he worked with Samuel Adams to advance colonial opposition to Parliamentary colonial policies.
He was responsible for establishing Marblehead's committee of correspondence, one of the first to be set up after that of Boston. However, an incident of mob action prompted him to resign from the committee the next year. Gerry and other prominent Marbleheaders had established a hospital for performing smallpox inoculations on Cat Island. Gerry reentered politics after the Boston Port Act closed that city's port in 1774, Marblehead became a port to which relief supplies from other colonies could be delivered; as one of the town's leading merchants and Patriots, Gerry played a major role in ensuring the storage and delivery of supplies from Marblehead to Boston, interrupting those activities only to care for his dying father. He was elected as a representative to the First Continental Congress in September 1774, but refused, still grieving the loss of his father. Gerry was elected to the provincial assembly, which reconstituted itself as the Massachusetts Provincial Congress after Governor Thomas Gage dissolved the body in October 1774.
He was assigned to its committee of safety, responsible for assuring that the province's limited supplies of weapons and gunpowder remained out of British Army hands. His actions were responsible for the storage of weapons and ammunition in Concord. During the Siege of Boston that followed, Gerry continued to take a leading role in supplying the nascent Continental Army, something he would continue to do as the war progressed, he leveraged business contacts in France and Spain to acquire not just munitions, but supplies of all types, was involved in the transfer of financial subsidies from Spain to Congress. He sent ships to ports all along the American coast, dabbled in financing privateering operations. Unlike some merchants, there is no evidence that Gerry profiteered from this activity (he spoke out against it, in favor
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
United States Capitol
The United States Capitol called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress and the seat of the legislative branch of the U. S. federal government. It is located on Capitol Hill at the eastern end of the National Mall in Washington, D. C. Though no longer at the geographic center of the Federal District, the Capitol forms the origin point for the District's street-numbering system and the District's four quadrants; the original building was completed in 1800 and was subsequently expanded with the addition of the massive dome, expanded chambers for the bicameral legislature, the House of Representatives in the south wing and the Senate in the north wing. Like the principal buildings of the executive and judicial branches, the Capitol is built in a distinctive neoclassical style and has a white exterior. Both its east and west elevations are formally referred to as fronts, though only the east front was intended for the reception of visitors and dignitaries. Prior to establishing the nation's capital in Washington, D.
C. the United States Congress and its predecessors had met in Philadelphia, New York City, a number of other locations. In September 1774, the First Continental Congress brought together delegates from the colonies in Philadelphia, followed by the Second Continental Congress, which met from May 1775 to March 1781. After adopting the Articles of Confederation in York, the Congress of the Confederation was formed and convened in Philadelphia from March 1781 until June 1783, when a mob of angry soldiers converged upon Independence Hall, demanding payment for their service during the American Revolutionary War. Congress requested that John Dickinson, the Governor of Pennsylvania, call up the militia to defend Congress from attacks by the protesters. In what became known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, Dickinson sympathized with the protesters and refused to remove them from Philadelphia; as a result, Congress was forced to flee to Princeton, New Jersey, on June 21, 1783, met in Annapolis and Trenton, New Jersey, before ending up in New York City.
The United States Congress was established upon ratification of the United States Constitution and formally began on March 4, 1789. New York City remained home to Congress until July 1790, when the Residence Act was passed to pave the way for a permanent capital; the decision of where to locate the capital was contentious, but Alexander Hamilton helped broker a compromise in which the federal government would take on war debt incurred during the American Revolutionary War, in exchange for support from northern states for locating the capital along the Potomac River. As part of the legislation, Philadelphia was chosen as a temporary capital for ten years, until the nation's capital in Washington, D. C. would be ready. Pierre Charles L'Enfant was given the task of creating the city plan for the new capital city. L'Enfant chose Jenkin's Hill as the site for the "Congress House", with a "grand avenue" connecting it with the President's House, a public space containing a broader "grand avenue" stretching westward to the Potomac River.
In reviewing L'Enfant's plan, Thomas Jefferson insisted the legislative building be called the "Capitol" rather than "Congress House". The word "Capitol" comes from Latin and is associated with the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on Capitoline Hill, one of the seven hills of Rome; the connection between the two is not, crystal clear. In addition to coming up with a city plan, L'Enfant had been tasked with designing the Capitol and President's House; the word "capitol" has since been adopted, following the example of the United States Capitol, in many jurisdictions for other government buildings, for instance the "capitols" in the individual capitals of the states of the United States. This, in turn, has led to frequent misspellings of "capitol" and "capital"; the former refers to a building. In spring 1792, United States Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson proposed a design competition to solicit designs for the Capitol and the "President's House", set a four-month deadline; the prize for the competition was a lot in the Federal City.
At least ten individuals submitted designs for the Capitol. The most promising of the submissions was by a trained French architect. However, Hallet's designs were overly fancy, with too much French influence, were deemed too costly. A late entry by amateur architect William Thornton was submitted on January 31, 1793, to much praise for its "Grandeur and Beauty" by Washington, along with praise from Thomas Jefferson. Thornton was inspired by the east front of the Louvre, as well as the Paris Pantheon for the center portion of the design. Thornton's design was approved in a letter dated April 5, 1793, from Washington, Thornton served as the first Architect of the Capitol. In an effort to console Hallet, the commissioners appointed him to review Thornton's plans, develop cost estimates, serve as superintendent of construction. Hallet proceeded to pick apart and make drastic changes
Thomas A. Hendricks
Thomas Andrews Hendricks was an American politician and lawyer from Indiana who served as the 16th governor of Indiana from 1873 to 1877 and the 21st vice president of the United States from March to November 1885. Hendricks represented Indiana in the U. S. House of Representatives and the U. S. Senate, he represented Shelby County, Indiana, in the Indiana General Assembly and as a delegate to the 1851 Indiana constitutional convention. In addition, Hendricks served as commissioner of the General Land Office. Hendricks, a popular member of the Democratic Party, was a fiscal conservative, he defended the Democratic position in the U. S. Senate during the American Civil War and Reconstruction Era and voted against the Thirteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the U. S. Constitution, he opposed Radical Reconstruction and President Andrew Johnson's removal from office following Johnson's impeachment in the U. S. House. Born in Muskingum County, Hendricks moved to Indiana, with his parents in 1820. After graduating from Hanover College, class of 1841, Hendricks studied law in Shelbyville and Chambersburg, Pennsylvania.
He was admitted to the Indiana bar in 1843. Hendricks began his law practice in Shelbyville, moved to Indianapolis in 1860, established a private law practice with Oscar B. Hord in 1862; the firm evolved into Daniels, one of the state's leading law firms. Hendricks ran for election as Indiana's governor three times, but won only once. In 1872, on his third and final attempt, Hendricks defeated General Thomas M. Brown by a margin of 1,148 votes, his term as governor of Indiana was marked by numerous challenges, including a strong Republican majority in the Indiana General Assembly, the economic Panic of 1873, an economic depression. One of Hendricks's lasting legacies during his tenure as governor was initiating discussions to fund construction of the present-day Indiana Statehouse, completed after he left office. A memorial to Hendricks was installed on the southeast corner of its grounds in 1890. Hendricks, a lifelong Democrat, was his party's candidate for U. S. vice president with New York governor Samuel Tilden as its presidential nominee in the controversial presidential election of 1876.
Although they won the popular vote and Hendricks lost the election by one vote in the Electoral College to the Republican Party's presidential nominee, Rutherford B. Hayes, his vice presidential running mate, William A. Wheeler. Despite his poor health, Hendricks accepted his party's nomination for vice president in the election of 1884 as Grover Cleveland's running mate. Cleveland and Hendricks won the election, but Hendricks only served as vice president for about eight months, from March 4, 1885, until his death on November 25, 1885, in Indianapolis, he is buried in Indianapolis's Crown Hill Cemetery. Hendricks was born on September 7, 1819, in Muskingum County, near East Fultonham and Zanesville, he was the second of eight children born to John and Jane Hendricks, who were from Pennsylvania. In 1820 Hendricks moved with his parents and older brother to Madison in Jefferson County, Indiana, at the urging of Thomas's uncle, William Hendricks, a successful politician who served as a U. S. Representative, a U.
S. Senator, as the third governor of Indiana. Thomas's family first settled on a farm near his uncle's home in Madison, moved to Shelby County, Indiana, in 1822. Hendricks's father, a successful farmer who operated a general store, became involved in politics, including appointment from President Andrew Jackson as deputy surveyor of public lands for his district. Indiana's Democratic Party leaders visited the Hendricks home in Shelbyville, from an early age Hendricks was influenced to enter politics. Hendricks attended local schools, he graduated from Hanover College in Hanover, Indiana, in 1841, in the same class as Albert G. Porter a future governor of Indiana. After college Hendricks read law with Judge Stephen Major in Shelbyville, in 1843 he took an eight-month law course at a school operated by his uncle, Judge Alexander Thomson in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. Hendricks returned to Indiana, was admitted to the bar in 1843, established a private practice in Shelbyville. Hendricks married Eliza Carol Morgan of North Bend, Ohio, on September 26, 1845, after a two-year courtship.
The couple met when Eliza was visiting Mrs. Daniel West, in Shelbyville; the couple's only child, a son named Morgan, was born on January 16, 1848, died in 1851, at the age of three. Thomas and Eliza Hendricks moved to Indianapolis in 1860 and resided from 1865 to 1872 at 1526 South New Jersey Street, now known as the Bates-Hendricks House. Hendricks remained active in the legal community and in state and national politics from the 1840s until his death in 1885. Hendricks began his political career in 1848, when he served a one-year term in the Indiana House of Representatives after defeating Martin M. Ray, the Whig candidate. Hendricks was one of the two Shelby County delegates to the 1850–51 Indiana constitutional convention, he served on committee that created the organization of the state's townships and counties and decided on the taxation and financial portion of the state constitution. Hendricks debated the clauses on the powers of the different offices and argued in favor of a powerful judiciary and the abolishment of grand juries.
Hendricks represented Indiana as a Democrat in the U. S. House of Representatives in the Thirty-second and Thirty-third Congresses from March 4, 1851 to March 3, 1855. Hendricks was chairman of the U. S. Comm
Michael Richard Pence is an American politician and lawyer serving as the 48th and current vice president of the United States. He was the 50th governor of Indiana from 2013 to 2017 and a member of the United States House of Representatives from 2001 to 2013, he is the younger brother of U. S. Representative Greg Pence. Born and raised in Columbus, Pence graduated from Hanover College and earned a law degree from the Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law before entering private practice. After losing two bids for a U. S. congressional seat in 1988 and 1990, he became a conservative radio and television talk show host from 1994 to 1999. Pence was elected to the United States Congress in 2000 and represented Indiana's 2nd congressional district and Indiana's 6th congressional district in the House of Representatives from 2001 to 2013, he served as the chairman of the House Republican Conference from 2009 to 2011. Pence described himself as a "principled conservative" and supporter of the Tea Party movement, stating that he was "a Christian, a conservative, a Republican, in that order."Upon becoming governor of Indiana in January 2013, Pence initiated the largest tax cut in Indiana's history and pushed for more funding for education initiatives.
Pence signed bills intended to restrict abortions, including one that prohibited abortions if the reason for the procedure was the fetus's race, gender, or disability. After Pence signed the Religious Freedom Restoration Act, he encountered fierce resistance from moderate members of his party, the business community, LGBT advocates; the backlash against the RFRA led Pence to amend the bill to prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation, gender identity, other criteria. Pence was inaugurated as Vice President of the United States on January 20, 2017, he had withdrawn his gubernatorial reelection campaign in July to become the running mate of Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump, who went on to win the presidential election on November 8, 2016. Michael Richard Pence was born June 7, 1959, in Columbus, one of six children of Nancy Jane and Edward Joseph Pence Jr. who ran a group of gas stations. His father served in the U. S. Army during the Korean War and received the Bronze Star in 1953, which Pence displays in his office along with its commendation letter and a reception photograph.
His family were Irish Catholic Democrats. Pence was named after his grandfather, Richard Michael Cawley, who emigrated from County Sligo, Ireland, to the United States through Ellis Island, following an aunt and his brother James, became a bus driver in Chicago, Illinois, his maternal grandmother's parents were from County Clare. Pence graduated from Columbus North High School in 1977, he earned a BA degree in history from Hanover College in 1981, a JD degree from the Indiana University's Robert H. McKinney School of Law in Indianapolis in 1986. While at Hanover, Pence joined the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity, where he became the chapter president. Actor Woody Harrelson has said. After graduating from Hanover, Pence was an admissions counselor at the college from 1981 to 1983. In his childhood and early adulthood, Pence was a Democrat, he volunteered for the Bartholomew County Democratic Party in 1976 and voted for Jimmy Carter in the 1980 presidential election, has stated that he was inspired to get involved in politics by people such as John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King Jr.
While in college, Pence became an evangelical, born-again Christian, to the great disappointment of his mother. His political views started shifting to the right during this time in his life, something which Pence attributes to the "common-sense conservatism of Ronald Reagan" that he began to identify with. After graduating from law school in 1986, Pence was an attorney in private practice, he ran unsuccessfully for a congressional seat in 1988 and in 1990. In 1991, he became the president of the Indiana Policy Review Foundation, a self-described free-market think tank and a member of the State Policy Network, a position he held until 1993. Shortly after his first congressional campaign in 1988, radio station WRCR-FM in Rushville, hired Pence to host a weekly half-hour radio show, Washington Update with Mike Pence. In 1992, Pence began hosting a daily talk show on WRCR, The Mike Pence Show, in addition to a Saturday show on WNDE in Indianapolis. Pence called himself "Rush Limbaugh on decaf" since he considered himself politically conservative while not as outspoken as Limbaugh.
Beginning on April 11, 1994, Network Indiana syndicated The Mike Pence Show statewide. With a 9 a.m. to noon time slot, the program reached as many as 18 radio stations in Indiana, including WIBC in Indianapolis. Pence ended his radio show in September 1999 to focus on his 2000 campaign for Congress, which he won. From 1995 to 1999, Pence hosted a weekend public affairs TV show titled The Mike Pence Show on Indianapolis TV station WNDY. In 1988, Pence lost, he ran against Sharp again in 1990, quitting his job in order to work full-time in the campaign, but once again was unsuccessful. During the race, Pence used "political donations to pay the mortgage on his house, his personal credit card bill, golf tournament fees and car payments for his wife." While the spending was not illegal at the time, it undermined his campaign. During the 1990 campaign, Pence ran a television advertisement in which an actor, dressed in a robe and headdress and speaking in a thick Middle Eastern accent, thanked his opponent, for doing nothing to wean the United States off imported oil as chairman of a House subcommitt
Vice President of the United States
The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest officer in the executive branch of the U. S. federal government, after the President of the United States, ranks first in the presidential line of succession. The Vice President is an officer in the legislative branch, as President of the Senate. In this capacity, the Vice President presides over Senate deliberations, but may not vote except to cast a tie-breaking vote; the Vice President presides over joint sessions of Congress. The Vice President is indirectly elected together with the President to a four-year term of office by the people of the United States through the Electoral College. Section 2 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, ratified in 1967, created a mechanism for intra-term vice presidential succession, establishing that vice presidential vacancies will be filled by the president and confirmed by both houses of Congress. Whenever a vice president had succeeded to the presidency or had died or resigned from office, the vice presidency remained vacant until the next presidential and vice presidential terms began.
The Vice President is a statutory member of the National Security Council, the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. The Office of the Vice President organises the vice president's official functions; the role of the vice presidency has changed since the office was created during the 1787 constitutional Convention. Over the past 100 years, the vice presidency has evolved into a position of domestic and foreign policy political power, is now seen as an integral part of a president's administration; as the Vice President's role within the executive branch has expanded, his role within the legislative branch has contracted. The Constitution does not expressly assign the vice presidency to any one branch, causing a dispute among scholars about which branch of government the office belongs to: 1) the executive branch; the modern view of the vice president as an officer of the executive branch is due in large part to the assignment of executive authority to the vice president by either the president or Congress.
Mike Pence of Indiana is the current Vice President of the United States. He assumed office on January 20, 2017. No mention of an office of vice president was made at the 1787 Constitutional Convention until near the end, when an 11-member committee on "Leftover Business" proposed a method of electing the chief executive. Delegates had considered the selection of the Senate's presiding officer, deciding that, "The Senate shall choose its own President," and had agreed that this official would be designated the executive's immediate successor, they had considered the mode of election of the executive but had not reached consensus. This all changed on September 4, when the committee recommended that the nation's chief executive be elected by an Electoral College, with each state having a number of presidential electors equal to the sum of that state's allocation of representatives and senators; the proposed presidential election process called for each state to choose members of the electoral college, who would use their discretion to select the candidates they individually viewed as best qualified.
Recognizing that loyalty to one's individual state outweighed loyalty to the new federation, the Constitution's framers assumed that individual electors would be inclined to choose a candidate from their own state over one from another. So they created the office of vice president and required that electors vote for two candidates, requiring that at least one of their votes must be for a candidate from outside the elector's state, believing that this second vote could be cast for a candidate of national character. Additionally, to guard against the possibility that some electors might strategically throw away their second vote in order to bolster their favorite son's chance of winning, it was specified that the first runner-up presidential candidate would become vice president. Creating this new office imposed a political cost on strategically discarded electoral votes, incentivizing electors to make their choices for president without resort to electoral gamesmanship and to cast their second ballot accordingly.
The resultant method of electing the president and vice president, spelled out in Article II, Section 1, Clause 3, allocated to each state a number of electors equal to the combined total of its Senate and House of Representatives membership. Each elector was allowed to vote for two people for president, but could not differentiate between their first and second choice for the presidency; the person receiving the greatest number of votes would be president, while the individual who received the next largest number of votes became vice president. If there were a tie for first or for second place, or if no one won a majority of votes, the president and vice president would be selected by means of contingent elections protocols stated in the clause; the emergence of political parties and nationally coordinated election campaigns during the 1790s soon frustrated this original plan. In the election of 1796, Federalist John Adams won the presidency, but his bitter rival, Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson came second and became vice president.
Thus, the president and vice president were from opposing parties.